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Hunarhoi mardumi Insho/Referat

Sanati oroishii amali padidai jolib va murakkabe dar farhangi bisyorjabhai har yak khalqu millat ast. On padidai gunogunpahlu buda, navhoi mukhtalifro faro megirad, bo barobari paydo shudani khalqu millatho ba miyon omada, bo reshahoi farhangii kuhanash imruz ham dar inkishof meboshad.

Sanati amalii khalqi va navhoi gunoguni on dar hayoti mardum joygohi khosa doshta, yak padidai muhimi farhangi millii tojikon meboshad. Bo vujudi on ki imruz dar shahru nohiyahoi jumhuriamon hunarmandoni ziyode mashguli ejodi asarhoi jolibi badei hastand, inkishofi navhoi gunoguni sanati khalqii tojikon dar sathi qanoatbakhsh qaror nadorad.

hunarhoi-mardumi
Inshoi Hunarhoi mardumi (Referat/insho) dar surat rasm

Dar rohi inkishofi hunarhoi sanati dasti muammohoi gunogun vujud dorand, hatto barkhe az onho dar nohiyahoi shimoli Tojikiston qarib az bayn raftaand. Binobar in, holo zarurati halli masalahoi marbut ba rushdi in namudi sanat ba miyon omadaast. Pesh az hama, sanati amalii khalqi ba dastgirii hamajoniba niyoz dorad.

Dar doirai tatbiqi Iqdomi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston Emomali Rahmon oid ba ehyo va rushdi hunarhoi mardumi to imruz dahho maktabi hunarmandon dar shahru nohiyahoi Tojikiston tashkil shuda, ba faoliyat ogoz namudand. Dar in maktabho az rui usuli ananavii millii ‚ustod-shogird shogirdon tarbiya meyoband.

In usul yake az ananahoi qadimai millii tojikon buda, muhaqqiq P.A.Goncharova onro dar radifi digar usulhoi shogirdtayyorkuni barrasi namudaast. Tadqiqoti u ba zarduzi – yake az hunarhoe, ki gustarishi vase dorad, bakhshida shudaast. Muhaqqiq nuktai jolibero qayd mekunad, ki zarduzi dar qadim aslan hunari mardon bud, zero dar rui matohoi durushtu gafs, ba monandi bakhmal, suzan zadan lozim meomad. Dar borai yake az mardoni sohibhunari Hirot – Hasani Zarduz Zayniddin Vosifi dar yoddoshthoi khud sukhan meronad.

Dar amorati Bukhoro darbori amir farmoishgari asosii mahsuloti zarduzi bud, ki in zarurati tashkili ustokhonahoro dar nazdi darbor ba miyon ovard. P.A.Goncharova dar borai tashkili ustokhonahoi zarduzi, tarzi qabul va khatmi shogirdon, ki dar in zamina yak qator marosim roij bud, malumot medihad (3, 6).

Dar on davra sadho nafar zarduzi mohir ba dukhtani liboshoi qimatbahoi darboriyon mashgul budand va faqat yak qismi nochizi mahsuloti onho ba bozor barovarda meshud. Liboshoi bo zarduzi orododa – jomahoi mardona, kamzulho, shalvorho, poyafzol, tasma, kallapushho, jihozi aspho tanho bo farmoishi amir va payvandoni u omoda meshudand. Digar hej kas, hatto shakhsoni volomaqom ba chunin farmoish huquq nadoshtand. Tanho dar vaqthoi muayyan in guna libosho az tarafi khudi amir tuhfa meshudand.

Bo mururi zamon berun az darbor niz ustokhonaho tashkil shudand, ki dar onho ba hunarmandon oqsaqol, yane sardori zarduzon rohbari mekard. Tamomi korho, az jumla, kharidu furushi mahsulot, qabuli shogirdon tanho bo ijozati oqsaqol ijro meshudand. Baroi dar vaqti tayingardida ijro shudani farmoishhoi hatmi oqsaqol ba hamai ustokhonahoi girdu atrof korro taqsim mekard. Oqsaqol baroi mehnatash muzd namegirift, ba u faqat tuhfa az tarafi darbor suporida meshud. Azoi tashkiloti sekhhoi zarduzi shakhse shuda metavonist, ki kursi darozmuddat va dushvori in hunarro az usto omukhta, baroi faoliyati mustaqilona az ustodash rizoiyat girifta boshad.

P.A.Goncharova qayd mekunad, sanati zarduzii bukhoroi hunari merosi bud, on az bobo ba padar, az padar ba pisar meguzasht. Agar dar oila pisar naboshad, in hunar ba yagon kheshi nazdik, masalan jiyan omuzonida meshud (3,14).

Ba omuzishi in hunar pisarbachahoi 10-12 sola va bazan kalontarro jalb mekardand. Ba shogirdi dodani pisar yak ruydodi muhim ba shumor rafta, dar in zamina yak qator marosim ijro meshud.

Padar yo kheshi nazdiki pisarbacha bo yak tabaq khuroki makhsus va halvoi tar ba nazdi usto rafta, rozigii uro baroi qabul megirift. Badi on ki usto rizoiyat dod, huzurdoshtagon khurokro istemol mekardand, ki ramzi kushoishi kor ba hisob meraft.

Usto na tanho omukhtani hunar, balki khurondanu pushonidani pisarbacharo niz ba uhda megirift. Bayni tarafayn yagon shartnomai khatti basta nameshud, talim bepul surat megirift. Usto ba shogird hunari khudro zud yod namedod. Soli yakumi tahsili pisarbacha ba korhoi khona yori medod, az jumla rubuchin mekard, ob mekashond, ba bozor meraft va tanho dar vaqti bekor mondanash u haq dosht, ki kori duzandagonro mushohida namoyad. Badi guzashtani yak sol ba shogird ijozat doda meshud, ki sari dukoni zarduzi nishinad. Baroi ijroi kor ba shogird muzd doda nameshud, muhlati talim muqarrar nabud va metavonist az 4 to 7 sol idoma yobad. Holathoe ham meshud, ki usto baroi gum nakardani shogirdi bolayoqat uro 8-10 sol nazdi khud nigoh medosht.

Vaqte ki shogird maylu khohishi mustaqilona kor kardanro zohir menamud, ba sifati miyonarav oqsaqol davat meshud, to ki ustoho baroi ozod gashtani shogirdon rizoi dihand.

Marosimi ustotalbon dar khonai shogird guzaronida shuda, usto ba ‚arvohi piri miyonbandon duo khonda, miyoni shogirdro bo ruymol basta, ‚Ba nomi SHohi mardon bastam meguft. Dar in marosim, ki shogird nomi ‚usto-ro megirift, ba muallim ‚sarupo tuhfa meshud, yane volidayni shogird az sar to po ba u libosi nav mepushonidand. Hamchunin ba oqsaqol va yovari u niz tuhfaho doda meshud. Dar baze mavridho ustodon ba shogirdi kambizoat baroi ogozi kori mustaqilona asbobhoi zaruriro medodand.

Dar zamoni muosir ba khotiri ehyoi hunarhoi khalqi maktabho, sekhho, korgohhoi hunarmandon tashkil meshavand. In markazhoi hunarmandi tahti rohnamoii ustohoi mashhuru boistedod faoliyat mebarand.

Hunarhoi dasti dar inson zavqi badeiro tashakkul doda, tahammulu tozakoriro tarbiya menamoyad va dunyoi botinii shakhsro gani megardonad. Dar zamoni mo hunarhoe, ki zamone faromush shuda budand, ehyo gardida, arzishi mahsuloti dasti nisbat ba molhoi ommavi meafzoyad.

Hunarhoi khalqi behtarin va kholistarin anvoi sanat buda, hamesha ba hayoti inson aloqamandand. Onho hissi zeboiparastii khalqro tajassum mekunand. Guzashta az in, na faqat ejodi asarhoi sanat, balki dastgirii hunarmandon khalq, ki ejodkoroni zeboi hastand, nishoni kamolot va olihimmati meboshad.

Dar in samt to hol masalavu muammohoe hastand, ki ahamiyati makhsusro taqozo dorand.Tatbiqi dastovardhoi ilmiyu amali, idomai ananahoi milli, nazardoshti urfu odatho, omuzishi tasiri raviyahoi gunoguni sanat ba tarzi oroishi masnuot, vazi tarbiyai mehnati va hunaromuzii donishjuyoni muassisahoi talimii olii kishvar behbudiro mekhohad.

Inkishofi hissi zeboiparastii insonro dar bozyofthoi bostonshinoson, ba monandi kitobu dastkhathoi nodir va musavvaraho, ki dar onho farhang, hunari memori va rassomi, hamchunin khususiyati ruzgori maishii mardumi davrahoi qadim inikos yoftaand, paygiri metavon kard. Jomeai davrahoi gunogun raviyahoi khosro dar sohahoi mukhtalifi sanatu hunar ba meros guzosht, ki dar har yake tarzi zindagii mardum tajassum yoftaast. Mushohidaho sobit menamoyand, ki dar vaqti hukmronii yagon jarayon tasiri on dar oroishi ashyo, namunahoi hunari memori, saru libos, jihozi manzil amri voqeist.

Dar zamoni mo tadqiqoti ilmi dar sohai tarbiyai javonon bo nazardoshti talimi hunarhoi mardumi mavqei nazarrasro ishgol mekunad. Hadafi olimon bahodihi va tahlili rushdi hunarmandi va tasiri on, ba javonon omuzonidani hunarhoi ajdodi, bo takya ba onho tashakkul dodani hunarhoi navu muosir meboshad.

Sanati oroishi, ki bo zindagii mo robitai zich dorand, tariqi ofaridani ashyoi gunogun va oroishi memori amali meshavad. Dar namunahoi sanati oroishi naqshu nigor dar shakli kholis vujud doshta nametavonad, on tajassumi hambastagii zeboi va foidavu zarurat meboshad.

Inkishofi hunarhoi memori, kulolgari, misgari, zargari, qolinbofi va kashidaduzi ba rushdi naqqoshi niz musoidat kardaast. Namunahoi nodiri naqshu nigore, ki bostonshinoson dar Tirmiz, Panjakenti qadima va digar mahalho daryoftaand, bozgui farhangi boyu rangini guzashtagon hastand.

Naqqoshoni tojik behtarin ananahoi hunarmandoni guzashtaro idoma doda, sanati naqshofariro takmil dodaand. Imruz ananahoi hunari naqqoshi hangomi bunyodu oroishi binohoi farhangiyu marifati (tarabkhona, choykhona, masjid, qasri farhang va g.) korbast meshavand.

Ustohoi khalqi, az jumla naqqoshonu kulolgaron, misgaronu zarduzon va qolinbofonu kosibon dar ofaridahoyashon naqshu nigorro chun vositai asosii oroishi badei korbast menamudand. Har yak naqshu nigor manoi khos doshta, az jonibi khalq nomguzori meshud va aksari onho nishoni etiqodu bovar ba urfu odate budand. Masalan, soli 1960 sanatshinoson N.YUnusova va M. Ruziev dar qishloqi Sino tadqiqot guzaronida, naqshi kamzulchai bachagonaro, ki tasviri du mor va mohro dosht, tahlil kardand. Malum shud, ki tibqi bovari mardumi in mahal du mori ba shakli chillik tasvirshuda bacharo az iblis emin medorad, moh boshad uro chun mohi nav zebo mekunad.

Naqshhoi tojikonro, hamchun naqshhoi digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona ba du guruh judo kardan mumkin ast: yakum – naqshhoi klassiki, ki dar asrhoi miyona shakl girifta, dar kishvarhoi SHarqi musulmoni, az Mavritaniya, Misr, Turkiya, Eron sar karda to Hinduston, Osiyoi Miyona va Turkistoni SHarqi pahn shudaand. Onho dar har kishvar sifathoi khosi mahalli, obu rang va tafsiri makhsus paydo karda boshad ham, asosi on dar hama jo yak khel ast. In naqshho mukammal buda, az gireh – shaklhoi mukhtalifi handasavi, islimi – rasmi ba shakli muayyan darovardai navdaho, bargu gulho iborat meboshand.

Naqshu nigori guruhi yakum az ofarandagoni khud – ustohoi naqqosh donistani fanhoi makhsus, az on jumla, ilmi handasaro, ki dastrasi har kas nabud va ba omukhtani on solhoi daroz sarf meshud, talab mekard. Qismi asosii onhoro mardon tashkil medodand. In navi naqshu nigor beshtar dar binohoi purshukuh, dar kandakorii rui filizot, dar masnuoti alosifati zargari, dar oroishi dastnavisho, juzgirho va digar sohahoi sanati amali korbast meshud.

Naqshu nigori guruhi duyum asosan ananahoi khalqii mahalliro inikos menamoyad. Asosi unsurhoi in naqshhoro aksaran tasviri ashyo tashkil medihad, ki az sababi soda gardidan va khususiyati ornamentali paydo kardan dar beshtari mavridho shakli voqeii khudro gum mekunand.

YAke az nuskhahoi mahbubi ustodoni tojik «tahaftod» yo «ishkelband» nom naqsh ba hisob meraft. On az du khati bo davrayu gulho girehkhurda iborat buda, dar khishtmoni (asrhoi X-XII), koshinkori, gajkori, najjori va naqqoshi korbast meshud. Dar sanati tojiki davrai pesh az islom tahaftod ba mushohida namerasad. On faqat dar yodgorihoi memorii asri X ba nazar merasad. Ba andeshai muhaqqiqon, paydoishi on ehtimol bo istifodai khishti pukhta ba sifati mavodi sokhtmon va oroishdihi yo in ki tashakkuli khati «kufi» vobasta meboshad. Bo in naqsh peshtoq, daru darvoza, mehrob, shift va yak navi masnuoti kosibi hoshiyabandi meshudand.

Qismi ziyodi naqshu nigori maqbarai chubini qishloqi CHorkuh bar shaklhoi halqagardon (yane «3» shakl) asos yoftaast. Az bayni onho nuskhahoi bodomu qalamfurmonand khele pahn gardidaand. Roje ba manoi in navi naqshu nigor yak zumra muhaqqiqon fikru mulohizaho bayon kardaand.

Ba andeshai olimi mashhuri soha G. A. CHepelevetskaya nuskhai bodomu qalamfur voqean dar ejodiyoti khalq inikos yofta metavonist. Ammo nuskhahoi khurdi ilovagi dar naqshhoi bodom baroi kallapushhoi tojiki ba naqshhoi az Tirmiz yoftshudai (asrhoi I-II) paru bolhoi hayvonoti afsonavi, naqshi qanothoi musicha va nuskhai shutur ba naqqoshii devori qasri Varakhsha (asrhoi V-VIII) va sari arkhar ba naqshi qasri Kish (asrhoi V-VIII), matoho, masnuoti naqqoshi, kulolgari va ohangarii qadimai mashriqzamin monandi dorand.

Bo takya ba fikri muhaqqiq G. Grigorev guftan mumkin ast, ki nuskhai bodom na dar zaminai rasmi murѓi dashti, khurusu tovus, balki dar asosi tasviri shakli qanothoi onho paydo shudaand. Hangomi ba daruni davra naqshi halqagardon dokhil kardan naqshi bodom hosil meshavad, lekin manoi on az mazmuni naqshi guli bodom farq dorad. L. I. Rempel chunin meshumorad, ki in naqsh az nuskhai du moh – safedu siyoh yo ki du qanoti daruni davra (yane osmon) tarkib yofta, padidahoi ba ham muqobili tabiat, yane torikiyu ravshani, garmiyu sardi, hayotu margro ifoda mekunad. Ba andeshai V. Alekseev in naqshi dugona In va YAn nom dorad va ramzi jodugarist. Dar farhangi muѓulho ramzi hushyori, yagonagii mardu zan ast.

Tajassumi hunarhoi milli dar oroishi saru libos, jihozi khona, muhiti zist va gayra mushohida meshavad. Masalan, baroi omuzishi tarikhi libos asarhoi sanati tasviri, memori, adabiyot, hujjathoi tarikhie, ki zindagii maishii mardum va farhangi davrahoi guzashtaro inikos mesozand, sarchashmahoi asosi ba hisob meravand. SHakl va khususiyati saru libos dar hama davru zamon farhangi manavii khalq, urfu odat va munosibati mardumro ba in yo on padidavu hodisa nishon medihad. Tagyiri shaklu namudi hamai navhoi libosi milli ba khususiyati in yo on mintaqa vobasta ast. Az in ru, omuzishi libosi milli va tagyiri shaklhoi on robitai libosro bo tarikhi etnikii milli oshkor mesozad.

Ba vijagihoi libosi osiyoimiyonagi dar Avrupo hanuz dar asrhoi miyona tavajjuh zohir gardid va shakhsone, ki avvalin shuda ba tasnifi libosi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona tavajjuh zohir kardand, sayyohon Marko Polo, Gilom Rubruk, Klavikho Ryui Gonzales budand. Bo vujudi on ki dar navishtahoi onho aksaran tasnifi mukhtasari saru libosi in yo on khalq ovarda shudaast, in malumot baroi muhaqqiqon ahamiyat dorad. CHunonchi, Marko Polo dar kitobi khesh libosi mardumi kuhistoni Pomirro tasnif namuda, chunin qayd kardaast: ‚Dar in jo odamon kamonvaroni olidarajaand, bisyortar liboshoi az pustu pashmi hayvonot omodashudaro, ki arzishi baland dorand, ba bar mekunand (4, 12).

Dar asri XVIII va nimai avvali asri XIX yak zumra sayyohoni rusu khoriji, az jumla F. Efremov, F. Nazarov, N. Nebolsin dar borai matohoi mahalli, saru libos va shuѓli mardum malumoti jolibi diqqatro jam ovardand. CHunonchi, dar navishtahoi F. Efremov dar barobari tasnifi libosi on davra roje ba kirmakparvari malumot faroham omada, tekhnologiyai istehsoli nakhi abreshim baroi matohoi shohi manidod gardidaast. Sayyoh mushohidahoyashro dar borai vijagihoi khosi saru libosi osiyoimiyonagi, ki ba shaklgirii on muhiti zist, iqlim, din tasir guzoshtaand, bayon mesozad. Masalan, oid ba tarrohii kurtai zanona u chunin menavisad: ‚Pesh az hama ba qulay budani kurta va sipas ba rioyai odob ahamiyat doda meshavad. Barohat budani libos, farokhii on, chinhoi ziyod doshtani on ba hisob girifta shudaast, ki baroi ozodona nishastan monea pesh nameorad, harakatro mahdud namekunad, dar havoi garm ba nafaskashii badan khalal namerasonad (4,7).

Dar asrhoi XIX va XX dar Hujandi bostoni duzandagi yake az shokhahoi asosii kasbu hunar ba shumor meraft. Tibqi malumoti tarikhi soli 1895 dar bozori Panjshanbe va atrofi on 23 dukoni duzandagi mavjud bud. Dar in dukonho mardon duzanda budand, zanoni chevar dar khona kor mekardand. Dar okhiri asri XIX va ibtidoi asri XX sohai istehsoli saru libosi ananavi hunari asosii zanon gardid.

Libosi ananavii mardumi odi az libosi namoyandagoni tabaqahoi bolo va shakhsoni maruf farq dosht. Tafovuti saru libos na dar tarhi on, balki dar navi mato bud. In farq na tanho dar sifati mato va tarzi oroishi libos, balki majmui libos zohir meshud.

Tabaddulote, ki dar davrahoi muayyani tarikhi dar hayoti khalqho ruy medihand, ba hastii moddi va manavii mardum digarguniho vorid mekunad va beshak, ba liboshoi milli niz tasir merasonad.

Sanati oroishi libos bo zarduziyu kashidaduzi, gulduzii kurtahoi chakani khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona har yake bo sabki khos inkishof yoftaand, zero dar tuli asrho oroishi saru libos (beshtar dar kuhiston), jihozi khona va ashyoi ruzgor (dar vodiho), khullas, az bisoti tifl to jihozi arus, dar khudi khonadon ba jo ovarda meshud.

Omukhtani tarikhi saru libos, jihozi khonavodai millii har yak khalq, baroi onhoe, ki bo tarikh va farhangi on khalq shinos shudan mekhohand, az jumla, sanatshinoson, kormandoni teatr va kinematografiya, rassomon va namoyandagoni sohahoi digari farhang muhim ast.

Az tarafi digar, dar jarayoni shinosoi bo tarikhi libosi milli to andozae az vijagihoi libosi millii khalqhoi digari hamsoya niz ogoh shuda, monandi yo tafovut, irtibot va tasiri etnikiyu farhangii onhoro ba hamdigar darmeyobem, ki in ba muayyan kardani etnogenezisi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona musoidat mekunad.

SHinosoi bo tadqiqoti olimoni maruf R. Masov, N. Nurjonov, YU. YAkubovskiy, M. Ruziev va digaron ba khulosae meorad, ki hunaru hunarmandi dar asosi ananahoi milli tashakkul va rivoju ravnaq yoftaand. Inro dar misoli tui arusiyu domodi, ki biduni suzanivu ruyjoe, ki ham kashidaduzi va ham quroqduzi shudaand, dasturkhonu joynamoz va digar namunahoi hunarhoi dasti barpo nameshavand, didan mumkin ast. Hunari kandakoronu chubtaroshonro dar sokhtani tabaqu kosa, kati milli, sutunhoi zebo, masnuoti armugoni, gahvoraho mushohida mekunem.

Hunarmandoni tojik dar barobari faoliyati pursamar dar tarbiyai shogirdoni boistedod niz sahm guzoshtaand. Dar tayyorii kasbii hunarmandon va omuzgoroni oyanda mashѓuliyati sanati oroishi amali naqshi asosi dorand, zero onho az donishjuyon faolii khotirai binoi, khayoloti rangin, majmui donish va malakavu mahoratro talab mekunad.

Tajribai chandinsolai tadris dar donishgoh sobit menamoyad, ki dar jarayoni mashѓuliyati hunari dar donishjuyon malakai shinokhtani zeboi va darki arzishi badeii asarhoi sanati oroishi amali inkishof meyobad.

Dar zamoni mo yak qator amalhoe, ki peshtar dasti ijro meshudand, tavassuti komputerho tarhrezi meshavand. Beshubha, khub ast, ki donishjuyon az dastovardhoi jahoni muosir barkhurdor megardand, ammo faromush naboyad kard, ki hunari ananavii tojikon az kujo sarchashma giriftaast va korhoi ejodii hunarmandon bo kadom tekhnologiya ofarida meshavand. Guzashta az in, donishjuyon boyad az ananahoi hunarmandii khalqi tojik ogoh boshand. Zarur ast, ki dar talimi fanhoi takhassusi – kandakori, gajkori, naqqoshi, kashidaduzi, kundalrezi, armugonsozi va gayra ananahoi millii khalqamon samaranok istifoda shavand. Inikosi ananahoi milli dar ofaridani osori hunarhoi mardumi ba inkishofi hissi khudshinosi, vatandorivu iftikhori milli, inchunin takmili mahorat musoidat menamoyad.

PAYNAVISHT:

  1. Boldirev, A.N. Tezkire Hasana Nasori kak noviy istochnik dlya izucheniya kulturnoy jizni Sredney Azii XVI v. Tr. Otdela istorii kultur i iskusstva Vostoka, gl. 3, L.,1940 – 299 s.
  1. Voronina, V. L. Arkhitektura drevnego Pendjikenta (Rezultati raskopok 1954-1959 gg.). Mat-li i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR, № 124/V.L.Voronina.- M.- L., 1964 – 85 s.
  2. Goncharova, P.A. Sanati zarduzii Bukhoro. – Nashriyoti ‚Adabiyot va Sanat ba nomi G. Gulom/ P.A. Goncharova.- Toshkand, 1986. – 110 s.
  3. Isaev, A. B. Tadjikskiy kostyum v kontekste narodnoy khudojestvennoy kulturi/A.B. Isaev // Diss. na soiskan.uchenoy stepeni kand. iskusstvovedeniya. – M., 1992 .
  4. Murodov, M. R. Ustodoni sanati amali-khalqi (maktabi ‚Ustod-shogird)/M.R.Murodov. – Dushanbe, 2005. – 154 s.
  1. Marko Polo.- M.,1955.- S.75.
  2. Ruziev, M. YOdgorii kandakorii CHorkuh/M.Ruziev. – Dushanbe: ‚Donish,1975 – 68 s.
  3. Pugachenkova, G. A. Ocherki iskusstva Sredn. Azii. Drevnost i srednevekove/G.A.Pugachenkova, L.I.Rempel. – Moskva, 1982. –3 s.
  4. Sukhareva, O. A. Opit analiza pokroev tradisionnoy «tunikoobraznoy» sredneaziatskoy odejdi v plane ikh istorii i evolyusii/O.A. Sukhareva // Kostyum narodov Sredney Azii. – M. : Nauka, 1979. –79 s.

REFERENCES:

  1. Boldyrev, A. N. Tezkires of Hassan Nasori as a New Source for Studying of Cultural Life of Central Asia of the XVI-th Century. The Works of Department of History of Cultures and Art of the East, chapter 3, L., 1940. – 299 pp.
  2. Voronina, V. L. The Architecture of Ancient Panjekent (Results of the Excavation of 1954 – 1959). Materials and Researches on Archeology of the USSR, -#124/ V. L. Voronina.- M – L., 1964 – 85 pp.
  3. Goncharova, P. A. Sanjati of Bukhoro’s Art of Embroidered with Golden Thread in Bukhara. /P.A.Goncharova.- Toshkand: Literature and Art publishing-house, 1986. – 110 pp.
  4. Isaev, A. B. The Tajik Costume in the Context of National Art Culture.// Doctorial dissertation art studies/ A.B.Isaev.- M, 1992.
  5. Murodov, M. R. Talented-Popular Preceptors in Art Studies («Ustod-Shogird» school) / M. R. Murodov. – Dushanbe, 2005. – 154 pp.
  6. Marco Polo. – M., 1955. – 75 pp.
  7. Ruziyev, M. Engraving Memory in Chorkukh /M.Ruziyev.– Dushanbe: Knowledge, 1975 – 68 pp.
  8. Pugachenkova, G. A. Art Sketches on Central Asia. Antiquity and Middle Ages/G. A.Pugachenkova, L. I. Rempel.– Moscow, 1982. – 3 pr.
  9. Sukhareva, O. A. Experience of the Analysis of Cuts in Regard to Traditional “Tunic-like” Central Asian Clothes in Plane of their History and Evolution/O.A.Sukhareva // Costume of the people of Central Asia. – M.: Science, 1979. – 79 pr.

Naqshi ananahoi milli dar ehyohunarhoi mardumi

Vojahoi kalidi: hunarmandi, ananaho, meros, gulduzi, kandakori, jihoz, abreshim, dukon, adabiyot, farhang

Dar maqola ba masalai hunaru hunarmandi, tarikhi inkishofi on, sanati amalii khalqi diqqati makhsus doda shuda, naqshi ananahoi milli dar ehyoi hunarhoi mardumi mufassal barrasi shudaast.

Qayd karda meshavad, ki sanati amalii khalqi va navhoi gunoguni on dar hayoti mardum joygohi khosa doshta, yak padidai muhimi farhangi millii tojikon meboshad.

SHinosoi bo tadqiqoti olimoni maruf R. Masov, N. Nurjonov, YU. YAkubovskiy, M. Ruziev va digaron ba khulosae meorad, ki hunaru hunarmandi dar asosi ananahoi milli tashakkul va rivoju ravnaq yoftaand. Inro dar misoli tui arusiyu domodi, ki biduni suzanivu ruyjoe, ki ham kashidaduzi va ham quroqduzi shudaand, dasturkhonu joynamoz va digar namunahoi hunarhoi dasti barpo nameshavand, didan mumkin ast.Inchunin muallif qayd menamoyad, ki tajassumi hunari kandakoronu chubtaroshonro dar sokhtani tabaqu kosa, kati milli, sutunhoi zebo, masnuoti armugoni, gahvoraho mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

 Rol narodnikh tradisiy v vozrojdenii narodnikh promislov

Klyuchevie slova: remeslennichestvo, tradisii, nasledstvo, vishivka, rezba po derevu, utvar, shyolk, laryok, literatura, kultura

V state udeleno ogromnoe vnimanie probleme narodnikh promislov, istorii i razvitiyu narodnogo tvorchestva, a takje otmechaetsya vajnaya rol nasionalnikh tradisiy v vozrojdenii etikh promislov.

Sleduet podcherknut, chto narodnoe tvorchestvo i raznoobraznie ego tradisii zanimayut osoboe mesto v jizni naroda i yavlyayutsya glavnim yavleniem v nasionalnoy kulture tadjikov.

V khode znakomstva s issledovaniyami takikh vidnikh uchyonikh, kak R. Masov, N.Nurdjanov, YU. YAkubovskiy, M.Ruziev i drugikh mojno priyti k vivodu o tom, chto tvorchestvo, osnovannoe na nasionalnikh tradisiyakh razvivaetsya.

Primerami mogut slujit svadebnie syuzane, prostini, kovriki dlya molitvi, skaterti, rasshitie vruchnuyu, a takje sshitie iz loskutkov.

Takje avtor podchyorkivaet, chto vozrojdenie i razvitie takogo promisla, kak rezba po derevu, mojno uvidet v izgotovlenii blyud, kasi, nasionalnikh topchanov, krasivikh kolonn, podarochnikh izdeliy i kolibeli.

The Role of National Traditions in National Crafts Revival

Keywords: craftsmanship, traditions, heritage, embroidery, woodcarving, utensils, silk, stall, literature, culture

In her article the author pays particular attention to the problem dealing with national crafts, history and development of folk creation and concerned with an important role of national traditions targeted at a revival of these crafts as well.

One should mention that folk creation and diversity of its traditions occupy an especial place beset with the life of people and are considered as the main phenomena in national culture of Tajiks.

In the course of acquaintance with the researches of such prominent scientists as R. Masov, N. Nurdzhanov, Yu. Yakubovsky, M. Ruziyev and others she comes to the conclusion that creativity develops being grounded on national traditions.

Wedding syuzanes, sheets, rugs for prayers, clothes embroidered dastarkhans are swen manually from shreds.

The author lays an emphasis upon the idea that both the revival and development of such trade as woodcarving can be seen in the production of dishes, cash desks, national trestle beds, beautiful columns, presents wares and cradles as well.

Malumot dar borai muallif:

Dadoboeva Muharam Naimjonovna, nomzadi ilmhoi pedagogi, dotsenti kafedrai tekhnologiya va metodikai talimi oni Donishgohi davlatii Hujand ba nomi akademik B.Gafurov (Jumhurii Tojikiston, sh. Hujand), E-mail: dadoboeva1962@mail.ru

Svedeniya ob avtore :

Dadoboeva Mukharam Naimdjanovna, kandidat pedagogicheskikh nauk, dosent kafedri tekhnologii i metodiki eyo prepodavaniya Hudjandskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni B.Gafurova (Respublika Tadjikistan, g. Hudjand), E-mail: dadoboeva1962@mail.ru

Information about the author :

Dadoboeva Muharam Naimjonovna, candidate of pedagogical sciences, Associate Professor of the department of technology and methods of its teaching under Khujand State University named after academician B. Gafurov (Tajikistan, Khujand), E-mail: dadoboeva1962@mail.ru

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