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Helhoi resha – Tipi sistemai resha va khok

Ahamiyati on baroi hayoti rastaniho. Muhofizati khok: Reshai darakhton sabzida, ba qabathoi chuquri khok shokha ronda, gafs meshavad va tanai khele vazninu bohashamati shokhahoi serbargro mustahkam nigoh medorad.

Albatta, na hamai rastaniho monandi darakhtoni azimjussa reshai ustuvoru shokharonda dorand. Reshai rastanihoi alafii yaksola nisbatan khurd buda, ba zamin chuqur namedaroyad. Tamomi reshahoi rastani dar yakjoyagi majmu yo shabakai resharo ba vujud meovarand, ki bo tufayli on rastani az khok ob va moddahoi madaniro jabbida megirad.

navi-resha

Reshai rastanii yakpalla-gandum va dupalla — qoquro az zamin kofta girifta, ba hamdigar muqoisa mekunem.

Reshai asosii qoqu, ki az reshachai janini tukhm sabzidaast, nagz inkishofyofta buda, gafs meboshad. SHakli reshai asosi tirmonand buda, az on reshachahoi khurdi pakhdui mesabzand. In guna resharo tirresha menomand.

SHabakai reshai gandum boshad, az bisyor reshahoi kabza-qabza ruidai daroziyu gafsiashon taqriban yakkhela iborat ast. Onho az qismi poya mesabzand va reshahoi ilovagi nom dorand. Reshai asosii gandum, ki az janini tukhm inkishof meyobad, ba zudi az sabzish bozmonda dar bayni reshahoi ilovagii sershumor noayon megardad. In nav reshahoro patakresha menomand.

Aksari rastanihoi dupalla odatan tirresha dorand. SHulkha, lubiyo, oftobparast, sabzi, hamai darakhton, buttaho va bisyor digar rastaniho tirreshai nagz inkishofyofta dorand. Odatan tirreshai rastanihoi navras, ki az tukhmi rastanihoi bisyorsola ruidaand, khub ayon megardand. Tirreshai baze rastanihoi bisyorsola (chinorak, shahtuti zamini, zulf) barmahal az sabzish bozmemonad va az poya reshahoi ilovagi sabzida, shakli patakresharo megirand.

Rastanihoi yakpalla aksaran patakresha dorand. Hamai rastanihoi galladonagi, piyoz, sir, lola va bisyor rastanihoi digar patakresha dorand.

Hamin tavr, reshai rastaniho vobasta ba mavqei joygiri va tarzi paydoishashon se khel meshavand reshai asosi, ilovagi va pahlui. Agar resha az reshachai janin inkishof yobad, onro reshai asosi menomand. Reshahoi az qismi zerizaminii poya sabzandaro reshai ilovagi menomand. Dar okhir reshahoi ham az reshai asosi va ham az reshai ilovagi ruidaro reshai pahlui menomand. Reshai ilovagi metavonad dar qismi ruizaminii poya, inchunin dar barg sab- zad yo paydo shavad.

Agar shokhcha yo navdai safedor, bed yo rastanii khonagii koleusro ba zarfi obdor gu- zorem, inkishofi reshahoi ilovagiro mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Agar qismi ba khok nazdiki poyai karam, pomidor, kartosh- ka va juvorimakkaro khokpush kunem, reshahoi ilovagi paydo shuda, nagz mesabzand. Rastaniho ba juz moddahoi organiki, ki hangomi fotosintez dar barghoyashon hosil meshavad, inchunin ba gizoi madanii tarkibi khok ehtiyoji kalon dorand. Az in ru, savole paydo meshavad: khok chist va on baroi hayoti rastaniho chi ahamiyat dorad?

Hok qabati boloi va bar zammi on hosilkhezi zamin ast. Qabati boloii khok beshtar siyohtob ast, chunki boqimondai nabototu hayvonot bo tasiri mikroorganizmhoi khok mepusad va moddahoe hosil meshavand, ki porukhok (gumus) az onho iborat ast. Siyohtob budani qabati boloii khok ba porukhok vobasta ast.

Agar dar zamin 50-60 sm chuquri kofta, yake az tarafhoi onro ba poyon rostu sufta kunem, mo burrishi qabathoi khokro aniq musho- hida karda metavonem.

Mebinem, ki rangi qabathoi poyontari khok bo sababi dar on kam budani porukhok nisbatan kushod (yo ravshantar) meboshad. Inchunin qabati reg, gil va sang niz dida meshavad. Dar khoki khokistarrang boshad, porukhok kam ast. Mavjudiyati gil va regro dar tarkibi khok bo tajriba muayyan kardan mumkin ast.

Ba zarfi tunukagin andak khok andokhta, dar boloi otash metafsonem. Porukhoki tarkibi khok mesuzad va rangi khok ravshantob meshavad. YAk qismi khoki tafsondashudaro ba zarfi shishagin andokhta, ba on ob rekhta, omekhta mekunem. Obi zarf tira meshavad, zero zarrahoi gil yak muddati muayyan muallaq meistand, ammo reg ba zudy tahshin meshavad. Agar obi zarfro rekhta, obshuii tahshinro yakchand

marotiba davom dihem, dar zarf regi toza boqi memonad. Hamin tavr, dar khok porukhok, reg va gil mavjud ast.

Agar obi tiraro az kogazi poloishi guzaronida, az obi sofi on yakchand qatra ba boloi shishapora chakkonda, dar boloi otash bukhor kunem, dar rui shishapora dogi safedtob boqi memonad. In moddahoi madanii dar ob nagz halshavandai khok ast 30 . Dar tarkibi khok inchunin ob va havo ham hast. Namii khokro, hatto dast rasonda, ba osoni pay burdan mumkin ast. Agar kulukhmaydaro ba ob dokhil kunem, havo doshtani khokro ba zudi dark mekunem. Dar in holat az kulukhmayda khubobchahoi havo chudo meshavand.

Hamin tavr, nashunamoi boavj va hosili dilkhoh dodani rastanihoi kishovarzi ba hosilkhezii khok vobastagi dorad. Binobar in, muhofizat va korkardi durusti oqilonai zamin, behtar kardani tarkibu sokhtori khok baroi parvarishu ruyondani hosili balandi rastaniho doroi ahamiyati avvalindaraja ast.

Tiramoh pas az jamovarii hosil zaminro shudgor mekunand. In imkoniyat medihad, ki nami dar khok beshtar nigoh doshta shuda, boqimondahoi rastanihoi zeri khok aftoda dar natijai pusish ba porukhok tabdil yoband.

  1. Resha dar hayoti rastaniho chi ahamiyat dorad?
  2. Reshai gandum va qoqu chi guna sokht dorand?
  3. Tirresha az patakresha bo chi farq mekunad?
  4. Kadom reshahoro asosi, ilovagi va pahlui meguyand?
  5. Hok chist?
  6. Porukhok chi tavr hosil meshavad?
  7. Hok ba juz porukhok boz chiho dorad?
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