Home / Gunogun / Holati nimmustamlikavii Eron

Holati nimmustamlikavii Eron

Badi jangi solhoi 1856 1857 Eron ba nimmustamlika tabdil meyobad. To solhoi 70- umi asri XIX Eron allakay ba Angliyayu Rusiya vobasta bud. Vobastagii Eron badi ba shirkathoi khoriji dodnii ijora (konsessiya) va qarordodho dar borai vombarg (zayom)-i khoriji boz ham ziyodtar meshavad. Solhoi 1862-1874 anglisho oid ba dar Eron sokhtani khathoi telegraf baroi tamini aloqai London bo Hinduston bo in davlat sozishnoma ba imzo rasonidand. Istifoda va idorai onho dar ikhtiyori anglisho bud. SHohrohhoi janubu garbii Eron niz az tarafi mustamlikaloroni anglis sokhta va nazorat karda meshudand. Dar shimoli mamlakat boshad, sokhtmon va istifodai shohrohho dar ikhtiyori Rusiya budand. Angliya va Rusiya Eronro vazifador kardand, ki dar qalamravi khud ba sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan roh nadihad.

iran_14

Soli 1872 sohibkori anglis YU. Reyter az shohi Eron baroi istifodai hamai zakhirahoi ashyoi sanoagii mamlakat ba muhlati 70 sol ijorai inhisori girift. Norozigii khalqi Eron va diplomatiyai Rusiya az in qarordod chunon purzur bud, ki shoh majbur shud onro bekor kunad. Ba har hol Reyter bo rozigii Ruo baroi tashkili banki SHohanshohi ijozatnoma girift. In bonk baroi barovardani qogazhoi kpmatnok, az on jumla pul huquqi inhisori ba dast darovard. Soli 1890 sohibkori rus Polyakov dar Tehron bonki qarzdihii Forsro kushod, ki on iqtisodi Eroni SHimoliro ba zeri nazorati khud girift. In shakhs soli 1891 baroi tashkili kori sugurta va naqliyot ham sohibi ijozatnoma shud. Ba davlathoi khoriji inchunin yak qator ijorahoi digar niz doda shudand: ijorai sarmoyadori anglis Linch baroi kishtigardi dar daryoi yagonai Eron – Korun, ijorai sanoatchii rus Lianozov baroi mohigiri dar Bahri Hazar, ijorai shirkati anglis Talbot baroi kharidu furush va korkardi tamoku az jumlai onho meboshand. Soli 1901 shahrvandi Angliya dar Arsi bapoi istifodai hamai sarchashmahoi neft, gayr az shimoli Eron ijorai inhisori girift. Badtar on nomi shirkati “Ijorai SHAEN-AINK” (shirkati nefti Angliya va Fors)-ro megirad.

Iqtisodi Eron be yorii moliyavii khoriji pesh rafta nametavonist. Az hamin sabab Nosiruddinshoh (1848-1896) soli 1892 az bonki anglisi ba mablagi 500 hazor f.-st. Vombargi avalini khorijiro girift. Solhoi 1900-1902 Rusiya ham ba Eron ba mablagi 32,5 mln. rubl vombarg dod. Vombarghoi khoriji Eronro ba asorati moliyavi giriftor kardand.

Dar dahsolahoi okhirini asri XIX va ogozi asri XX ba Eron vorid sokhtani molhoi sanoatii khoriji ziyod shud. Molhoi sanoatii nisbatan arzoni khorijiyon sohiboni molhoi kosibi, sanoati khonagi va korkhonahoi sanoatii fabrikaviyu zavodii dar okhirhoi asri XIX – avvali asri XX sokhtashudai Eronro muflis gardondand. Sodiroti molhoi kishovarzi va ashyoi khomi Eron sol to sol meafzud. Kishovarzi ba talaboti bozori khoriji (parvarishi tamoku, pakhta va ziroathoi digari tekhniki) muvofiq karda meshud. Eron ba manbai ashyoi khomi sanoatii mamlakathoi imperialisti tabdil meyoft.

Dar in davra na tanho iqtisodiyot, balki idorai davlatii Eron niz ba zeri nazorati ajnabiyon medaroyad. Soli 1879 dar zeri rohbarii afsaroni rus az hisobi eroniho bo nomi “polki kazakho” artish tashkil karda shud, ki badtar on ba brigada va diviziyai alohida tabdil meyobad. Soli 1898 sarvari gumruki Eron Naus nom belgiyagi tayin megardad, ki u badtar vaziri pochta, sarvari khazina va uzvi SHuroi olii davlati tayin meshavad.

Dar shimoli mamlakat onkhoe ba vazifahoi baland gumoshta meshudand, ki ba hukumati podshohii Rusiya maqul boshand. Janubi Eron dar ikhtiyori anglisho bud. Onho dar in jo faoliyati chudoikhohii ashrofoni mahalliro harjoniba dastgiri menamudand, Dar natijai in anglisho qismi Siiston va Balujisgonro az Eron judo karda, dar on joyho hukmroni mekardand. Neruhoi Harbii bahrii Angliya dar amal khaliji Forsro ishgol karda budand. Muvofiqi guftai nakhustvaziri Angliya Kyorzon “rezidenti anglisii dar Bushirbuda shohi tojutakhtnadoshtai khaliji Fors meboshad”.

Hamin tariq, to ogozi asri XX rafti ba nimmustamlika tabdil yoftani Eron ba okhir rasid. Dar natijai istismori yakjoyai khalqi Eron ittifoqi tabaqai boloii marlumi Eronu imierialistoni khoriji ba vujud omad. SHoh, vazironi vay va ayonu ashrofi Eron ba josusoni mamlakathoi imperialisti tabdil yoftand.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

ozero_krugi_solntse_zakat_peyzaj

OFTOB, HAVO VA OB – DUSTONI BEHTARINI MO

Agar az bachahoi sinf dar in khusus purson shavi, albatta, ba in fikr rozi meshavand. …