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Hususiyathoi badeii ashori SHamsuddin SHohin

Harifi tabi rasoi tu kas nashud,
SHohin, Zi bas yagonai ofoh dar sukhandonist.

SHamsuddin SHohin dar adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX yake az on shoironest, ki dar hamai navhoi sher ejod kardaast. Tozakrihoi SHohin dar qasida, gazal, qita, ruboi, tarjeot, musammati mukhammas, masnavi va gayra khele ustodona ast. SHohin az tarafi digar, ba buzurgtarin shoiron: Anvari, Sadi, Kamol, Hofiz, Nozim, Nizomi, Bedil payraviho kardaast. U dar qasida beshtar ba Hoqonivu Anvari, dar gazal ba Sadiyu Hofiz va Bedil, dar masnavi ba Nizomi beshtar tavajjuh zohir namudaast. SHohin, ba khusus, dar gazal tabi baso baland dorad, zero Tugral barin shoir uro ustodi khesh medonad. SHohin dar mazmunsozi va maniofari sohibhunar buda, sanati nozuki bayon dorad:

Qurboni labi lali shakarkhoi tu gardam, Maftuni khati goliyapiroi tu gardam. Lab megazi, ay shukh, nadonam, ki chi gui, Az nozukii tarzi adohoi tu gardam.

Az sababi on ki mahbuba dar goyati nafosatu zeboi ba tasvir omadaast, binobar on juziyoti tasviri obrazhoi liriki niz khele hunarmandona ast: labi lali shakarkho, khati goliyapiro, nozukii tarzi adoho va gayra tavsifho, istioraho, tashbehot, kinoyavu majoz va makhsusan, tanosubi sukhan jolibu qobili qabul istifoda shudaand. CHunin tarzi mazmunsozivu maniofari ba khusus, dar lirikai ishqii SHohin khele ziyod mushohida karda meshavad. Mavzuhoi ishqi yakjoya bo tasviri juziyoti bahor, gulu lola, nasimi atrogin, sadoi parrandahoi khushilhon, navoi obshoronu goh-gohe rezishi boroni nayson, lahzahoi tobishi oftobi tobon dar tasvirsozihoi SHohin hunari khosand.

Ay harifon, vaqti gul dar gulsiton majlis kuned, Lolarue ittifoq aftad, ba khud munis kuned.

In mavzuho bo hamovozii musiqivu surud va mayu bodagusori tasvirhoi khele khotirmonu tasirbakhshi lirikai SHohin meboshad. Hususiyati judogonai lirikai shoir ba khusus gazaliyoti vay dar on ast, ki on to andozae tobishi zarofatomez dorad, ki qablan dar ashori shoironi digar duchor nameshavad. In tarzi maniofarivu mazmunsozi az haddi kamoloti manavii SHohin bashorat medihad.

Dar lirikai SHohin mavzuhoi akhloqi, pandu andarzi, talimi- tarbiyavi niz mavqe dorand.

Inchunin shikoyatu tanqid, ohanghoi yasu navmedi dar lirikai shoir khele hunarmandona bayon shudaand.

Sanati shoiri, hunari ejod, poyai sukhangustari, khayolbofivu mazmunsozi, maniofari va hadafnoki dar lirikai SHohin khele dilkashand.

Sabki sukhan, tarzi bayon, shevai ejod, hunari talifi shoir niz jolib ast. U az kalimayu tabirho, maqolu zarbulmasalho, ifodahoi khalqi, inikosi urfu odathoi mardumi, rasmu rusum va gayra ba hunarmandii ba khud khos kor megirad. Hadafro hunarmandonavu uhdabaroyona bayon karda metavonad:

Damake az rukhi khud parda barandoz, ki man

Az rukhat ob diham chashmi tamoshoiro.

YO khud:

Gu navarzad ishq har kass, barnatobad javri yor, Har ki az gunjishk tarsad, boyad az arzan guzasht.

Dar in abyot: «CHashmro ob dodan» ba manii lazzat burdan az tamosho va dar bayti duyum maqoli «Az gunjishk tarsi, arzan makor» khele hunarmandona kor girifta shudaand.

Az in ru, naqshi ejodiyoti SHohin baroi soddavu ommafahm namudani zaboni adabii asrimiyonagi va ba zindagii khalq boz ham nazdik namudani adabiyoti badei khele buzurg ast.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba ovoni javonii SHohin malumot dihed.
  2. Tahsili ibtidoi va madrasavii SHohin dar kujo guzashtaast?
  3. Sababhoi ba darbor roh yoftani shoirro naql kuned.
  4. Merosi adabii SHohin az chiho iborat ast?
  5. Sahmi SHohinro dar rushdi gazali adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX bayon namoed.
  6. Mavzu va mundarijai gazaliyoti SHohinro naql kuned.
  7. Gazali «Ay, ki az qaddi raso goyati sarvi chamani»-ro tahlil namoed.
  8. Mavzu va mundarijai gazali «Hama ajzoi tu khubu hama azoi tu khush»-ro sharh dihed.
  9. Faoliyati dostonsaroii SHohin az kay ogoz shudaast?
  10. Mazmuni mukhtasari dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-ro naql kuned.
  11. Obrazhoi asosii musbatu manfi, lahzagi va doimii «Layli va Majnun»-ro tahlil namoed.
  12. Umumiyat va tavofuti «Layli va Majnun»-i SHohin az asarhoi hamnom az chi iborat ast?
  13. Mazmunu muhtavoi asari «Badoe-us-sanoe»- i SHohinro naql kuned.
  14. Dar «Badoe-us-sanoe» SHohin beshtar kadom masalahoi ijtimoiro bayon kardaast?
  15. Mavzu va mundarijai goyavii masnavii «Tuhfai duston»-ro bayon kuned.
  16. Dar talifi «Tuhfai duston» SHohin ba kadom asari asrimiyonagi payravi kardaast?
  17. Mazmuni du se hikoyatro az «Tuhfai duston» naql kuned.
  18. Arzishi adabii masnavii «Tuhfai duston» az chi iborat ast?
  19. Oid ba sanati ejod va hunari shoirii SHohin chi medoned?
  20. Maqomi SHamsuddin SHohin dar adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX az chi iborat ast?

 

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