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Harakati ob va moddahoi madani dar rastaniho

CHi tavre ki shumo allakay medoned, ob va moddahoi madaniro rastani az khok ba tufayli muyakreshahoyash mejabbad. Dar khok ob dar shakli kholis vujud nadorad. Vay metavonad dar shakli mahluli khoki, ki namakhoi madanii dar ob halshavanda dorad, dastrasi rastaniho gardad. Minbad dar rastani ba mahluli in moddaho chi hodisa ruy medihad? Baroi ba in savol javob dodan, meboyad ba sokhti darunii resha shinos shavem.

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Agar az qitai (juzi) jabbishi resha pardai tunukero kundalang burida girem va dar zeri mikroskop az nazar guzaronem, mebinem, ki resharo qabati makhsusi hujayraho pushidaast: baze hujayraho baromadkhoi daroz doshta, onho az resha ba har taraf raftaand. Inho muyakreshahoyand. Muyakreshaho pardai tunuki luobi va vakuolai kaloni markazi dorand. Darozii muyakreshaho az 0,1 to ba 1,5 mm merasad. Dar baze rastaniho, masalan, gandum to 8-9 mm darozi dorad. Miqdori muyakreshaho dar rastaniho nihoyat ziyod ast. Masalan, dar 1 mm2 sathi jabbandai reshai gandum az 50 to 100 adad muyakreshaho vomekhurand.

Dar zeri boftai pushishi tunuk, ki dar onho muyakreshaho mavjudand, hujayrahoi pustlokh joy giriftaand. Onho shaklu andozahoi gunogun dorand. Dar markazi pardachai kundalang buridaamon boshad, surokhihoi mudavvar namudorand. Inho raghoyand, yane hujayrahoi darozi lifofaashon gafsu darunkholiand. Ragho qadqadi resha to miyonajoyash tul kashida, ba poyai rastaniho rafta merasand. Tavassuti ragho obu moddahoi madanii ba muyakreshaho dokhilgardida to poyai rastaniho ovarda meshavand. Har kadom rag az yakchand hujayrahoi murda iborat buda, onho naychai darozi da- runkholiro ba vujud meovarand va jildi mustahkami chubshuda dorand. In hujayraho boloi ham, nisbat ba tiri resha mutavozi, joygirand. Moddahoi zindai in hujayraho vayron gashta, faqat lifofai onho, ki devori kundalang nadorad, boqi mondaast.

Ob va moddahoi madanii dar on halshuda az hujayrahoi muyakreshador ba hujayrahoi pustlokhi resha zahida (makida shuda) meguzarand va az on jo az yak hujayra ba hujayrai digar guzashta, ba ragho dokhil meshavand va tavassuti onho ba poya va bo ragi poya (boftahoi guzaronandai poya) to ba barghoi rastani, yane qismi ruizaminii on harakat mekunand.

Raghoi reshai baze rastaniho kalon buda, onkhoro bo yorii purbin didan mumkin ast. Surokhii raghoi in guna rastaniho nisbatan kalon meshavand. Masalan, andozai (qutri) raghoi reshai darakhti zaboni gunjishk (shung) qarib 1/3 mm buda, azoni reshai kadu boshad, az in ham ziyod ast.

  1. Muyakreshaho chi guna sokht va vazifa dorand?
  2. Ragho dar reshai rastaniho chi tavr joygir shudaand va chi ahamiyat dorand?
  3. Hangomi burishi kundalangii juzi jabbishi resharo dar zeri mikroskop didan, ragho chi guna menamoyand?
  4. ob va moddahoi madanii dar on halshuda tavassuti ragho to ba kujo harakat mekunand?
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