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Harakathoi milli dar Ispaniya

Rushdi iqtisody dar Ispaniya masalai milliro tezu tund kard. To okhirhoi asri XIX rafti tashakkulyobii millati baskho va galisiho asosan anjom yoft. Bo hamin sabab shumorai harakathoi milli dar se viloyati mamlakat – Kataloniya, Baskoniya va Galitsiya afzud. Bo sababi on ki dar Kataloniya va Baskoniya munosibathoi sarmoyadory afzuda, tabaqahoi proletariat va burjuaziyaro tashakkul dodand, dar bayni oikho muboriza vusat yoft. Dar okhirhoi asri XIX dar tamomi Ispaniya dar sanoat hamagi 243 867 nafar korgaroiu khizmatchiyon kor mekardand, ki qarib nisfi onho az Kataloniya va Baskoniya budand.

Soli 1892 namoyandagoni burjuaziyai millii Kataloniya dar Manres dar assambleya jam omada, barnomai harakati millii Kataloniyaro kor karda baromadand, ki on “Asoshon Manres” nomida shudaast. Burjuaziyam Kataloniya korteshoi mukhtorero, ki dar sohahoi andozsitoni, maorif, qonunguzorii shahrvandy, jinoy va tijoraty hokimiyati qonunguzoriro dorand, talab mekardand.

Burjuaziyam kaloni bask dar sari harakati millim Baskoniya istoda. Hizbi millim baskhoro tashkil namud. Ba in hizb muyassar shud, ki tabaqahoi vasei aholiro ba zeri tasiri khud darorad. Bo sababi on ki dar sanoati kuhii madankorkunii Baskoniya mablagguzorii Angliya kalon bud, burjuaziyam in mintakai Ispaniya to yak daraja ba imperializmi anglis tobe gardid.

Janghoi Ispaniya dar mustamlikaho. Bad az shikast khurdani inqilobi solhoi 1854- 1856-i Ispaniya hukumati in davlat siyosati mustamlikazabtkuniro idoma dod. On dar tajovuzi Faronsa ba muqobili Vetnam faolona shirkat varzid. Inchunin ba Meksika lashkar kashid. Lekin har duy in iqdomi irtijoy dar siyosati khoriji ba Ispaniya yagon foida naovardand. Soli 1860 artishi Ispaniya yak qismi Marokashro zabt namud. Jumhurii Dominikan az tarafi artishi Ispaniya ishgol karda shud, lekin badi yakchand sol Ispaniya majbur shud, ki onro tark namoyad. Ispaniyai zaifshuda baroi ishgoli mustamlikahoi kalon quvvan Harbii zarury nadosht. Dar mustamlikahoi kuhnai on va makhsusan dar Kuba harakati ozodikhohi meafzud. Vaziyati dokhilii Ispaniya niz khub nabud. Soli 1857 dar Andaluziya shurishi kishovarzon va solhoi 1861 – 1862 dar muzofotkhoi digari mamlakat ham shurishkhho ba amal omadand. Onho dar in marhala siyosati khorijii Ispaniyaro zaif gardonidand.

Dar okhirhoi asri XIX Ispaniya majbur bud, ki baroi dar dasti khud nigoh doshtani mustamlikaho dar on joyho bar ziddi harakati milliyu ozodikhohi muboriza barad, az on jumla, dar Kuba, Filippin va Puerto-Riko, Janghoi Ispaniya makhsusan dar Kuba va Filippin ba iqtisodiyoti Ispaniya zarbai sakht zadand. Dar Kataloniya fabrikaho basta meshudand, yo ki vaqti mahdud kor mekardand. Jang mablagkhoi kalonro taqozo mekard va shumorai ziyodi odamonro ba domi khud mekashid. To soli 1897 Ispaniya ba Kuba naddiki 20(H)()0 nafar, ba Filippin 25000 nafar va ba Puerto-Riko – 4480 nafar odamonro ravon kardaast.

Dar okhirhoi asri XIX sari rohi siyosati khorijii Ispaniyaro IMA girift. On aknun ba mustamlikahoi ispany dastdarozy mekard. Istiloi IMA ba Kuba. Puerto-Riko, Guam va jazirahoi Filippin pahn shudan girift. Mohi yanvari soli 1898 I MA ba Ispaniya peshnihod kard, ki Kubaro ba mablagi 300 mln. dollar ba vay bifurushad, vale Ispaniya in savdoro rad kard. Baroy hamin dere naguzashta IMA bar ziddi Ispaniya jang cap kard, ki dar on lashkari Ispaniya torumor karda shud. Muvofiqi Sozishnomai sulhe, ki 10 dekabri soli 1898 dar Parij ba imzo rasid, Ispaniya az istiqloliyati khud bar Kuba dast kashid va inchunin Puerto- Riko va Guamro ba IM A vo guzosht. Filippinro boshad, ba mablagi 20 mln dollar ba IM A furukht.

Ispaniya digar az uhdai idora kardani mustamlikahoi khud baromada nametavonist. Az hamin sabab Mohi fevrali soli 1899 mustamlikahoi durdasti khudro dar Uqyonusi Orom (jazirahoi Korolin va Marian) ba Germaniya furukht. Mustamlikahoi okhirini on tarafi ukyonusro az dast dodan manoi shikasti siyosati mustamlikadorii Ispaniya dar okhiri asri XIX hisob meyoft. Sababi asosii in shikast aqibmonii siyosiyu iqtisody va ijtimoii Ispaniya bud.

Vaziyati iqtisodii Ispaniya dar ogozi asri XX. Dar ogozi asri XX sarfi nazar az aqibmonii iqtisody dar Ispaniya sohahoi alohidai iktisodiyot va pesh az hama, sanoat, rohhoi ohan va munosibathoi moliyu puly yak kadar pesh raftand. Misli davlathoi peshqadami Evropa dar Ispaniya niz inhisorkho tavlid meyoftand, ba monandi “Jamiyati metallurgii Duro-Felgera”, “Jamiyati Altos-Ornos” va “Jamiyati moshinsozy va metallurgii Aragon”. Soli 1907 oid ba sokhtani floti harbiyu bahry inhisori “ Jamiyati kishtisozii Ispaniya” tashkil karda shud. Dar sanoati metallurgi ham boloravin juzy mushohida karda shud. Solhon 1900   -1909 gudoznshi pulod qarib du barobar,

chuyan 4,5 barobar. istehsoln sement 2.5 barobar. dar solhoi 1900 – 1913 istehsoli angisht ziyoda az 1,5 barobar afzud.

Dar sanoati sabuk ham peshravy ba nazar merasid. Dar in namudi sanoat niz markazonidani istehsolot ba amal meomad. Korkhonahoi khurd va miyonai sanoati sabuk ba korkhonahoi kalon muttahid shuda, kartelhoro tashkil menamudand.

Vaziyati dokhilii Ispaniya dar avvali asri XX. SHikasti Ispaniya dar jangi ziddi I MA va jangho dar mustamlikaho vazi Dokhilii mamlakatro boz ham mushkiltar gardonidand. Doirahoi vasei aholy islohoti iqtisodiro taqozo menamudand. Masalai muhimtarin baroni jamiyati Ispaniya masalai moliya bud. Qarzi

davlatii Kuba muvofiqi Sozishnomai sulhi Parij az etibor soqit karda nashud. In karz qarib 3 mlrd pesetaro tashkil mekard, ki on asosan puli sahmiyahoi kharidai khorijiyon bud. In qarz ba gardani Ispaniya zam karda shud.

Kalisoi katolik yake az molikiyatdoroni kalontarini Ispaniya bud. vale on ba davlat andoz namesuporid, chunki az pardokhti andoz ozod karda tuda bud. In norozigii ahli jamiyati mamlakatro ba vujud ovard. Dar ogozi asri XX dar Ispaniya 3253 dayr mavjud bud, ki dar onho 50 600 nafar mardho va zanhoi rohib zindagy mekardand.

Mohi fevrali soli 1901 ba sari hokimiyat liberalho omadand. Onho majbur shudand, ki baze islohotho guzaronand. Soli 1902 qonun dar borai mahdud kardani huquqi muassisahoi diny dar kori talim qabul karda shud. Hudi hamon sol huquqi korgaron baron korpartoy etirof gardid. Vale in choraho harakati ijtimoiro dar mamlakat past karda na tavonistand. Ba hamin sabab mohi dekabri soli 1902 hukumati liberalho ba istefo raft.

Rejimi mutlaqiyat dar Ispaniya az buhronn darozmuddat khalos nameshud. Dar in bora tez-tez ivazshavii hukumat niz shahodat medihad. Dar zarfi solhon 1903 – 1907 ivazshavni hukumati Ispaniya 9 marotiba ba amal omadaast. Dar khudi hamin davra ba joni shoh Alfonsi XII (1903- 1931) 4 marotiba suiqasd tashkil karda shud. Na Hizbi Konservatorho va na Hizbi liberalho rohhoi az buhron barovardani Ispaniyaro namedonistand. Lekin har duy onho ham dar boram bo rohi islohot az buhron barovardani mamlakat avomfirebona lof mezadand, lekin natijai in lofzaniho hej bud.

Dar davrai to ogozi Jangi yakumi jahoni vazi dokhilii chamiyatiyu siyosii Ispaniya mutadil nabud. Ba har hol dar on davra dar mamlakat islohoti juzii iqtisody ba amal barovarda shud, lekin on tamomi sistemam iqtisodiyu moliyavii mamlakatro faro nagirift. Az in ru, in islohot natijai dilkhoh nadod va doda ham nametavonist.

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