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IBNI SINO

ibni-sinoIBNI SINO (16. 8. 980, dehai Afshanai Bukhoro – 18. 6. 1037, Hamadon), Abuali Husayn ibni Abdulloh ibni Hasan ibni Ali ibni Sino; qismi akhiri nom – Ibni Sino dar Avrupo ba gunai «Avensina» tahrif shuda, ba «Avitsenna» tabdil yoft faylasuf, tabib, tabiatshinos va adibi buzurgi tojik. Padarash Abdulloh aslan az Balkh buda, dar zamoni saltanati Nuh ibni Mansuri Somoni ba dehai Harmaysan (Rometan)-i Bukhoro meoyad va ba kori devon mashgul megardad. Modarash Sitorabonu az sokinoni Afshana ast. S. 985 oilai I. S. az Harmaysan ba sh. Bukhoro kuchid va u dar in jo ba omuzishi ilm ogoz namud.
I. S. kudaki bohush budaast, chunon ki dar dahsolagi Quronro faro giriftaast, az ilmi adab va usuli din bahrai kofi burdaast. Muqaddamoti ulumro az muballigoni mazhabi ismoili, ki mehmoni padarash budand, az khud kardaast. Guyand, ki I. S. dar hamin ayyom ilmi hisobro az baqqole dar Bukhoro omukhta, fanhoi digari riyoziro nazdi Mahmudi Moj yod giriftaast, dar nazdi Ismoili Zohid fiqh khondaast. Sipas hangome, ki Abuabdullo Notili ba Bukhoro omadaast, I. S. dar peshi u ba omuzishi mantiq, handasa va nujum pardokhtaast. I. S. hamchunin az mutoliai kitobhoi mantiqu falsafa gofil nabudaast. Pas az chiragi bar mantiq, tibiiyot va riyoziyot ba ilohiyot ruy ovard va ba khondani kitobhoi metafizikii Arastu pardokht. Ammo bad az chihil bor khondan maqsudi uro nafahmid, to in ki kitobe az Abunasri Forobi ba dasti u rasid. Mutoliai «Igrozi mobad-ut-tabiia»-i Forobi girehhoro bar u kushod va fahmi kitobi Arasturo bar vay oson kard.
I. S. hamchunin dar 16-solagi ba tib ruy ovard va onro az Abumansur Hasan ibni Nuh faro girift. Dar in joda chunon mahorate kasb kard, ki pizishkoni digar dar nazdi vay shogirdi mekardand. I. S. dar hududi sinni 17 Nuh ibni Mansuri Somoniro az bemorie, ki girebonashro girifta bud va ba shiddat ozorash medod, najot bakhshid. Muolijai Nuh ibni Mansur shuhrati uro sabab shud va arju qurbashro dar nazdi podshohi Somoni afzun kard. Nazdikii I. S. ba Nuh ibni Mansur va etibore, ki dar darbori u dosht, bois shud, ki ijozai istifoda az kitobkhonai marufi Somoniyonro ba dast ovarad. Az on joe, ki I. S. az hushu quvvai omuzishi favquloddae bahramand bud, dar zamoni kutoh hamai ulumi zamoni khudro faro girift va dar 18-solagi az omukhtani ulum forig shud.
I. S. dar 21-solagi ba navishtan va talifi kitob shuru kard. Dar hamin zamon kitobkhonai Somoniyon otash girift va I. S. muttaham shud, ki barqasd kitobkhonaro suzondaast. Kasone ki in ittihomro bar I. S. vorid mekardand, dalel meovardand, ki vay kitobkhonaro nobud sokhtaast to digaron dastashon az ulumi zamon kutoh shavad va ba nuktaho va donishe, ki dar kitobho nuhufta bud, pay nabarand.
I. S. 22-sola bud, ki padarash az dunyo raft. Pas az inqirozi silsilai Somoniyon Ilakkhon – Nasr ibni Ali voridi Bukhoro shud. Ilakkhon az hanafiyoni Bukhoro pushtiboni mekard va I. S. ehtimolan payravi afkori shuubiya va mukholifi istiloi turkon bud va sozgori bo Ilakkhoni turkro muassir va pisandida namedidaast. I. S. pas az hijrat az Bukhoro zindagii purtalotum va purfarozu shebero pushti sar guzosht. Az in pas, qismate az zindagii vay sarfi lazzatjui va qismati digar sarfi darsu bahs va talifu korhoi ilmi shud. Pas az azimat az Bukhoro, nakhust ba Gurganj raft, ki dar on zamon poytakhti Horazmshohiyon bud va mardumi donishdust dosht. Dar Gurganj ba halqai hakimonu donishmandon va pizishkon payvast va mohonae baroi u muqarrar shud.
Dar s. 408 Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi Horazmro taskhir kard va dastur dod iddae az donishmandon, az jumla I. S.-ro ba Gazni nazdi u bifristand. I. S. qabl az on ki mamuroni Sulton Mahmud ba Horazm birasand, bokhabar shud va chun az raftan ba peshi Sulton Mahmud bimnok bud, rohi Gurgonu Rayro pesh girift. u bo sakhtiyu dushvori khudro az rohi Niso ba Abevard rasond, sipas ba Tusu Samangon va Jojarm raft va mamuroni Sulton Mahmudro payvasta dar taqibi khud medid. I. S. dar Jojarm niz namond, ohangi Gurgon karda dar on jo muqim shud va ba tabobat pardokht. Gurgon dar on zamon poytakhti podshohoni Oli Ziyor bud. I. S. ba Oli Ziyor ba murovida pardokht va kitobe baroi Zarringes, dukhtari Qobus navisht. Dar Gurgon donishmandi maruf Abuubaydullo Abdulvohid Juzjoni, ki mashhurtarin shogirdi I. S. ast, ba khidmati u payvast va az on pas hamvora bo eshon bud va bisyore az osori vayro pas az margash jamovari va tadvin kard.
Abumuhammadi SHerozi dar Gurgon khonae baroi I. S. kharid, ki dar on tadris mekard. u dar Gurgon ba kori tabobat mashgul bud va baze az talifotashro niz dar on jo navisht. Sipas ba shahri Ray omad va Majduddavla Abutolib Rustam – pisari Fakhruddavlai Daylamiro, ki az podshohoni Oli Buya bud va bemorii molikhuliyo dosht, muolija kard. I. S. hamchunon dar Ray bud, to in ki Hilol ibni Badr kushta shud va lashkari Bagdod darham shikast va u ohangi khidmati SHamsuddavla kard. SHamsuddavlaro dardi miyon rasida bud, ki bo tabobati I. S. muolija shud va ba vositai hamin mudovo arju qurbash dar nazdi shoh afzud va az aqrabonu nadimoni vay gardid.
SHamsuddavla I. S.-ro ba vazorat barguzid, vale pas az muddati kutoh sipohiyoni turku kurd dar natijai narasidani mohonai khud uro masul va musabbib donistand va doroiashro ba toroj burdand. SHamsuddavla niz baroi furu nishondani khashmu gazabi sipohiyon va khobondani kina dasturi dur kardani vayro sodir namud. I. S. chihil ruz dar khonai yake az dustonash pinhon shud. SHamsuddavla dubora giriftori dardi miyon shud va I. S.-ro ba mudovo khost va bori digar uro ba vazorat mansub kard. Pas az darguzashti SHamsuddavla pisarash Samouddavla joi uro girift va I. S.-ro az mansab dur namud.
I. S. ba khonai dustash Abutolibi Attor raft va dar on jo gushai uzlat guzid. Dar himoyat bo Ibni Kokuya – amiri mashhuri Isfahon, Hamadon va YAzd, ki mardi donishmande bud, mukotiba kard. Samouddavla chun az mukotibai pinhonii I. S. ogoh shud, khashm girifta ba zindonash afkand. Pas az chahor mohi habs uro bakhshid. I. S. rahsipori Hamadon shud va gushai uzlatu khilvat guzida ba talif ruy ovard.
I. S. pas az chande dar libosi darveshon hamrohi barodarash Mahmud va shogirdi vafodorash Abuubaydi Juzjoni ba Isfahon nazdi Alouddavla raft va az vay bisyor hurmat did. Zamone, ki I. S. dar Isfahon ba sar meburd, davrai nisbatan pursamari ejodi u ast. Dar in jo talifi kitobhoi «SHifo» va «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib»-ro anjom doda, «Donishnoma»-ro ba zaboni modarii khud – tojiki navisht. I. S. ba tojiki ruboihoi dilnishin niz guftaast. Ba ilmi nujum biyor mashgul meshud, afzorhoi nujumi ikhtiro mekard, ba sokhtmoni rasadkhona ogoz namud. Alouddavla ohangi Hamadon kard, I. S. niz harchand az bemorii dardi miyon dar ranju zahmat bud, hamrohi u ba Hamadon raft. Dar on jo bemoriash ruz ba ruz sakhttar shud va arsaro bar u tangtar kard, to in ki dar ramazoni s. 1037 sar ba bolini marg guzosht va dunyoro vido namud. Paykarashro dar janubi Hamadon, ki aknun binoi yodbude bar on barpost, ba khok supurdand. Guyo I. S. dar zamoni marg 58-sola budaast.
Dar tib maqomi I. S. oshkortar az on ast, ki bo bayone hojat doshta boshad. Osori uro sadsolaho dar Osiyo va Avrupo behtarin rohnamoi pizishkon donistaand. Kitobi «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» muhimtarin asari I. S. dar pizishki ast. Onro Gerard Kremonskiy (1114 – 1187) ba zaboni lotini tarjuma kard, sipas ba zabonhoi gunoguni avrupoi bargardonida shud. Vaqte ki dastgohi chopi kitob ikhtiro gardid, «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» dar qatori nakhustin kitobhoi chopi qaror girift va az rui tedodi nashr bo Bibliya raqobat mekard. Matni lotinii «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» s. 1473 ba tab rasid, matni arabii on dar Rim dar matbaai Medichi s. 1593 az chop baromad. Tanho dar 30 soli akhiri a. 15 «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» 16 marotiba ba lotini nashr gashta, on hamagi 40 marotiba purra va ba miqdori beshumor porcha – porcha chop shudaast. Dar tamomi donishgohhoi Avrupo, mas. dar Monpele va Luven, to nimai duyumi a. 17 «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» dasturi asosie bud, ki az rui on talimi tib surat megirift. Dar ensiklopediyahoi rusi, ba nom «azbukovnikho»-i a. 17 I. S. dar barobari Jolinus, Pliniy, Alberti Buzurg mavridi istinod qaror dosht. Sadho sol pizishkoni tamomi kishvarho az rui «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» ilmi tibro meomukhtand, az on hamchun sarchashmai bepoyoni donish istifoda meburdand. «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» fahmishi mohiyati bemori, tandurusti, hunari pizishki, oshkor, darmon va peshgiri kardani dard, munosibat kardan bo bemorro meomuzond.
Dar ogozi kitob tarifi bisyor aniqi ilmi tib ovarda shudaast, ki on ba tasavvuroti imruza base nazdik ast: «Tib ilmest dar borai donistani tani inson dar holi salomati yo bemori va bargardonidani salomatii inson, ki ru ba zaf ovardaast. Vaqte meguyand, ki tib az nazariya va amaliya iborat ast, boyad gumon kard, ki bakhshe az on ilm astu bakhshe amal (chunonki baze muhaqqiqoni in masala pindoshtaand). Baraks, bidon, ki manii in digar ast, yane hardu bakhshi tib ilm ast: yake ilmi usuli tib, digare – ilmi tarzi tabobat». I. S. dar asosi hamin tabiri ilmi tib tarzhoi nigoh doshtani tandurusti va tabobati bemorihoi gunogunro bayon kardaast. Bisyor fikru mulohizaho va maslihathoi u doir ba in masalaho (mas., rejai zindagi va khurok, parhez, ahamiyati varzish dar nigoh doshtani salomati va g.) hanuz ham arzishi ilmi va amalii khudro az dast nadodaand. Hizmati buzurgi I. S. dar sohai ilmi tib az kushishi bunyod kardani alomatshinosi (semiotika), tashkhis (diagnostika) va nazariyai ilmii tabobat iborat bud. Dar in soha va digar qismathoi ilmi tib u kashfiyot va ikhtirooti ziyode kardaast. Mas., hamchun musharreh I. S. avvalin tabibest, ki sokhti durusti chashmro tasvir namudaast. To zamoni u chunin aqida hukmron bud, ki uzvi asosii chashm zujojiya ast. Az chashm nure barkhosta ashyoro ravshan mekunad va surati onhoro paydo menamoyad. I. S. isbot kard, ki uzvi asosii chashm shabakiya ast va mahz dar on surati chizho paydo meshavand. I. S. chun mushakhkhis (diagnostik) farqi bayni vabo va toun, juzom (makhav) va doulfil, zotuljanb (varami pardai shush) va zoturriyo (varami shush)-ro muqarrar kard, bemorii siroyati budani nagzakro pay burd, varami medaro baso ravshan tavsif kard, sarsomro hamchun bemorii makhsus – varami pardai magzi sar muayyan namud, alomathoi bemorii qand (diabet)-ro avvalin bor dar tarikhi tib vozeh bayon kard va angushtzani (perkusiya)-ro chun usuli dardshinosi jori namud.
I. S. dar sohai ilmi jarrohi niz ikhtirohoi ziyode ba miyon ovard. CHunonchi vay tarzi bevosita ba joyash andokhtani bozui baromadaro peshnihod kardaast, ki dar tarikhi tib bo nomi usuli I. S. mashhur ast. Tarzi jarrohii saraton, ki dar «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» tasvir shudaast, ba usulhoi tabobati hozirai in bemori khele nazdik ast: «Bazan varami nachandon kaloni saratonro burida partoftan mumkin ast. Saratonro metavon tanho bo rohi purra va komilan buridani on nest kard: saratonero, ki boftahoi uzvero faro giriftaast, meburand va hama raghoero, ki onro gizo medihand, berun meorand, to yagontoyash boqi namonad… Vale qati saraton aksaran boisi badtar shudani holi bemor meshavad. Goho badi qat dog kardan ham zarur meshavad, vale dog kardan aksaran khele khatarnok ast, khususan, agar saraton dar nazdi uzvhoi asosi (magzi sar, dil, jigar) joy girifta boshad».
I. S. chun muolij (terapevt) usulhoi nabzshinosi, bavlshinosi, tabshinosi va g.-ro takmil doda, alomathoi bolinii chandin bemorihoi daruni, asabi, ruhiro aniqu sareh bayon kard, darmoni onhoro beshtar az rui tajribahoi khud tain namud.
Dar sohai vaboshinosi (epidemiologiya) vay dar khususi dar muhiti beruna (ob, khok, havo va g.) vujud doshtani mavjudoti ba chashmi oddi noayoni kasaliovar (yane mikrobho) farziyae peshnihod namud va goyai siroyat kardani bisyor bemorihoro ravshan ifoda namud. In farziyahoi I. S.-ro pas az hashtsad sol tajribahoi L. Paster, ki mavjudiyati mikrobhoro kashf namud, tasdiq kardand. Hizmathoi I. S. dar ilmhoi dorushinosi (farmakologiya), dorusozi (farmatsiya), muayyan kardani khosiyati davojot (farmakognoziya) niz kam nestand. Dar «Al-Qonun-fi-t-tib» 811 navi doruhoi gunogun tavsif shudaast, ki 70 nomgui onho holo ham dar amaliyai tib istifoda meshavad. I. S. avvalin bor dar tarikhi tib doir ba davohoi dardi dil bo nomi «Adviyatu-l-qalbiya» kitobi makhsus talif kard, ki dar on tavsifi 70 nomgui doruho ovarda shudaast. Dah nomgui in doruhoro khudi u ikhtiro karda, dar tib jori kardaast.
Dar barobari in bisyor dasturhoi metodologii I. S. ham to ba hol arzishi khudro gum nakardaand. Goyahoi tabobati fardii bemoron, daqiqkorona sanjidanu taftish kardani doruho va ba tavri fardi tain kardani onho (zero har bemor tabiati khos dorad), robitai mutaqobilai bemorii uzvhoi judogonai badani inson va holati fiziologii tamomi organizm, hangomi jarrohi ba hisob giriftani avzoi bemor, kayfiyat va holati ruhiyu jismonii vay az hamin qabiland. Hamai in daleli on ast, ki I. S. olimi buzurgi ejodkor bud va kasone, ki uro shorehi khushku kholii Buqrot (Gippokrat) va Jolinus (Galen) tasvir kardaand, ba khato roh dodand.
I. S. dar «Urjuza fi-t-tib» khulosae az «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib»-ro dar 1326 bayt ovardaast. «Maqolatu fi ahkomi-l-adviyati-l-qalbiya» dar du bakhsh tanzim shudaast: bakhshi avval ba fiziologiya, vazoifu bemorihoi dil ikhtisos dorad; dar bakhshi duvvum doruhoe, ki baroi tanzimi faoliyati dil sudmandand, ba tartibi hurufi alifbo ovarda shudaand. Risolahoi «Marifatu-t-tanaffus va-n-nabz», «Al-Qulinj», «Al-Quvvotu-tabiiya» niz az osori pizishkii I. S. meboshand.
Kitobhoi marufi pizishkii I. S. nazdik ba chorsad sol yagona rohnamoi pizishkoni SHarqu Garb budaast. I. S. hududi chihil sol bo hamai mashogili bisyor, ki az tabobat va darsu bahsi safar dosht, hamvora talif kardaast. Va inak 456 kitobu risola ba nomi u mansub ast, ki bisyore az onho chop shuda va sharhhoi gunogun bar onho navishtaand.
Az I. S. osori tojikii bisyor mutabare dar dast ast. Onho sobit mekunand, in mardi buzurg, ki dar radifi donishmandoni mashhuri jahon qaror dorad va pahlu ba pahlui Arastu, Aflotun, Suqrot va Jolinus mezanad, ba hamon daraja, ki dar zaboni arabi anjomi qudratro doshta, ba hamon daraja niz dar zabone, ki az modari khud faro giriftaast, ustod bud, gohe ba nazm va gohe ba nasr adoi maqsud mekard, zamone mustaqiman ba zaboni forsi kitob menavisht va zamone niz yake az kitobho va rasoilero, ki pesh az on ba arabi talif karda bud, khud ba forsi tarjuma mekard.
Bo davati SHuroi Umumijahonii Sulh s. 1952 hazorsolagii zodruzi I. S. dar tamomi kishvarhoi olam az rui gohshumorii islomi tajlil gardid. Maqbarai I. S. dar sh. Hamadon az nav bunyod yoft, kongresshoi baynalmilalii bakhshida ba I. S. dar Bagdod (1952) va Tehron (1954) barguzor gardidand; davri 20-umi Konferensiyai umumii YUNESKO (1980) ba hazorai zodruzi I. S. az rui gohshumorii grigori bakhshida shud. Dar sh. Dushanbe ba khotiri buzurgdoshti nobiga nohiya (Sino), maydon va khiyobon, Joizai davlatii JT dar sohai ilm va tekhnika, Kitobkhonai ilmii tibbii JT, 2 ruznoma («Sino» va «Avitsenna») ba nomi u nihoda shudaand. Dar maydoni ba nomi I. S. haykali in hakimi farzona qomat afrokhtaast. Puli arzishash 20 somonii Bonki Millii Tojikistonro tasviri I. S. zinat medihad. Donishgohi davlatii tibbii Tojikiston niz nomi I. S.-ro dorad (1952).

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