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Haykali Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni

Nosiri Husrav soli 1004 dar shahri Qubodiyon, ki dar qismi janubii Tojikistoni imruza joygir ast, dar khonavodai dehqon ba dunyo omadaast. Nomi purrai u chunin ast: Abumuiniddin Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni. Ayon ast, ki nomash Nosir, nomi padarash Husrav, takhallusash Abumuiniddin va Qubodiyoni nisbaash meboshad. Padarash dehqon bud va Nosiri Husrav barobari yod giriftani kori dehqoni, khatu savod ham barovard. Qayd kardan lozim ast, ki dar on zamonho shakhsi badavlatu moldorro dehqon meguftand va onho dar nazdi digar tabaqahoi jomea obrui kalon doshtand. Bad az in Nosir dar maktab malumoti ibtidoiro girifta, pas az on tahsilro dar madrasai Balkh davom dod.

Haykali Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni dar n. Qubodiyoni
Haykali Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni dar n. Qubodiyoni

Dar davomi tahsil makhsusan ba omuzishi ilmhoi falsafa, mantiq va tabiatshinosi beshtar mayl zohir mekard. Nosiri Husrav solhoi 30-yumi asri XI hamchun shoir va olimi zabardast nom barovard. Muddate dar dargohi Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi dar korhoi mamurii moliyavi khizmat kardaast. Soli 1037 dar Huroson tabadduloti davlati ogoz yoft. Nosiri Husrav muddate dar devoni moliyoti Saljuqiyon khizmat namudaast. Nosiri Husrav bar zammi khizmati darbor, bo korhoi dehqoni niz mashgul bud. Ohista — ohista khizmati darbori ba dilash zad, chunki dar khizmat taziqu fishor va az fosidon badi medid.

Dusti haqiqii begarazro nadosht, kasero ki medid, khushomadguyu riyokor buda, baroi khud bahrae mejust. Nosiri Husrav in guna dustoni riyokorro chashmi didan nadosht va az onho khudro dur medosht. Hamai in sabab shudand, ki u tarki khizmati darbor namuda, ba safar tayyori did. Maqsadi safar kardanash shinos shudan bo hayot va zistu zindagonii mardum, tabiati kishvarho, shahrho bud va inchunin u mekhost bo mundarija va talimoti mazhabi ismoiliya dar mintaqahoi gunogun shinos shavad. Ismoiliyon yak shokhai mashhuri shiiyon dar asrhoi X—XII budand. Nosiri Hisrav ba in mazhab az on sabab mayl dosht, ki onho ba rivoji ilmu donish diqqat medodand va tarafdori ozodfikri budand.

Nosiri Husrav molu mulkashro ba bechoragon taqsim karda, soli 1045 bo barodarash Abusaid ba safar baromad. In safarash 7 sol davom karda, u az Eroni Garbi, Iroq va Arabistonu Misrdidan kard. Dar in muddat Nosiri Hisrav jarayoni ismoiliyaro beshtar omukhta, khud targibgari in jarayon shud. Soli 1052Nosiri Husrav ba Huroson bargasht. Vay boz kori dehqoniashro ba roh monda, aknun payvasta dar bayni mardum mazhabi ismoiliyaro tashviqu targib mekard, ki in qahru gazabi sunniparastonro ba amal ovard.

Nosiri Husrav ba taqib duchor shud va dar Huroson zistani u khavfnok gardid. Vay dar chand joygoh panoh burda va oqibat ba kuhistoni durdasti Badakhshon, darai YUmgon, dar panohi mardumi olihimmati Badakhshon boqimondai umrashro guzaronid. Nosiri Husrav dar garibi va dur az vatani ajdodi khudro norohat his mekard, mulki Hurosonro yod mekard, bar zammi on dar in jo imkoniyati shugli dehqoni ham nabud. Nosiri Husrav digar ba Huroson bargashta natavonist. Vay qarib hamai asarhoyashro dar hamin jo navishta, onhoro ba mulkhoi digar ravon kardaast. Soli 1088 Nosiri Husrav dar YUmgon az olam chashm pushid.

Harita az Safarnomai(forsi: سفرنامه‎)-e Nosiri Husrav

Ejodiyot[viroish]

Kitobi Safarnoma mushohidahoi navisandaro az safari haftsola bo nasri ravonu soda inikos kardaast. In asar ahamiyati badeiyu tarikhi dorad, hodisahoi on vokei meboshand. Navisanda har on chizero, ki dar safar didaast va taassurote, ki hosil kardaast, hamon khel aynan bayon namudaast. Masalan, dar sifati shahri Baytulmuqaddas (Ierusalim) menavisad: «SHahrest bar sari kuhe nihoda va ob nest, magar az boron va dar rustoho ob ast, ammo ba shahr nest. In shahr bar sari sang nihodaast va shahri buzurg ast, on vaqt ki didam, bist hazor mardum dar vay budand. Va bozorhoi neku va binohoi oli dorad va hama zamini shahr bar takhtasanghoe farsh andokhta va har kujo kuh budaast va balandi buridaand va hamvor karda chunon ki boron borad, khama zamin pokiza shusta shavad». Dar Safarnoma Nosiri Husrav manzarahoi tabiati kishvarhoi gunogun, ananahoi mardum, obodii shahrhoro ba tavri mufassal naql kardaast.

Devoni ashori Nosiri Husrav az qasidahoi mazhabi, falsafavi va ijtimoi, gazalkho, ruboiho va qitaho iborat buda, 11000 baytro tashkil medihad.

«Rushnoinoma» masnaviest iborat az 592 bayt va on dar muddati yak hafta ejod shudaast . Dar in asar masalahoi akhlokiyu falsafi inikos gardidaand.

«Saodatnoma» az 300 bayt iborat buda, qisman takror va qisman davomi «Rushnoinoma» meboshad . Dar on aqidahoi pandu akhloki, dar borai munosibati bayni odamon, dar borai mehnat va ahli mekhnat, avliyo va hukamo, aql va imon, dar borai tanhoi, tarki dunyo va qanoat, mazammati sinfi hokim va muftkhuron aqidahoi arzishmand izhor shudaand .

Dar ejodiyoti Nosiri Hisrav pandu nasihat bisyor vomekhurad:

Dar mavridi bayoni ahamiyati pandu andarz:

 

Nasihat bishnav ar talkh oyad az yor,
Ki dar okhir ba shirini rasad kor.

 

Dar borai aybi khudro didan va digaronro ayb nakardan:

 

Makun aybi kason, gar metavoni,
Ki tu, ey dust, aybi khud nadoni.

 

Oidi nekiro faromush nakardan:

 

Kase, k-u bo tu neki kard yak bor ,
Hamesha on nakui yod medor .

 

Oidi donishomuzi:

 

Sar andar justani donish nihodam ,
Nakardam ruzgori khesh bebar
Namond az hej gun donish, ki man z-on
Nakardam istifodat beshu kamtar.

 

Andar sifoti kasbu hunar:

 

Beh az sannoi olam dehkon ast,
Ki vakhshu tayrro rohatrason ast.
Jahonro khurrami az dehqon ast,
Ki vakhshu tayrro rohatrason ast.

 

Hakimi buzurg[viroish]

 

Nosiri Husravi shohi banda navoz,
Iskandaramu sagi tuyam az darvoz
Har kas, ki ba dargohi tu oyad ba niyoz.
Navmed zi dargohi tu kay gardad boz.

(ejodiyoti dahonii khalq)

 

Ba piri khizmati modar padar kun,
Javoniyu junun az sar badar kun.
Mazan tana bar eshon az dili ser,
Ki to yobi zamon gardi tu ham pir.

 

Zi pasi Fotimiyon rav, ki ba farmoni Hudo,
Ummatonro zi pasi jadu padar rahbarand.
Ey pisar, dini Muhammad ba masal chun jasadest,
Ki ba in shuhra jasad Fotimiyon hamchu sarand.

Nosiri Husrav
 

Fuzun khohi baqo, dilho mayozor,
Ki doim derzi boshad kamozor…
Hamsha nekkhohi mardumon bosh,
Ba neki kush v-on gah dar amon bosh.
Muruvvat nest, ar aftodagone,
Ba rah binivu khud markab bironi.
Zi nekon bosh, andar nekui kush,
Makun nekii kas az dil faromush.
Ba nekon umri sozu barg khohad,
Badonro khalqi olam marg khohad.
Ruze zi sari sang uqobe ba havo khost,
Az bahri tama bolu pari khesh biyorost.
Ba rostii bol nazar kardu chunin guft:
«Imruz hama ruyi zamin zeri pari most!»
Gar avj bigaram biparam az nazari shed,
Mebinam agar zarrae andar tagi daryost.
Gar bar sari khoshok yake pasha bijunbad,
Junbidani on pasha ayon dar nazari most.
Bisyor mani kardu zi taqdir natarsid,
Bingar, ki az in charkhi jafopesha chi barkhost.
Nogah zi kamingoh yake sakhtkamone,
Tire zi qazovu qadar andokht bar u rost.
Bar boli uqob omada on tiri jigarsuz,
V-az abr mar-uro ba suyi khok furu kost.
Bar khok biaftodu bigaltid chu mohi,
V-on goh pari khesh kashid az chapu az rost.
Gufto: «Ajab ast in, ki zi chub astu zi ohan,
In tezivu tundivu paridan-sh kujo khost».
Bar tir nigoh kardu pari khesh bar u did,
Gufto: «Zi ki nolem, ki az most, ki bar most».
Hujjat tu maniro zi sari khesh badar kun,
Bingar ba uqobe, ki mani kardu chiho khost.
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