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Hosil shudani tukhm va meva

Hujayratukhmi bordorshuda (zigota) ba du hujayra taqsim meshavad. Har kadome az in hujayraho dar navbati khud taqsim megardad va gayra. Dar natijai borho taqsim shudani hujayra janini bisyorhujayrai rastanii nav tashakkul meyobad.

hosilshavii-tuxmAz hujayrai kalontarini markazii khaltai janin, ki bo nutfai duyum omekhta shudaast, hujayrai endosperm, ki dar on moddahoi gizoy zakhira meshavand, inkishof meyobad. In moddaho baroi gizo va inkishofi janin zarurand. Az pusti (pardai) tukhmmugja pustlokhi tukhm inkishof meyobad. Badi bordorshavi az tukhmmugja tukhm in- kishof meyobad, ki az pust, janin va zakhirai moddahoi gizoi ibo- rat ast.

Pas az gardolud va bordorshavi ba gura moddahoi gizoi jori gar- dida, vay tadrijan ba mevai pukhta tabdil meyobad. Az devorai gura mevaparda hosil meshavad va on tukhmro az tasiri sharoiti nomuso- id muhofizat mekunad. Dar tashakkuli mevai baze rastaniho digar uzvkhoi gul niz ishtirok mekunand.

Vazifai muhimtarini meva — muhofizat va pahn kardani tukhm meboshad.

Har yakmeva az mevaparda va tukhm iborat ast. Tukhm az tukhmmugja hosil meshavad.da devori sabzidayu shakldigarkardai guraki gul meboshad. Aksar vaqt dar hosilshavii mevaparda digar qismhoi gulbuni gardbarg, gulbarg, kosabarg va gulgoh ishtirok mekunand.

Gunogunshaklii mevaho khele ziyodu sershumor (buzurg) ast. Agar dar gul faqat yak mevadon boshad, mevai az on inkishofyoftaro sodda menomand (gandum, nakhud, olubolu). Az gule, ki yakchand tukhmdon dorad, mevai murakkab tashakkul meyobad (marminjon, tamashk). Tudameva az tudaguli tomu yaklukht dar natijai ba ham payvastsha- vii yakchand mevaho, ki yak juzi tomro tashkil mekunand, hosil meshavad (ananas, tut, lablabu).

Az rui miqdori tukhm mevaho ba mevahoi yaktukhma va bisyortukhma judo meshavand.

Vobasta ba on, ki mevaparda dar tarkibash chy mikdor ob dorad, mevaho ba mevahoi tar va khushk judo meshavand. Mevahoi tari pukhta dar tarkibi mevapardaashon magzi serob dorand.

Azbaski meva va tukhm khuroki inson ast, u bisyor navhoi navi sermahsulu khushsifati rastanihoro ba vujud ovardaast. Meva va tukhm khuroki chorvo niz meboshand. Onhoro dar sanoat va tib vase istifoda mebarand.

Dar navohii sub- tropiki rastanihoero parvarish mekunand, ki qimati balandi khuroka dorand (masa- lan, noranj (manda- rin), aflesun, anor, zaytun, chormagz va gayraho).

Dar manotiqi tropiki boshad, darakhtoni qahva va kakavro meparvarand. Az tukhmi onho qahva, kakao va shokolad tayyor mekunand. Mevajoti muz (banan), norgil, darakhti “non”, nagzak (mango) va avokadoro so- kinoni mamlakathoi tropiki vase istifoda mebarand.

  1. Janini bisyorhujayrai rastani chi tavr tashakkul meyobad?
  2. Endosperm chi tavr hosil meshavad va on chi ahamiyat dorad?
  3. Meva chi tavr tashakkul meyobad?
  4. Mevaparda chist?
  5. Mevai sodda az mevai murakkab chi farq dorad?
  6. Vobasta ba miqdori ob dar mevaparda mevahoro ba kadom guruhho judo mekunand?
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