Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / Hahonbini va akidahoi ijtimoi – akhloqii Bedil

Hahonbini va akidahoi ijtimoi – akhloqii Bedil

Malum ast, ki zeri mafhumi jahonbini sistemai falsafii talimoti adibi mutafakkir fahmida meshavad. Az in nigoh, ejodiyoti Bedil va sistemai jahonbinii u bo talimoti islomi sharif muqobil nest. Zero u jonibdori talimoti falsafai vahdati vujud buda, haddi nihoii on Holiq-hastii mutlaq va azali va suni u makhluq-odam juyon asli khesh ast.

Az in ru, Bedil insonro hamajoniba dar markazi ejod meguzorad. Onro hamchun asrori olami sagir ba tasvir megirad: «Ay shami bazmi quds, nadonam chi mahzari»… Qiyoshoe, ki baroi marifati inson ba kor girifta meshavad, goliban ba olami moddi taalluq doshta, tajribagohi on zindagi, hayot, ruzgor va tabiat ast. In ast, ki insoni tasvirkardai Bedil payvasta dar giru dor, radu badal buda, doirai amaliyotu faoliyatash pur az nizo, tazod, mukholifat, barkhurd ast. Nerui tafakkur, qudrati aqloni, zehnu zakovati in inson juyo, kusho va faol meboshad. Ilmu tadqiq, qiyosu tarjeh, sozandagiyu ikhtiro muhimtarin sifathoi faoliyati insoni tasvirkardai Bedil ast. Hadafi in inson:

«Olamero baroram az gaflat.»

Gaflat khosi jahoni insonist va dushmani hushyorivu zirakii inson ast. Az sababi on ki in inson olamero (jomearo) az gaflat azmi najotdihi dorad, pas tibqi talimot va jahonbinii Bedil, barkhurdhoi mafkuravi, ziddiyathoi botini, nizohoi sirati ikhtilofhoi manavii nihoyat ajoib va bozyofti shoiri mutafakkir ast, ki boisi kashfi juziyoti afkori akhloqiyu falsafi va adabiyu zeboshinosii mutafakkir ast. Binobar on, inhitotu inqirozi manavi va yo rushdu tahavvuli on ba ogohi yo gofilii inson sakht vobastagi dorad.

Bedil ham misli kulli adiboni asrimiyonagi jonibdori akhloqi hamida va barhamzanandai akhloqi razila ast. Zero akhloqi razila: rishva, zino, durug, kibr, qatl, fireb, jahl, gazab, tanosoni, muftkhuri, khabarkashi, odambezori va gayra boisi zavvoli jomea ast. Akhloqi hamida: insondusti, rostqavli, vafodori, saburi, mehnatqarini, halolkori, khoksori, shikastanafsi, pokdomani, sakhovatmandi, sofdili va gayra sababi boloravii manaviyoti inson va jomea meboshad.

Dar talimoti akhloqii Bedil ejodi bade hamchun ifodagari tafakkuri inson – manaviyoti u va to ba haddi balandi fikri rasidani on donista meshavad. Ba nazari Bedil, donishu ilm irsi nest va na har kas baroi idroki mani omoda meboshad. Ba in mani shoir meguyad:

Ramzoshnoi mani har khirasar naboshad, Tabi salimi fazlat irsi padar naboshad.

Hadafi ejodkor az qazovati mazkur pesh az hama say, jidu jahd va kushishu harakat niz hast. Bedil chun abulmaoni ofarinishi maniro dar ejodi bade dar joi avval meguzorad. Az in khotir, hunari ejodkoru takhayyuli ejodi janbai markazii sherro tamin menamoyad.

Az in ru, u ashori madhiro khush nadorad va hatto sakht nakuhish ham mekunad:

Ay baso manii ravshan, ki zi hirsi shuaro,

Hoki javlongahi aspu khari ahli joh ast.

V-ay baso nuskha, ki dar maktabi tashvishi tama,

Rusiyohi adab az madhi amiru shoh ast.

Marjai manii in sustkhayolon daryob,

To bidoni chi qadar fitratashon kutoh ast.

Sila mushtoqi gadotab zi mazmuni baland,

Gar hama poy bar aflok nihad, dar choh ast.

Bedili Dehlavi adibonero, ki istedodro khor kardaand va hunarro tobei zar donistaand, sakht tanqid menamoyad. Asosi ejodiyoti onhoro hirsu tama faroham meoradu hadafi onho az ejodi bade ba juz tama va choplusi chizi digare nest, nosazo meguyad:

Dar lafzi tust manii kavnayn mundarij,

Bahri chi bar haqiqat khud pay namebari?

Obi hayot az nafasat mavj mezanad,

Ammo chi sud, k-az araqi movu man tari.

Gofil zi khud mabosh, ki chun shami oftob

Iqboli haft mahfilu nuh qasri akhzari.

Kavnu makon gulest ba domoni himmatat,

Hudro agar ihota kuni, charkhi digari.

Olam hama musakhkhari amri zamiri tust,

Ay bekhabar, tu az chi havoro musakhkhari,

Az hech kas nayam silaandeshi beshu kam,

Maddohi fitratam na Zahiram, na Anvari.

Albatta, pandu akhloq, andarzu nasihat dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors- tojik yake az mavzuhoi jovidona ast. Hatto adibe nest, ki ba in masala dast nazada boshad. Ba farmudai Sadii SHerozi:

Murodi mo nasihat budu guftem,

Havolat bo Hudo kardemu raftem.

Az in ru, hadaf qaror dodani mavzu nav nest, yane intikhobi mavzu sunnati boshad ham, marifat va rohi halli masala tozavu nav meboshad. U ba masalai akhloqu tarbiya nazari toza dorad. Voqean ejodiyoti Bedil inikosi marhalai navi ehyogarii adabiyoti tojik ast, ki ba qonunmandii holati siyosi-tarikhi, ijtimoi-akhloqi, farhangi- adabi, falsafi-estetiki sakht vobastagi dorad. Ravandhoi mazkur saravval jahonbiniyu marifati martabai insonro muayyan mekard. In nakhustin asre bud, ki Garb siyosati khudro mekhost dar qalamravi Hinduston jori sozad. YAne barkhurdhoi mafkuravi niz dar in davra khele tezutund gardida bud. Garb baroi poydor sokhtani siyosati khud jonibdori khuruji nizohoi mazhabi miyoni khalqhoi in qalamrav bud. Az in ru, Bedil ba maqomu martabai inson, manaviyotu shuuri u, hissu darku marifati shakhs tavajjuhi makhsus dorad. Bedil jonibdori nizohoi mazhabi nest. Dar talimote falsafii u, ki sarchashmaash islom ast, Holiq ofaranda va makhluq ofaridashuda ast. Holiq azali va jovid buda, makhluq fonist. Vale dar janbi makhluq amolu afoli mutazod nihon ast. In ast, ki makhluq doroi sifathoi noqisu komil, kamu ziyod, mavzunivu nomavzuni, shaytonivu rahmoni va gayra ast. Bedil dar robita ba intikhobi janbahoi akhloqi hamida va amali khayr insonro mukhtor medonad. Inson metavonad bo rohi nek rafta zindagii khudro behtar namoyad. Hadaf az omuzishi nek sayqal dodani shuuru tafakkur ast, to inson tagoful navarzad, gofil namonad. Ba in mni meguyad:

Man ham az kasbi ilm khursandam,

Lek bo maqsadest payvandam.

K-az usuli madoriki hikmat

Olamero baroram az gaylat.

Az in nigoh, burdu bokhti jamiyat natijai ziraki yo gofilii inson donista meshavad. U jonibdori insoni kusho, zaki, juyo, sohibmarifat meboshad, zero chunin inson sohibi istiqloli fikru andesha ast va metavonad ba maqsad birasad:

Kavnu makon gulest ba domoni himmatat,

Hudro agar ihota kuni, charkhi digari!

Bedil khamchun adibi mutafikkir qasidae dorad, ki dar on inson hamchun makhluqi muqaddas vasf gardida, khudshinosii on sakht takid karda meshavad.

Umuman dar in masala afkori falsafi – ijtimoii u khilofi shariati islomi nest va Bedil qazovati khudro dar hamin zamina asosnok mekunad. Tanho mutafakkir zohirparastiro sakht mahkum mesozad. Masalan, rishi az etidol berun, sallai kalon, libosi fokhirona va gayra, ki onho ifodagari manaviyotu donish nestand.

Ahamiyati ilm. Bedil ilmro yake az rohhoi khalosi az gaflatu jaholat medonad. Besh az in ilm, shakhsro sohibi bakhtu iqbol mesozad:

To fazlu hunar oinapardoz nashud,

Z-iqbol dare ba rui kas boz nashud.

Fulod ba ohan sharaf az javhar yoft,

Beilm zi jinsi khesh mumtoz nashud.

Ammo Bedil dar omuzishi ilm dar joi avval maqsadro meguzorad, ki hadaf az chunin shakl giriftani qazovat mukhtoriyati inson meboshad.

Ziyoni bekori. Kor omili asosii peshraft donista meshavad va Bedil takid mekunad, ki on chi inson pas az khud boqi meguzorad, samarai koru bori ust. Binobar on, odamon boyad ba korhoi baroi umum foidanoku nafrason mashgul shavand. Ba shugli behuda dast nazanand va ba khar kore, ki dast mezanand, natijai onro andesha kunand. Zero dar dunyo tanho natijai faoliyati inson maqomu martabai uro muayyan namuda, chiz digare dar in dunyo nametavonad bahoi sazovori shakhsiyati inson boshad. Bedil mahz bo nazardoshti koru bori inson nozu nemathoi digari dunyoro muvaqqati mehisobad:

Avvalu okhir on chi shud malum,

Koru bor ast, mobaqi[1] – madum[2].

Targibi khislathoi hamida. Bedil insoni nekukor, khayrkhoh, ilmdust, vatanparast, khalqdust, sohibmarifat, halim, furutanu khoksor, shirinsukhanu narmguftor, rostqavlu rostgu, vafodoru ustuvorro dar ejodiyotash vasf mekunad. CHunonchi, inson naboyad fireftai donishi khud shavad va ba kibru gurur ruy biyorad:

Harchand ba donish az jahon afzuni,

YO dar piri muallimi garduni.

Har goh ba peshi kas bari hojati khesh,

Tifli ba tu zebad, na aflotuni.

Bedil jonibdori hambastagiyu ittifoqi, yakdiliyu muttahidi buda, parokandagiyu nifoq, pareshonivu khusumatro tanqid mekunad:

YOron ba tifoq agar qadam meshikanand,

CHdyshi arabu ajam ba ham meshikanand.

Az qudrati ittifoq gofil nashavi,

Dandonho sangro ba ham meshikanand.

Ba nazari Bedil, himmatbalandi jolibtarinu nakutarin sifati inson ast. Agar shakhs himmati baland doshta boshad, hej dushvorie nametavonad sadi rohi u gardad. U naqshi hammatro az tajribahoi hayotu zindagi hosil kardaast. Az in ru, dar in bora baso dilpurona va bo bovarii tom qazovat menamoyad.

CHunonchi:

Himmat har jo besh kunad korero,

Dushvori nest hej dushvorero.

YAkchand falohate[3] ba kushish behad

Holi sozad zi sang kuhsorero.

Dar talimoti akhloqii Bedil ba himmatbalandi, shujoat, mardonagi, dilovari, notarsi, ustuvori, daleri, jasuri, tavajjuhi khosa zohir karda meshavad:

Dar tajribagohi odami sulhu nabard,

Himmat halli kadom mushkil, ki nakard.

Bedil khislathoi razilai insoniro sakht mahkum mekunad. U ba khusus mardumozori, choplusi, zolimi, berahmi, jahlu nodoni, harzagui, tanbali, serkhobi, purkhuri, sarvatparasti, kibru gurur va gayraro tanqid mekunad:

Zolim pushad libosi khunboftaro,

To zer kunad khasmi zanbunyoftaro.

Bo sangdilon shiori khud sakhti kun,

Bardor ba ohan ohani toftaro.

Tazodhoi ruzgor, noadolatihoi zimomdoron boisi kharobii khalq va mulk donista meshavad:

Ay noni tu garm, az tafi dilhoi kabob,

Az khijlati zulm boyadat gashtan ob.

To komi tu molida yak angusht asal,

Bunyodi hazor khona gashtast kharob.

Arzi chunin ohanghoi sokhti etirozi niz yake az khizmathoi Bedil ast, ki az haqguivu haqjui va haqbinii mutafakkir guvohi medihand.

Digar az khidmathoi tarikhii Bedil dar tarikhi ejodi bade az on iborat ast, ki u ba difoi kalomi bade mekhezad. SHoir roh namedihad, ki baze shuaroi tamakor sukhanro khoru beqadr kunand. Mamduhoni noloiqro sitoish kunandu silavu inom ba dast biyovarand. Hunaru kirdori onhoro peshai shaytoni va hamkori bo iblis mehisobad:

Ay, ki tarifi salotin kardai,

Mashqi talimi shayotin kardai.

CHist talimi shayotin? -Hubbi joh[4]

Ay shayotin murshidat[5], ruyat siyoh.

Dar afkori adabi – estetikii Bedil ba sukhan, sukhanvar va sukhanshunav tavajjuhi makhsus ba mushohida merasad. U shoironi maddoh – sila mushtoqonro khorkunandagoni kalom – gadotabon nom mebarad. Onho imruz sohibi molu sarvat va ganju nematand va albatta, in ruzake chand ast, vale fardo rusiyohu dar chohi zulmoniand. CHunonchi:

Ay baso manii ravshan, ki zi hirsi shuaro,

Hoki javlongahi aspu khari ahli choh ast.

V-ay baso nuskha, ki dar maktabi tashvishi tama, Rusi

yohi abad az madhi amiru shoh ast.

Sila mushtoqi gadotab zi mazmuni baland,

Gar hama poy bar aflok nihad, dar choh ast.

In ast, ki u ejodiyoti kheshro dar muqobili hamin guna sukhanvaron meguzorad va az ejodiyotash, ki umre khiradu donish, aqlu zakovatro sutudaast, iftikhor menamoyad. U hushdor medihad, ki az kase tama nakardaast va nakhohad kard va sangi malomatro jonibi Anvarivu Zahiri Foryobi havo medihad va meguyad:

Az hej kas nayam silaandeshi beshu kam,

Maddohi fitratam, na Zahiram, na Anvari…

Dustii khalqhoi qalamravi Hinduston va umuman parastishi inson niz yake az mavzuhoi markazii ejodiyoti Bedil meboshad. Makhsusan, dar holate ki ajnabiyon ba sarzamini Hinduston roh yofta budand va onho jonibdori nizohoi mazhabi, nooromii avzoi in kishvar budand. Az in jost, ki mutafakkir hushdor medihad, ki dusti va hambastagii mardum vositai najoti khalq va kishvar ba shumor meravad. Zero dasisakoron bahri amali gardonidani dasisahoi kheshu garazhoi nihoni ba har kore qodirand:

Umrest, ki dar arsai nayrangi garaz,

Dorad badu nek sulh yo jangi garaz.

Gar rabti[6] kalomi kufru din daryobi, Soz

i hama kuk[7]ast ba ohangi garaz.

Dar joi digar shoir holati khalqhoi kishvarro ba daste shabeh medonad, ki zeri sang mondaast. YAne hadaf noiloji buda, choraandeshiro noguzir mehisobad:

Domoni taalluqe ba chang omadaast,

K-in khalq ba zindoni farang omadaast.

Oson natavon kashid monandi nafas,

Daste, ki zi dil dar tagi sang omadaast.

[1]     Mobaqi – on chi boqi memonad.

[2]     Madum – adam, nesti.

[3]     Falohat – kishovarz.

[4]     Hubbi joh – mansabparasti, shuhratparasti.

[5]     Murshid – pir, shaykh.

[6]     Rabt – payvastagi, robita.

[7]     Kuk-muvofiq namudani ovozho dar musiqi, hamohangi,; jur.

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