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Harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqi Misr

Ba moliyai Misr nazorati evropavihoro jori namudan, zada giriftani mansabhoi muhimtarini davlati nisbati khorijiyon oppozitsiyai jiddiero ba vujud ovard, az on jumla dar artishi Misr.

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Mohi mayi soli 1880 guruhi afsaron bo rohbarii Ahmad Arabi (minbad uro Ahmad Arabposhsho nom mebarem) ba nomi vaziri harbi bo etiroznomae murojiat kardand. Harchand vazorati harbi shikoyati in guruhro durust hisobid, lekin bo vujudi in taqiboti afsaroni shikoyatkarda ogoz yoft. Mohi yanvari soli 1881 Ahmad Arabposhsho va guruhi u az nav, in dafa bo talabnoma, ba shuroi vaziron murojiat kardand. Dar on istefoi vaziri harbi va taftishi jiddii tartibi ba afsaron dodani rutbai harbi talab karda meshud. Hukumat qaror kard, ki Ahmad Arabposhsho va jonibdoroni uro bo rohi fireb ba dom aftonda, ba dodgokhi harbi dihad. Vale polkhoi Qohira binoero, ki Arabposhsho va hamsafoni u dar on jo bozdosht shuda budand, muhosira namuda, dastgirshudagonro ozod kardand. Bad polkhoi shurishbardoshta ba qasri khidev rafta, az nav istefoi vaziri harbiro taqozo kardand. SHurishgaron ba khalq ham murojiat kardand, ki onho chi mekhohand.

Kanali Suets. Inshiogn kaloni gidrotekhnikii asri XIX.

Solhoi 1859 – 1869 sokhta shudaast. Tamomi kor dasti ijro meshud. Hangomi sokhtmon qarib 120 hazor kas halok shudaast. Avval 53 foiz sahmiyahoi shirkati kanal ba Faronsa, 44 foiz ba Misr taaluq doshgand, ki soli 1875 onhoro ba Angliya furukht.

Vaziri harbi az vazifaash sabukdush karda shuda, ba joi u Mahmud Same Albarudi tayin gardid. Gayr az in dar zeri rohbarii Arabposhsho baroi taftishi tartibi dar artish dodani rutbahoi harbi komissiyai makhsus tashkil karda shud. Bo in roh khidev Tavfiq khost, ki shurishgaronro fireb dihad.

In vaqt Arabposhsho bo rohbaroni ziyodi siyosi va namoyandagoni ziyoiyoni milli vomekhurad. Dar in vokhuriho masalai istiqloliyati Misr ham barrasi shud. Harchand hukumat baroi bo rohi osoishta barham dodani munoqisha choraho meandeshid (masalan, ba afsaron sari vaqt mohona va rutbahoro boadolatona medodagi shud), bo vujudi in bo maslihati mushovironi evropavi qaror karda shud, ki ba har rohe boshad, az Arabposhsho khalos shavad. Baroi hamin farmon doda shud, ki polkhoi isyongar az poytakht ba joi durtar – ba Iskandariya va Diametta ravon karda shavand. Vaziri harbi ijroi in qarorro rad namud. Baroi sarkashi khidev uro az vazifa sabukdush karda, ba joi u shakhsi irtijoiero vaziri navi harbi tayin namud.

Mohi sentyabri hamon sol az nav farmon doda shud, ki polk­hoi isyongar ba joi muayyanshuda ravand, vale Arabposhsho ba in farmon itoat nakard. Polkhoi garnizoni Qohira boz ba sui qasri khidev rahsipor shudand. In dafa Arabposhsho talab kard, ki hukumati irtijoi ba istefo ravad va dar mamlakat konstitutsiya jori namuda, parlament davat karda shavad. Ziyod kardani artish niz ba ruykhati talabhoi shurishgaron dokhil bud. Hidev in talabhoro qabul kard, chunki iloji digar nadosht.

Tabadduloti Arabposhsho ba evropaviho maqul nashud. Baroi hamin rohhoi gunogunro ba kor meburdand, to ki Misr az tobeiyati onho khalos nashavad. Az on jumla, bo rohi harbi ham.

Dar jangi ziddi Angliya ba quvvahoi musallahi Misr Arabposhsho sarvari mekard. Soli 1882 badi muhoribahoi  shadid anglisho avval Iskandariyayu Kanali Suets va bad shahri Qohiraro ba dast darovardand. Badi in khidevi Misr Tavfiqi jonibdori Angliya, ki ba Iskandariya firor karda bud, az nav ba Qohira bargashta, Arabposhshoro az vazifaash sabukdush kard. Arabposhsho ba anglisho taslim shud. Hukumatdoron va anglisho taqiboti ishtirokchiyoni harakati ozodikhohiro cap kardand. Arabposhsho va hamsafoni nazdiki uro dodgohi ru ba Angliyai Misr ba qatl hukm kard. Bad hukmi qatli Arabposhsho ba badargai yakumra ba Seylon ivaz karda shud. Vatandustoni ziyode ba khoriji kishvar firor kardand. Anglisho ba Misr ba mablagi 9 mln f.-st. tovoni jang bor kardand. Badi shikasti Arabposhsho Misr dar amal az soli 1882 ba mustamlikai Angliya tabdil yoft, harchand huquqi baynalkhalqii on misli peshtara mondan girift, yane Misr mustamlikai imperiyai Turkiya bud.

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