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Huquq chist va mohiyati on

Mafhum, nishona va navhoi tarikhii huquq Inson dar munosibat bo jamiyat va digar odamon umr ba sar mebarad. Zero dar jamiyat zindagi karda, berun az on hayot ba sar burdan mumkin nest.

Dar vaqti tahsil, hayoti oilavi va jamiyati, dar jarayoni faoliyati mehnati bo tashkilotu muassisaho, inchunin dar vaqti dodugirifti bayni tashkilotho aloqahoi baynihamdigarii mustahkam ba vujud meoyand. Hama guna munosibat va faoliyate, ki dar bayni onho ba vujud meoyad, ba vositai qoidahoi raftor tanzim megardad. Aksariyati in munosibatho ba vositai meyorhoi huquqi ba tanzim darovarda meshavand. Mo dar faoliyati harruzai khud bo kalimai «huquq» zud-zud duchor meshavem, ki in besabab nest. Jomea va mardum hamesha kushish menamoyad, ki huquqro bo mafumhoi haqiqatu insof aloqamand kunad. Mohiyati huquq niz dar hamin ifoda meyobad.

Huquq mohiyati umumiijtimoi doshta, beistisno ba manfiati hamai odamon khizmat mekunad, jihathoi tashkil kardan, ba tartib ovardan, ustuvor namudan va inkishof yoftani aloqahoi ijtimoiro tamin menamoyad. Hamzamon mohiyati umumiijtimoii huquq ba tavri mushakhkhas dar fahmishi on hamchun meyori ozodi ifoda meyobad. Inson dar doirai huquqhoi khud ozodona amal mekunad va qonun ozodii insonro az hama guna suiqasd hifz menamoyad. Mahz ba tavassuti huquq neki meyori hayot gardida, badi natija yo oqibati vayron kardani in meyor ba hisob meravad. 

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Huquq dar davlati huquqbunyod javhari hama gunna munosibathoi jamiyati va mazmuni hamai qonunhoro tashkil medihad. Binobar in, dark kardani mohiyat va farqi huquq va qonun mohiyati balandi gumanisti dorad, zero huquq hamchun meyori muayyankunandai sifati qonun va muqarrarkunandai on meboshad, ki qonun huquqi inson, manfiat va talaboti uro to chi daraja hifz menamoyad.

Huquq dar jomea ba tavri voqei vujud dorad va vazifai davlat az on iborat ast, ki jihathoi gunoguni onro muayyan karda, ba shakli qonuni rasmi gardonad.

Az in jo formulai «huquqro jomea ofaridaast va qonunro davlat» farqi huquq va qonunro aniq ifoda menamoyad. Hamzamon vaqte ki mo dar borai «huquq» va «qonun» sukhan meronem, mo na tanho yagonagii mazmuni huquqi va shakli huquqi, balki mukholifati bayni onhoro niz dar nazar dorem. Mazmuni huquqie, ki dar qonun ifoda nayoftaast, kafolati amali shudanro nadorad. Az in ru, on ba manoi amiqi kalima huquq nameboshad.

Dar davlati huquqbunyod qonunhoi huquqi naqshi muhim mebozand. Qonunho mumkin ast gayrihuquqi shavand, agar mazmuni onhoro suiistemoli hokimiyati davlati tashkil dihad. Inro amaliya va tarikhi davlatdorii muosir niz nishon medihad. Dar baze mavridho davlat az qudrati khud suiistemol

karda, qonunhoi ziddihuquqi qabul menamoyad. CHunin qonunho zohiran mumkin ast hamchun huquq baho doda shavand. Vale onho tanho shaklan, na mazmunan huquqi meboshand.

Vazifai asosii huquq tanzimi raftori odamon, tashkilotho va munosibathoi bayni onho meboshad.

In qoidahoi raftor ba hama hatmi meboshand. Onho az tarafi davlat qabul, muqarrar va tasdiq karda meshavand. YAne huquq nizomi qoidahoi ba hama hatmii raftor buda, az tarafi davlat qabul, muqarrar va tasdiq karda meshavad va munosibathoi muhimi jamiyatiro ba tanzim medarorad.

Dar tarikhi insoniyat zamone bud, ki na dastgohi majburkuni va na meyorhoi huquqi mavjud budand.

Munosibathoi bayni odamon dar asosi tartibot va qoidahoi makhsusi akhloqi ba tanzim darovarda meshudand. Urfu odat, taomul, anana, obru va ehtiromi yakdigar asosi munosibathoi azoyoni jamiyatro tashkil mekard. In davrai inkishof ba jamiyati ibtidoi taalluq dosht. Dar in jamiyat barobari, hamfikri va hayoti kollektivona hukmron bud va binobar in ba meyorhoi huquqi niz ehtiyoj nabud.

Paydoishi sinfho, molikiyati khususi va davlat boisi ba vujud omadani meyorhoi huquqi gardid. Aknun sinfi hukmron ba vositai dastgohi makhsusi majburkuni, ki «davlat» nom dosht, qonun va meyorhoihuquqro qabul menamud. Ijroi onho baroi hama hatmi bud va bo majburiyati davlati tamin karda meshud. Hamin tavr, davlat va huquq ba yakdigar zich aloqamandand.

Huquq bo yak qator nishonavu alomathoyash az digar qoidahoi raftor (masalan meyorhoi akhloq, vositahoi tasirrasonii ideologi va gayra) farq mekunad.

YAkum, huquq majmui qoidahoi hatmii raftori odamon meboshad. Vay az meyorhoi odob va akhloq, ki ikhtiyoran ijro karda meshavand, farq dorad. Har gunna qoidahoi raftor meyorhoi huquqi buda nametavonand. Meyorhoi huquqi az tarafi davlat muqarrar karda meshavand va ijroi onho baroi hama hatmi meboshad.

Duyum, huquq nizomi meyorhoi ba hama barobar meboshad. Vay ba hamai shahrvandon, sarfi nazar az mansabu vazifa, millat, najod, sinnu sol va mansubiyati sinfiashon barobar taalluq dorad. Hamaionho uhdadorand, ki talaboti meyorhoi huquqiro ijro namoyand.

Seyum, ijroi talaboti meyorhoi huquqi bo majburiyati davlati tamin karda shudaast. Dar suratiikhtiyoran ijro nakardani talaboti meyorhoi huquqidavlat ba vayronkunandagoni meyorhoi huquq tasir merasonad va ijroi onro ba vositai maqomoti hifzi huquq majburan tamin menamoyad. Kafolatidavlatii ijroi huquq dar hamin ifoda meyobad.

Vobasta ba zerbinoi (bazisi) iqtisodi va irodai kadom sinfro ifoda namudanash huquq ba navhoi muayyan judo meshavad. Navhoi tarikhii huquq bo navhoi tarikhii davlat muvofiq meboshand va chunon ki guftem, ba munosibathoi istehsoli (zerbino) vobastagi dorand.

Navhoi tarikhii huquq chuninand: navi huquqi gulomdori, feodali, burjuazi va sotsialisti. Har yak navi tarikhii huquq vobasta ba mazmuni sinfi, zerbinoi iqtisodi va rubinoi siyosii khud az navi digar farq mekunad.

Dar hayoti voqei huquq vazifai doroi khislati dukhelaro ijro menamoyad. Huquq, az yak taraf, vositai hukmronii siyosi buda, az tarafi digar, vasilai tanzimkunandai umumiijtimoi, vositai muqarrarkunandai tartibot dar jamiyat meboshad. Az in jo tainoti asosii huquq tamini tartibot dar jamiyat bo darnazardoshti manfiathoi gunoguni tabaqa va guruhho bo rohi noil shudani rizoiyat va sozish meboshad. Hamzamon, huquq funksiyahoi muayyanro niz ijro menamoyad. Dar zeri mafhumi funksiyai huquq samthoi asosii tasiri huquq ba munosibathoi jamiyati, ki az mazmun va tainoti on ba miyon meoyad, fahmida meshavad.

Funksiyahoi huquqro ba funksiyahoi asosi va ilovagi judo menamoyand. Funksiyahoi tanzimnamoi va muhofizati funksiyahoi asosii huquq buda ba funksiyahoi ilovagi boshad, funksiyahoi tarbiyavi, ideologi, ittilooti va gayraho dokhil meshavand.

Funksiyai tanzimnamoi baroi batartibdarori va banizomovarii munosibathoi jamiyati, muqarrar namudani qoidahoi raftori odamon ravona karda shudaast. Ba vositai funksiyai mazkur in yo on varianti raftor muqarrar karda shuda, tainoti asosii huquq, ki batartibdarorii munosibathoi jamiyati meboshad, amali karda meshavad. Funksiyai muhofizati baroi hifz va himoyai munosibathoi jamiyatii hayotan muhim ravona karda shudaast. Huquk chunin munosibathoro dakhlnopazir elon namuda, munosibathoi ba jamiyat begonaro mahdud va barham medihad. Vazifai in funksiya tamini talaboti qonunho va muqarrar namudani nizomi qonuniyat dar jamiyat meboshad.

Vazifai funksiyai tarbiya dar tasiri huquq ba iroda, shuuri odamon va tarbiyai onho dar ruhiyai ehtirom ba huquq tajassum meyobad. Ba hayoti jamiyat jori namudani goyai insondusti, bartarii huquq va ozodii inson, inchunin demokratiya mazmuni funksiyai ideologiro tashkil medihad.

Funksiyai ittilooti imkoniyat medihad, ki odamon oid ba talabote, ki davlat doir ba raftori shakhs muqarrar menamoyad, on obekthoe, ki davlat muhofizat menamoyad, kadom raftor va amal ba jamiyat foidaovar yo bar khilofi manfiati jamiyat etirof karda meshavad, ogoh namoyad.

Barpo namudani davlati huquqbunyod, demokrati va dunyavi bo darnazardoshti sharoiti hozira takmili tanzimi munosibathoi huquqiro talab menamoyad. Be inkishofi meyorhoi huquqi va baland bardoshtani mavqei onho dar tanzimi munosibathoi jamiyati davlati huquqi bunyod kardan imkon nadorad. Vase shudani huququ ozodihoi shahrvandon himoyai hamatarafai huquqii onhoro talab mekunad. Dar barobari in, digargunihoe, ki dar sohahoi iqtisodivu siyosi surat megirand, ba osoni amali namegardand.

In digarguniho dar nazdi huquq talaboti nav ba nav meguzorand. Huquq boyad baroi amali gardidani onho sharoiti mutadil muhayyo namoyad. Qonunhoi qabulshavanda baroi havasmandii moddii shahrvandone, ki bo mehnati haloli khud ba natijahoi nihoi sazovor meshavand, boyad sharoiti musoid faroham orand. Dar in samt ba hama guna usulhoi idorai mamuriyu farmondehi, ki dar sohai iqtisod vujuddorand, khotima guzoshta, mustaqiliyat va tashabbuskorii odamonro vase kardan va dastgiri namudan az jumlai zarurathoi zamoni nav ast. CHunin talabot dar moddai 12 Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston zikr shudaast, ki mutobiqi on ozodii faoliyati iqtisodi va sohibkori az tarafi davlat kafolat doda meshavad.

Davlati huquqbunyod baroi vaseshavii huquqhoi siyosi niz imkoniyathoi musoid faroham meorad.

Huquq va ozodihoi siyosii shahrvandon dar bobbi duyumi Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston va moddahoi 18, 19 va 20 Elomiyai umumii huquqi bashar oid ba izhori ozodonai fikr va aqida, ozodona dar majlisho va ittihodiyaho shirkat namudan va gayra ifoda shudaand. Dar barobari in, faromush naboyad kard, ki hej guna huquq be uhdadori vujud doshta nametavonad. In prinsip dar navbati khud masuliyati shahrvandonro dar bobati darki oqibathoi raftori onho baland mebardorad.

2.Mafhum va namudhoi meyorhoi huquqi Meyorhoi huquqi qoidahoi raftori odamonro, ki bo hamdigar dar munosibathoi gunogun qaror dorand, ba tanzim medarorand. Amal va raftori

odamon boyad ba talaboti meyorhoi huquqi muvofiq boshad. Meyorhoi huquqi az tarafi davlat va maqomoti vakolatdori on tahiya, qabul va intishor shuda, qoidahoi raftori azoi jamiyatro tajassum menamoyand. Dar in qoidaho huquq va uhdadorihoi shahrvandon, tashkilotho, shakhsoni vakolatdori davlati va monandi inho muayyan karda meshavand. Dar solhoi okhir meyorhoi huquqii ziyode qabul karda shudaand, ki onho munosibathoi gunoguni jamiyatiro ba tanzim darovarda, qoidai raftori odamonro muayyan menamoyand. Masalan, qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai musoidat ba shugli aholi», «Dar borai vazi huquqii uzvi Majlisi milli va vakili Majlisi namoyandagoni Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston», «Dar borai intikhoboti Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston» va gayra. In meyorhoi huquqi az tarafi maqomothoi vakolatdori davlat qabul va dar amal jori karda meshavand.

Meyorhoi huquqi az digar meyorhoi ijtimoi, masalan odat va meyorhoi akhloqi bo maqsad va vazifahoe, ki onho ijro menamoyand, farq karda meshavand. Meyorhoi huquqi, tavre ki guftem, az tarafi davlat va maqomoti vakolatdori on qabul karda shuda, doroi khislati baroi hama hatmi meboshand.

Dar surati ijro karda nashudan bo rohi majburiyati davlati ijroi onho tamin karda meshavad. Meyorhoi huquqi ba doirai nomuayyani odamon dakhl doshta, to mavridi bekor karda shudanashon amal menamoyand.

Meyorhoi huquqi ba meyorhoi vakolatdorkunanda, uhdadorkunanda va mankunanda judo meshavand. Meyorhoi vakolatdorkunanda ba subekti huquq baroi sodir namudani amaliyoti (raftori) musbat imkoniyat medihad. Masalan, har fard huquq dorad dar dokhili har davlat ozodona tagyiri makon namoyad va mahalli iqomatashro intikhob kunad. Har fard huquq dorad mamlakati khudro tark kunad va ba mamlakati khud bozgardad (moddai 13 Elomiyai umumii huquqi bashar). YO in ki muvofiqi bandi 3 moddai 232 Kodeksi grajdani ba sohibmulk vakolat doda shudaast, ki nisbat ba molu mulki khud hama guna amalro ravo binad, az jumla onro furushad, ba ijora dihad va az on bo usuli digar istifoda barad yo onro bo tarzi digar ikhtiyordori namoyad.

Meyorhoi uhdadorkunanda ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi huquqiro uhdador menamoyand, ki amaliyoti (raftori) muayyani musbiro sodir namoyand. Masalan, polisi andoz uhdador meboshad, ki sirri davlati va khizmati, az jumla sirri andozro nigoh dorad (moddai 129 Kodeksi andozi Jumhurii Tojikiston).

Meyorhoi mankunanda ba subekthoi huquq sodir namudani raftori muayyanero, ki talaboti huquqro vayron menamoyad, man mekunand. Masalan, muvofiqi moddai 22 Kodeksi mehnati Jumhurii Tojikiston hama guna farqguzori, ijozat nadodan va yo qabul nakardan ba kor az rui alomathoi mansubiyati milli, najodi, rangi pust, jinsiyat, sinnu sol, aqidai siyosi, mahalli tavallud va baromadi ijtimoi, ki dar sohai mehnat barobarii imkoniyati odamonro barham medihad, man ast.

Meyorhoi huquqi dar fazo, zamon va ba doirai muayyani shakhson tatbiq karda meshavand. Doirai amali onho dar fazo bisyor vase meboshad. Amali qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar tamomi mamlakat jori karda meshavad. CHunin ham meshavad, ki onho dar mavridhoi dar khudi qonun zikrshuda dar yak qismi muayyani mamlakat tatbiq karda meshavand.

Sanadhoi huquqii majlishoi vakiloni khalq va raisoni onho, ki dar doirai vakolati onho barovarda meshavand, tanho dar hududi hamon viloyat, shahr yo nohiya tatbiq megardand.

Meyorhoi huquqi dar doirai vaqt va zamoni muayyan yo ba muddati duru daroz amal menamoyand, ki inro amali meyorhoi huquqi dar zamoni muayyan menomand. Baze meyorho, masalan Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai bujeti davlati» dar davomi yak sol, yane dar davrai muayyan amal menamoyand va digar meyorho ba muddati nomuayyan amal mekunand.

Aksariyati meyorho doroi chunin khislat meboshand. Meyorhoi huquqi ba shahrvandoni Jumhurii Tojikiston, shahrvandoni khoriji va shakhsoni beshahrvandi tatbiq megardand. Onho dar mavride, ki dar khudi meyorhoi huquqi nishon doda shudaast yo badi qabul va nashri rasmi amal mekunand.

Sarchashmahoi huquq Meyorhoi huquqi dar yagon shakli muayyan ifoda karda meshavand. Onho dar hujjathoi khattii rasmi ifoda yofta, ijroyashon baroi hama hatmi meboshad.

SHakli zohirii ifodayobi va mustahkam kardani meyorhoi huquqiro sarchashmahoi huquq menomand.

Sarchashmahoi huquq ba qonun va sanadhoi zerqonuni judo meshavand. Qonun sanadi meyorii huquqiest, ki mutobiqi tartibi muqarrarshuda az tarafi maqomoti qonunguzor va yo bo rohi raypursi qabul megardad va munosibathoi muhimi jamiyatiro tanzim mekunad. Qonun quvvai balandi huquqi doshta, digar sanadhoi meyori boyad dar asos va muvofiqi on qabul karda shavand. Qonun masalahoi hayotan muhimi mamlakatro ba tanzim darovarda, ba hamai odamon barobar tatbiq megardad.

Dar bayni qonunho Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston joi makhsusro ishgol menamoyad. Dar on asoshoi sokhti davlati, huquq, ozodi va uhdadorihoi shahrvandon, salohiyati Majlisi Oli, Prezident va amsoli inho mustahkam karda meshavand. Konsti-

tutsiya doroi quvvai olii huquqi meboshad. Hamai qonunho va meyorhoi huquqi dar asos va muvofiqi Konstitutsiya qabul karda shuda, dar surati mukholifat bo on etibori huquqi nadorand.

Konstitutsiya kalimai lotini buda, manoyash sokht, muqarrar kardan meboshad. Vay hamchun qonuni asosii davlat na dar davlati gulomdori va na dar davlati feodali malum nabud. Konstitutsiya hamchun qonuni asosii davlat az vaqti ba sari hokimiyat omadani sinfi burjuaziya, aniqtarash az zamoni inqilobhoi burjuazi ba vujud omad. Avvalin Konstitutsiya dar Fransiya soli 1791 va dar IMA soli 1878 qabul karda shud.

Baroi qabuli konstitutsiya qoidai makhsus muayyan karda shudaast. Konstitutsiyaro asosan maqomoti olii hokimiyati davlati (parlament) yo maqomoti makhsusi bo in maqsad tasisshuda (majlisi muassison, majlisi milli, konvent va gayra) qabul mekunand.

Bazan konstitutsiya va hatto tagyiru ilovaho ba on dar raypursii umumi qabul karda meshavand, masalan Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston. Baroi taini raypursi oid ba qabuli Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston va vorid kardani tagyiru ilovaho ba on rizoiyati Prezident va yo ovozhoi na kam az se du hissai vakiloni Majlisi namoyandagoni Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston talab karda meshavad, ki in amal baroi qabul yo tagyir dodani digar qonunhoi jori khos nameboshad. Dar Tojikiston hamagi 5 marotiba (solhoi 19 29, 19 31, 19 37, 19 78, 199 4) Konstitutsiya qabul karda shudaast.

Badi tashkilshavii Jumhurii Hudmukhtori Tojikiston masalai tayyor kardani Konstitutsiyai on ba miyon guzoshta shud. Mohi sentyabri soli 1926 Prezidiumi KIM Jumhurii Hudmukhtori Tojikiston «Dar borai korkardi loihai konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Hudmukhtori Tojikiston» qaror qabul namud. On boyad dar asosi Konstitutsiyai IJSHS va Jumhurii Uzbekiston qabul karda meshud. Mohi mayi soli 1927 loihai Konstitutsiya tayyor karda shud va avvalin Konstitutsiyai Tojikiston dar sezdi II-i SHurohoi Jumhurii Hudmukhtori Tojikiston 28 apreli soli 1929 qabul karda shud.

Dar on muvaffaqiyathoi khalqi tojik dar hamai sohai hayoti siyosivu khojagi va madani inikos shuda, tashkili Jumhurii Hudmukhtori Tojikiston, barqarorshavii hokimiyati SHuroho hamchun tipi navi davlat mustahkam karda shud. Ammo in Konstitutsiya na az tarafi Anjumani III-i SHurohoi Jumhurii

Uzbekiston tasdiq gardidu na ba hukmi amal daromad. CHunki dere naguzashta Jumhurii Ittifoqii Tojikiston tasis doda shud va in Konstitutsiya bo hamin vazifai tarikhii khudro ijro kard. Az in ru, masalai tayyor kardani loihai Konstitutsiyai nav ba miyon omad. Loihai duyumin Konstitutsiyai Tojikistonro Anjumani IV SHuroho muhokima karda, onro tarafdori namud.

Prezidiumi KIM Jumhurii SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston taklifu peshnihodhoi vakiloni sezd va komissariathoi khalqiro ba inobat girifta, bo qarori khud 20 dekabri soli 1931 matni Konstitutsiyaro dar tahriri nav nashr namud va ba hukmi amal darovard. Konstitutsiyai soli 1931 Jumhurii SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston davrai guzarish az kapitalizm ba sotsializmro ifoda namud. Az in ru, badi galabai sotsializm dar Tojikiston zarurati tayyor kardani loihai navi Konstitutsiya – Konstitutsiyai davrai galabai sotsializm ba miyon omad.

1 marti soli 1937 Anjumani IV favquloddai SHurohoi Jumhurii SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston Konstitutsiyai navi JSHS Tojikistonro tasdiq namud. Dar on davrai nav – davrai galabai purrai sotsializm ifoda karda shud.

Konstitutsiyai mazkur dar muddati 40 sol amal kard va dar in davra dar sokhtori ijtimoi, siyosi va nizomi iqtisodi, asoshoi holati huquqii shahrvandon digargunihoi kulli ba vujud omadand. Az in ru, masalai qabuli Konstitutsiyai nav ba miyon omad.

15 iyuli soli 1977 sessiyai 7-umi gayrinavbatii SHuroi Olii JSHS Tojikiston komissiyai oid ba tayyor namudani loihai navi Konstitutsiyai Tojikistonro tashkil kard. 19 marti soli 1978 loihai Konstitutsiya baroi muhokimai umumikhalqi nashr karda shud. 14 apreli soli 1978 sessiyai 8-umi gayrinavbatii SHuroi Olii JSHS Tojikiston davatinuhum Konstitutsiyai 4-umi JSHS Tojikistonro qabul kard.

Badi ba istiqloliyat sohib shudani Jumhurii Tojikiston Konstitutsiyai navi on 6 noyabri soli 1994 ba tariqi ovozdihii umumikhalqi (raypursi) qabul karda shud. Ba on 26 sentyabri soli 1999 va 22 iyuni soli 2003 ba tariqi raypursii umumikhalqi tagyiru ilovaho vorid karda shudand. Ruzi ovozdihii umumikhalqi (raypursi), yane 6 noyabr hamchun idi umumimilli elon karda shud, ki har sol jashn girifta meshavad.

Dar bayni qonunho joi makhsusro qonunhoi konstitutsioni ishgol menamoyand. Qonuni konstitutsioni sanadi meyorii huquqiest, ki qabuli on dar Konstitutsiya peshbini shuda, mutobiqi tartibi muqarrarshuda az tarafi maqomoti qonunguzor va yo bo rohi raypursi qabul karda meshavad va munosibathoi makhsusan muhimi jamiyatiro ba tanzim medarorad.

Qonunhoi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sudho dar Jumhurii Tojikiston», «Dar borai intikhoboti Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston», «Dar borai Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston», «Dar borai maqomoti prokuraturai Jumhurii Tojikiston» va gayra ba in guna qonunho misol shuda metavonand.

Kodeksho sanadi meyorii huquqii makhsus ba shumor meravand. Kodeks qonuni yagona va murattabgashtai doroi sathi balandi mantiqiest, ki tavassuti on sohai muayyani munosibathoi jamiyati purra, bonizom va bevosita tanzim karda meshavad. Kodeksho doroi sokhtori khosi dokhili buda, az qismi umumi va makhsus iborat meboshand. Masalan, Kodeksi grajdani, Kodeksi andoz, Kodeksi mehnat, Kodeksi murofiavii khojagi va gayra.

Digar qonunho niz sarchashmai huquq shuda metavonand. Misol, Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai khojagii dehqoni (fermeri)», Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai maorif», Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai naqliyot», Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai khojagihoi yorirasonishakhsi» va gayra.

Dar barobari qonunho digar sanadhoi huquqi niz hastand, ki sarchashmahoi huquq ba hisob meravand. Onho sanadhoi zerqonuni buda, ba qonun tobe meboshand. Farmonhoi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston, qarorhoi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, farmonho, dasturulamalhoi vazoratho va gayra ba sifati sarchashmahoi zerqonuni amal mekunand.

Maqomoti mazkur sanadhoi digar niz qabul mekunand. Lekin onho khislati fardi (infirodi) doshta, hamchun meyori huquqi amal karda nametavonand.

Masalan, farmonho (amrho) dar borai ba kor tain kardan, az kor ozod kardan va amsoli inho.

Sanadhoi huquqii maqomoti namoyandagi va raisoni maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlati niz sarchashmahoi huquqi buda metavonand. Onho dar doirai vakolathoe, ki qonunguzorii amalkunanda ba onho dodaast, qaror qabul menamoyand. Ijroi in

qarorho az tarafi hamai tashkilotho, shahrvandon va shakhsoni mansabdore, ki dar hududi hamon mahal joygirand, hatmi meboshad.

Vaqte sukhan dar borai meyorhoi huquqi raft, boyad dar khotir dosht, ki shahrvandon doir ba mohiyat va mazmuni meyorhoi huquq tasavvuroti aniq doshtanashon lozim ast, zero bazan nadonistani mazmun va mohiyati onho yo munosibati ruyaki nisbat ba qonun va sanadhoi zerqonuni boisi paydo shudani tasavvurot va muhokimahoi nodurust doir ba sarchashmahoi huquq va meyorhoi huquqi megardad. Binobar in bo matni aslii qonunho, farmonho, qarorho va gayraho hamatarafa va bodiqqat shinos shudan lozim ast.

Zero hamai onho dar matbuot chop meshavand. Meyorhoi huquqi dar natijai faoliyati tashkilii maqomoti hokimiyati davlati va idorakuni ejod karda meshavand. Bo huquqejodkuni, hamchun qoida Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston va dar mahalho Majlisi vakiloni khalq va raisoni onho mashgul hastand. Maqomoti idorakunii davlati dar misoli Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, vazoratho va kumitahoi davlati niz huquqi ejod namudani sanadhoi meyorii huquqiro dorand. Dar barobari in, bevosita khudi khalq bo faoliyati huquqejodkuni (qonunejodkuni) mashgul shuda metavonad. In kor chunin jarayon megirad: loihai qonunhoi nihoyat muhim ba raypursii umumikhalqi peshnihod karda meshavad va loiha badi az tarafi khalq qabul gardidanash etibor paydo mekunad. Baroi amali gashtani onho hej guna tasdiq lozim nest.

Maqsadi asosii faoliyati huquqejodkuni ba tavri asosnok takmil dodani qonunguzorii amalkunanda meboshad. Dar jarayoni chunin faoliyat meyorhoi huquqii kuhnashuda bekor karda shuda, ba meyorhoi huquqii amalkunanda tagyirot vorid karda meshavand yo meyorhoi huquqii nav qabul karda meshavand.

Jarayoni qabuli qonunho az marhalahoi muayyan iborat ast.

Marhalai avval az tarafi subekthoi doroi huquqi tashabbusi qonunguzori peshnihod namudani loihai qonun ba maqomoti qonunguzori meboshad. Mutobiqi moddai 58 Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston uzvi Majlisi milli, vakili Majlisi namoyandagon, Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston, Hukumati Tojikiston va Majlisi vakiloni khalqi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon ba sifati chunin subektho baromad menamoyand.

Marhalai duyum az barrasii loihai Qonun dar kumita va komissiyahoi maqomoti qonunguzori (Majlisi Oli) iborat ast. Maqsad az barrasi namudani

loihai qonun tahlili hamatarafai mazmuni on va dar shakli mukammal ba Majlisi namoyandagon va Majlisi milli peshnihod namudani loiha meboshad.

Muhokimai loihai qonun dar jalasahoi palatahoi Majlisi Oli (Majlisi namoyandagon va Majlisi milli) marhalai seyumi faoliyati qonunejodkuniro tashkil medihad. Maqsad az chunin muhokima dar asosi peshnihodot va mulohizahoi vakiloni alohida va fraksiyaho (guruhho) ba loihai qonun vorid namudani tagyiru ilovaho meboshad. Bo darnazardoshti mulohizavu darkhosthoi peshnihodshuda qonun metavonad dar qiroati avval yo duyum qabul karda shavad, ki in marhalai chahorumi jarayoni qonunguzoriro tashkil medihad. Qonunhoro Majlisi namoyandagon qabul mekunad. Qonunhoi muqarrari bo tarafdorii aksariyati shumorai umumii vakilon va qonunhoi konstitutsioni bo tarafdorii na kamtar az se du hissai shumorai umumii vakiloni Majlisi namoyandagon qabul karda meshavand.

Qonunho dar borai bujeti davlati va avf tanho az tarafiMajlisi namoyandagon qabul karda meshavand. Qonunhoe, ki Majlisi namoyandagon qabul namudaast, ba istisnoi qonunho dar borai bujeti davlati va avf, ba Majlisi milli peshnihod meshavand. Majlisi milli qonunhoi muqarrariro bo tarafdorii aksariyati shumorai umumii azoi khud va qonunhoi konstitutsioniro bo tarafdorii na kamtar az se du hissai azoi khud jonibdori mekunad.

Dar mavridi dastgiri nayoftani qonun az jonibi Majlisi milli qonun takroran dar Majlisi namoyandagon barrasi meshavad. Dar surati ba qarori Majlisi milli rozi nabudani Majlisi namoyandagon qonun hamon vaqt qabulshuda hisob meshavad, ki agar Majlisi namoyandagon onro takroran bo tarafdorii na kamtar az se du hissai shumorai umumii vakilon tasdiq namoyad.

Qonunhoi qabulkardai Majlisi namoyandagon badi az tarafi Majlisi milli jonibdori shudani onho baroi imzo va intishor ba Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston peshnihod karda meshavand.

Agar Prezident bo qonun yo qismi on rozi naboshad, qonunro dar muddati ponzdah ruz bo dalelu erodho ba Majlisi namoyandagon barmegardonad. Majlisi milli va Majlisi namoyandagon onro takroran barrasi menamoyand. Dar mavride, ki barrasii takrorii qonun dar matni peshtar qabulshudaash bo aksariyati az se du hissai shumorai umumii azoi Majlisi milli va vakiloni Majlisi namoyandagon dastgiri yobad, Prezident dar muddati dah ruz ba qonun imzo meguzorad va onro intishor menamoyad.

Hangomi barrasii qonuni az tarafi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston bargardonidashuda, ki onro peshtar Majlisi namoyandagon qabul kardaast, Majlisi milli va Majlisi namoyandagon onro takroran bo aksariyati na kamtar az se du hissai ovozho tarafdori mekunand. Agar Prezident qonuni konstitutsioniro bargardonad, Majlisi namoyandagon va Majlisi milli onro takroran barrasi menamoyand.

Agar barrasii takrorii qonuni konstitutsioni dar matni peshtar qabulshudaash bo aksariyati az chor se hissai shumorai umumii azoi Majlisi milli va vakiloni Majlisi namoyandagon tasdiq shavad, Prezident dar muddati dah ruz ba qonuni konstitutsioni imzo meguzorad va onro intishor menamoyad (moddai 62 Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston).

Qonunho dar nashriyahoi rasmi ba tavri oshkoro intishor karda meshavand va badi intishor gardidani onho dar in nashriyaho etibori huquqi paydo mekunand. Qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston bad az jonibi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston imzo shudanashon bo zaboni davlati na dertar az ponzdah ruz dar ruznomai «Jumhuriyat», inchunin dar «Majmui qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston» va «Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston» intishor karda meshavand.

Bad az intishori rasmiashon qonunho etibor paydo mekunand (moddai 54 Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sanadhoi meyorii huquqi»). Ruzi az chop baromadani matni purrai rasmii on dar nashriyai rasmi ruzi intishori rasmii sanadi meyorii huquqi hisobida meshavad (moddai 59 Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sanadhoi meyorii huquqi»). Qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, agar dar onho muhlati digar muqarrar nashuda boshad, pas az intishori rasmi mavridi amal qaror megirand (moddai 64 Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sanadhoi meyorii huquqi»).

Mafhumi munosibathoi huquqi va tarkibi on Doirai gunoguni munosibathoi jamiyatie mavjud ast, ki inson dar hayoti harruzai khud bo onho sarukor dorad. In munosibatho dar bayni tabaqaho va guruhhoi odamon oid ba muhokimai masalahoi mukhtalifi hayot ba vujud meoyand.

Vale na hamai in munosibathoro huquq ba tanzim medarorad. Masalan, munosibathoi bayni tabaqaho, muhokimai bozii futbol dar bayni mukhlison, ehtiromi yakdigar va amsoli inho az tarafi huquq ba tanzim darovarda nameshavand. Hamai in munosibatho kori shakhsii shahrvandon meboshad. Agar munosibathoi jamiyati bo meyorhoi huquq ba tanzim darovarda shavand, on goh onho munosibathoi huquqi nomida meshavand.

Munosibathoi huquqi az subekt, mazmun va obekt iboratand. Ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi huquqi, ki doroi huquq va uhdadorihoi muayyan meboshand, subekti munosibathoi huquqi meboshand. Ba subekti munosibathoi huquqi shahrvandon, ittihodiyaho, tashkilotho, maqomoti davlati va davlat dokhil

meshavand. SHahrvandoni khoriji va shakhsoni beshahrvand metavonand ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi huquqi boshand.

Ba monandi hamai digar munosibathoi jamiyati munosibathoi huquqi niz natijai faoliyati boshuuronai inson meboshand. Aloqahoi huquqi dar bayni odamon boshuurona muqarrar karda meshavand.

Ishtirokchiyoni onho doroi huquq meboshand. Doroi huquq budani ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi huquqi dar navbati khud onhoro vazifador menamoyad, ki uhdadorihoi muayyanro ba jo ovardand. Doroi huquq va uhdadori budan mazmuni munosibathoi

huquqiro tashkil medihad. Masalan, shahrvand baroi tamoshoi konsert dar teatr bilet kharid. In raftori u mamuriyati teatrro uhdador menamoyad, ki ba shahrvand joi nishast va tamoshoi konsertro tamin namoyad va dar navbati khud shahrvand uhdador ast, ki qoidahoi dar teatr muqarrarkardashudaro rioya

kunad. Az jumla sari vaqt voridi teatr shavad, zero dar surati ba tamosho der omadan huquq nadorad talab namoyad, ki konsert az nav sar karda shavad. Dar surati voridi tamoshogoh shudan shahrvand uhdadorast, ki intizomi dokhiliro rioya namoyad, bo raftori khud ba digar tamoshobinon va rafti konsert khalal narasonad. Dar aksi hol mamuriyat metavonad uro az tolori konsert berun sozad yo digar navi jazoro vobasta ba raftori nodurustash ravo binad.

Tavre ki dida meshavad, aksariyati munosibathoe, ki dar bayni shahrvand va mamuriyati teatr ba vujud meoyand, munosibathoi huquqi meboshand. SHahrvand huquqhoi muayyanero sohib meshavad, ki onhoro davlat muhofizat menamoyad. Dar barobari in, u vazifador meshavad, ki uhdadorihoi muayyanro ba jo orad.

CHunin munosibathoi huquqi dar bayni maktabbachagon va maktab niz ba vujud meoyand. Har yak maktabbacha vakolatdor ast, ki uhdadorihoi muayyanro ijro namoyad. U boyad amvoli maktabro ehtiyot kunad.

Agar vay amvoli maktabro shikanad va yo az kor barorad, padaru modarash tibqi muqarraroti qonunhoi amalkunanda vazifador meshavand, ki mablagi onro jubron namoyand.

Munosibathoi huquqi na tanho dar bayni shahrvandon va tashkilotho ba vujud meoyand. Tashkilotho, maqomoti davlati va umuman davlat niz ishtirokchiyoni onho shuda metavonand. Dar bayni tashkilotho oid ba muomiloti mol, rasonidani khizmatrasoni, ijroi kor va amsoli inho munosibathoi huquqi ba vujud meoyand.

Hamin tariq, dar bayni subekthoi huquqi doir ba yagon chiz (amvol, ashyo), molumulk munosibathoi huquqi ba vujud meoyand. Vositahoi istehsolot, ashyo va mahsuloti istemoli, pul, khizmat, qogazi qimmatnok, sirri tijorati, munosibathoi shakhsii gayrimolu-mulki (hayot, salomati, shanu sharaf) va amsoli inho obekti munosibathoi huquqi meboshand.

SHakhsone, ki talaboti meyorhoi huquqiro vayron namekunand, bo raftoru kirdori khud boisi ehtiromi digaron meboshand, niz dar faoliyati khud ba munosibathoi huquqi dokhil meshavand va dar doirai muhiti munosibathoi huquqi koru faoliyat mekunand. Vale aksariyati onho chunin raftori khudro bevosita pay namebarand. Zero raftori onho dar doirai qonunguzori buda, bo manfiathoi shakhsoni digar va jamiyat muvofiq meboshad.

Sohahoi huquqi Jumhurii Tojikiston Munosibathoi huquqi nihoyat gunogun meboshand.

Onho dar sohahoi gunoguni hayoti jamiyat ba vujud meoyand. Mo bo onho dar oila, faoliyati kishovarzi, muomiloti grajdani, dar rafti mehnat, ba amal barovardani faoliyati sohibkori, dar sohai faoliyati maqomoti davlati va gayra duchor meshavem.

Vobasta ba in, meyorhoi batanzimdarorii onho niz farq menamoyand. Agar shahrvand az magozai tijorati mol kharad, on goh in munosibathoro huquqi grajdani ba tanzim medarorad. Agar shahrvand faoliyati khudro dar asosi shartnomai mehnat bo korkhona ba roh monad, on goh chunin munosibathoro huquqi mehnati ba tanzim medarorad va gayra. YAne vobasta ba munosibathoi sifatan yakkhelae, ki in yo on sohai huquq meomuzad, meyorhoi batanzimdarorii onho niz gunogun meshavand.

Meyorhoi huquqie, ki munosibathoi jamiyatii sifatan yakkhelaro ba tanzim medarorand, sohai huquq nomida meshavand. Hamai sohahoi huquq yakjoya nizomi huquqii Jumhurii Tojikistonro tashkil medihand.

Sohahoi huquqi Jumhurii Tojikiston az inho iborat meboshand: huquqi davlati (konstitutsioni), huquqi mamuri, huquqi grajdani, huquqi mehnati, huquqi sohibkori, huquqi oilavi, huquqi moliyavi, huquqi kishovarzi, huquqi jinoyati, huquqi murofiavii jinoyati va gayraho. Oid ba in sohahoi huquq shumo dar kitobi sinfi 9-um malumot khohed girift.

Huquqvayronkuni va javobgarii huquqi Raftori shahrvand boyad ba talaboti meyorhoi huquqi muvofiq boshad. Raftori ba huquq muvofiqi odamon mohiyati tartiboti huquqiro tashkil medihad.

Az in ru, davlat, jamiyat va azoi on ba raftori odamone, ki ba talaboti meyorhoi huquqi javobmedihad, havasmand meboshand. Jamiyat ba vositairaftori ba huquq muvofiq idora karda shuda, faoliyati hayotan mutadili on ba roh monda meshavad.

Huquq va uhdadorihoi shahrvandon niz dar asosi raftori ba huquq muvofiq ba amal barovarda meshavand. Baraks, raftore, ki ba talaboti huquq javobnamedihad, huquqvayronkuni yo raftori barkhilofihuquq meboshad.

Huquqvayronkuni kirdori gunahkorona va ziddihuquqii shakhse meboshad, ki ba jamiyat, davlat yo shakhsoni alohida zarar merasonad. Vay dar natijai sodir kardan yo nakardani yagon amali gunahkoronae, ki barkhilofi meyorhoi huquqi meboshad, ba vujud meoyad. Agar shahrvand muntazam intizomi mehnatro vayron namoyad, ba kor der oyad, duzdi kunad, qoidahoi harakat dar rohro vayron kunad va digar kirdorhoi

ba hamin monandro sodir namoyad, in manoi onro dorad, ki ba huquqvayronkuni roh dodaast. Sarkashi az ijroi uhdadorihoi huquqi manoi vayron kardani talaboti meyorhoi huquqiro dorad. Pas, huquqvayronkuni rioya nakardani talaboti meyorhoi huquqi ast. Hama guna huquqvayronkuni ba jamiyat, davlat va shakhsoni alohida khatarnok va zararovar meboshad. Binobar in, meyorhoi huquqi onhoro mahkum menamoyand.

Huquqvayronkuni ba du namud judo meshavad: jinoyat va kirdori noshoyam. Jinoyat khatarnoktarin navi huquqvayronkuni meboshad.

CHunin huquqvayronkuniero kirdori noshoyam menomand, ki ba munosibathoi idorakuni, mehnati, molumulki, moliyavi va digar munosibatho suiqasd menamoyad. Kirdori noshoyam az jinoyat bo darajai baroi jamiyat khavfnokiash farq menamoyad. Jinoyat hama vaqt khatarnoktar meboshad. Darajai baroi jamiyat khavfnoki vobasta ba obekte, ki huquqvayronkunanda ba on suiqasd menamoyad, andozai zarar va shakhsiyati huquqvayronkunanda muayyan karda meshavad. Agar shakhs ba duzdii molikiyati davlati va shakhsi, odamkushi roh dihad, ba digar shakhson zarari jismoni rasonad, avboshi va amsoli inhoro sodir namoyad, pas in amalhoi u jinoyat hisobida meshavad. Zero

raftori u ba jamiyat va odamon khatari kalon dorad. Ammo agar shakhs ba kor der oyad, qoidai rohgardiro vayron namuda, az charogaki surkh guzarad va digar raftorhoi ba hamin monandro sodir namoyad, on goh u kirdori noshoyam sodirkarda etirof meshavad.

CHunki darajai khavfnokii raftori u kamtar buda, ba jamiyat zarari nachandon kalon merasonad. Az kirdori noshoyam to jinoyat yak qadam roh ast. Baroi hamin odam boyad kushish namoyad, ki az khurdi bo raftori khubu odobi namunavi sazovori ehtiromi

digaron boshad. Dalelho shahodat medihand, ki baze shakhson hanuz az khurdi ba kirdorhoi noshoyam dast mezanand. Intizomro vayron karda, ba dars der meoyand.

Bo muallimon dagali namuda, dar darsho betartibi mekunand va bo hamin raftori khud dar sinf holati gayrikoriro ba vujud meorand. Dar vaqti tanaffus bo hamsinfoni khud janjol mekunand, bad az dars ba nushidani nushokihoi spirti mashgul meshavand.

Bo rafiqoni kalonsoli khud beehtiromi karda, kirdorhoi noshoyam sodir menamoyand. Hamin tariq, roh ba sui jinoyat az khudsari (beintizomi), raftorhoi khurdi noshoyam, beehtiyoti ba digaron va dagali sar meshavad. Sababi aksariyati huquqvayronkuniho past budani darajai shuurnokii huquqvayronkunandagon, beintizomi, beahamiyati, nashamandi, mayparasti va beandeshagi nisbat ba oqibathoi raftori khud meboshad. Nabudani hissi javobgarii shakhsi, nadonistan va nafahmidani qonun, inchunin bejazo mondan va digar holatho niz sababi huquqvayronkuni shuda metavonand.

SHakhse, ki talaboti meyorhoi huquqro vayron kardaast, ba javobgarii huquqi kashida meshavad.

Tahti majburiyati davlati az tarafi huquqvayronkunandagon ijro gardidani uhdadorihoro javobgarii huquqi menomand.Javobgari ba manoi huquqiash javobgari baroi huquqvayronkuni meboshad. Agar shahrvand dar holati masti ba kor oyad, avboshi sodir namoyad, ba molumulk va shakhsiyati digaron zarar rasonad, haqorat va tuhmat kunad, inchunin digar raftorhoi ba hamin monandro sodir namoyad, on goh u ba javobgarii huquqi kashida meshavad. Javobgarii huquqi hama vaqt bo mahrum namudani manfiathoi shakhsi, molumulki yo mahdud namudani onho vobastagi dorad. In mahrumkuniho aksulamali tabiii jamiyat, davlat va zarare meboshad, ki shakhsi huquqvayronkunanda ba digaron rasonidaast. Javobgarii huquqi ba namudhoi zerin judo meshavad:

javobgarii mamuri, intizomi, grajdani va jinoyati.

Oid ba namudhoi javobgari dar bobhoi dakhldori kitobi “Asoshoi davlat va huquqi Jumhurii Tojikiston” baroi sinfi 9 malumot khohed girift.

Rioyai talaboti huquqi vazifai konstitutsionii har yak shahrvand meboshad. Dar barobari in, har yak shahrvand vazifador ast, ki qonunhoi kishvari khudro ba khubi donad. Nadonistani qonun va digar sanadhoi huquqi shahrvandonro az javobgari ozod namekunad ( moddai 42 Konstitutsiya). Hub donistani qonun va sanadhoi huquqi insonro dar ruhiyai khulqu atvori khub tarbiya namuda, masuliyati uro baland mebardorad. Noguzir va hatmi budani javobgari baroi vayron namudani qonun va sanadhoi zerqonuni vositai asosii peshgiri va reshakan namudani huquqvayronkuni meboshad.

Savolho

  1. Mohiyati huquq dar chi ifoda meyobad?
  2. Farqi «huquq» va «qonun» dar chist?
  3. Huquq chist?
  4. Nishonahoi farqkunandai huquqro az digar qoidahoi raftor nombar namoed.
  5. Kadom tiphoi tarikhii huquqro medoned? 6. Funksiyahoi huquq chist?
  6. Inkishofi huquq dar davrai hozira chi tavr surat megirad? 8. Meyorhoi huquqi chist?
  7. Namudhoi meyorhoi huquqro nombar kuned.
  8. Sarchashmahoi huquq chist?
  9. Qonun chist?
  10. Farqi konstitutsiya az digar meyorhoi huquqi dar chist?
  11. Qonuni konstitutsioni chist?
  12. Kodeks chi guna sanadi meyorii huquqist?
  13. Jarayoni qonunguzori az kadom marhilaho iborat ast?
  14. Qabuli qonunho chi guna surat megirad?
  15. Tartibi qabuli qonunhoi konstitut sioni chi guna meboshad? 18. Munosibathoi huquqi chist?

19.Namudhoi munosibathoi huquqiro nombar namoed.

  1. Kadom sohahoi huquqi Jumhurii Tojikistonro medoned?
  2. Huquqvayronkuni chist?
  3. Javobgarii huquqi chist?
  4. Namudhoi javobgarii huquqiro nombar namoed.
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