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Hunarmandi (asri 19)

Dar dehot istehsoloti hunarmandi taraqqi karda bud. Dehotiyon dar khonahoi khud chitu khomsuf va karbos meboftand. Dar shahri Uroteppa az 1041 dukoni kosibon 187-toash dar dehahoi kalon joygir budand. In shahr beshtar ba istehsoloti lavozimoti pashmi, kord va ustura (poku), matohoi dastduz va dastbof shuhrat paydo karda, mahsuloti on na faqat ehtiyojoti dokhiliro qone megardond, balki ba berun ham sodir karda meshud.

Kasbu hunari dehotiyon ba darajai kofi rivoj yofta boshad ham, darajai taraqqiyot va takomuli tekhnikii kasbu hunari shahr balandtar bud.

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Istehsoloti hunarmandi dar hayoti iqtisodii amorati Bukhoro roli muhim mebozid. Aksari aholii shahr az kosibonu hunarmandon iborat bud. Dar shahri Bukhoro taqriban 10-15 hazor hunarmandon mezistand, ki bo khonavodai khud qarib choryaki shahrro tashkil medodand.

Kasbu hunar ikhtisoshoi ziyodero faro megirift. Qarib sad hunar vujud dosht, ki dar chunin sohaho gird omada budand: 1) pardozi filizot; 2) korkardi lifa, binokori; 3) dabbogi; 4) libosduzi; 5) tabbohi; 6) digar kasbu kor va mashguliyathoi tayyor kardani ashyoi ruzgor. Har yak soha dar navbati khud ba bisyor guruhu navhoi kasb judo meshud. CHunonchi, sokhtu pardozi filizot ba panj guruh taqsim gardida bud: 1) ohangari; 2) degrezi; 3) misgari; 4) rekhtagari; 5) zargari. Dar ayni zamon, khudi yak guruhi ohangari chunin peshavaronro dar bar megirift: chelongar, nalgar, quflsoz, kordgar, suzangar, mekhchagar.

In qabil taqsimu guruhbandihoi ziyode dar digar sohahoi kasbu hunar niz vujud doshtand.

Peshavaron bo khonavodahoi khud qismi muhimi aholii Hujandro tashkil mekardand. Dar in shahr ziyoda az 100 navi istehsoloti hunarmandi vujud doshtand. Az bayni onho kasbi bofandagi ravnaqi beshtar paydo karda bud.

Mardumi nohiyahoi kuhistoni Qaroteginu Darvoz bo kulolgari shuhrat doshtand. Bo in hunar ham zanon va ham mardon mashgul meshudand. Hunari chubkori niz ravnaq yofta bud. Ustoho asbobu oloti kishovarzi – omoch, chorshokh va panchshokh, belhoi chubin, asbobhoi gunoguni ruzgor – kafsh, charkh, qufl, dukoni bofandagi, gahvora, daru daricha, pancharahoi zebo va gayrahoro mesokhtand. Ustoho zini asp va zini khar tayyor mekardand, ki dar bozori mahali talabot ba on kalon bud.

Hunari zargari bagoyat inkishof yofta bud. Zargarho az tillovu nuqra va mis zebu zinnati zanona mesokhtand va ba onho az sanghoi qimatbaho va kamqimat nigin vasl mekardand.

Hamai kori hunarmandoni mohir dasti ijro meshud, ki in mehnati ziyodi purmashaqqatro metalabid. Binobar in hajmi mahsuloti aksari kosibon chandon ziyod nabud. Muzdi mehnati usto bazur baroi ruzgor va kharidani ashyoi khom merasid.

Har yak usto shogirdi khudro dosht. Hunarmandon hunari khudro ba pisar, barodar yo nazdikoni khud meomuzondand.

Har yak hunar risolai khudro dosht, ki dar on istehsoli in yo on mahsulot navishta meshud. Kosib nametavonist qoidai peshbinishudaro vayron kunad.

Tajhizoti tekhnikii istehsoloti hunarmandi nihoyat kuhnavu ananavi bud.

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