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Hayoti ilmi va adabi dar nimai avvali asri XIX

Zaboni tojiki dar nimai yakumi asri XIX chi dar dastgohi davlati va chi dar rishtai adabiyotu korhoi idoravi mavqei asosiro ishgol mekard. Du navi maktab vujud dosht: maktabi ibtidoi va oli, yane Madrasa. Dar maktabho kudakon savod meomukhtand va tarbiya megiriftand. Talimu tadris ba zaboni tojiki va arabi bud. Muallimoni maktabho asosan domulloho namoyandagoni ruhoniyon budand, ki tabaqai bosavodtarini aholi hisob meyoftand. Talabagon asosan dar fasli tiramohu zimiston mekhondand.

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Dar madarasaho qarib tamomi darsho ba zaboni arabi guzashta, zaboni tojiki faqat baroi sharh va tarjumai baze darsho khidmat menamud. Dar in vaqt omukhtani ilmi fiqh, tafsiri kitobhoi muqaddas va sharhi kitobhoi darsii dinii asri miyona khele rivoj yoft. Ba hamin sabab muddati takhsili Madrasa nihoyat daroz shuda az 8 to 20 sol davom mekard. Maoshi mullobachaho, mudarrison, mutavvalli, khodimoni dar in dargoh khizmatkunanda va inchunin tamiri binoi Madrasa az daromadi zaminhoi vaqf bud.

Hatmkunandagoni Madrasa beshtar ba vazifai qozii shahru viloyatho, mufti (sharhdihandai qonunhoi shariat), imomi masjidho tain meshudand yo khud dastnavishoro nuskhabardori mekardand.

Dukhtaron imkoni dar madrasaho khondan nadoshtand va Madrasa baroi zanon vujud nadosht. Bibikhotuni (muallimai) maktabhoi zanona asosan zanoni mulloho va mudarrison budand. Dar Bukhoro, Samarqand, Huqand, Hujand, Uroteppa, Hisor Kulob, Panjakent, Konibodom va Garm madrasaho amal mekardand. Vale purquvvattarin va obrumandtarini talimgohho madrasahoi poytakhti amorat – shahri Bukhoro ba shumor meraftand. Bukhoro dar in davra markazi dini tamomi Osiyoi Miyona ba shumor meraft.

Dar nimai avvali asri XIX asarhoi mukhimi sokhai tarikh bakhshida ba sulolai mangitiya dar Bukhoro va sulolai khonadoni mingho dar Huqand navishta meshavand. Asarho oid ba tarikh asosan shakli voqeanigoriro ba khud girifta budand. Onho dar omukhtani hayoti asri XIX arzishi ziyod dorand. YAke az in guna sarchashmaho asari Muhammad YOqub «Gulshan-ul-muluk» meboshad. Muallifi in kitob az doirai darboriyon, shohid va ishtirokchii bevositai bisyor voqeahoi tarikhii zamonash bud. Az hamin sabab malumoti u ahamiyati tarikhi doshta, zamoni hukmronii mangitihoro to ahdi amir Nasrullo tavsif mekunad.

Gayr az asari mazkur baroi omukhtani tarikhi mahalho ba misli Panjakent, asari Mullo Jumaquli Urguti, mutakhallis ba Hamuli qobili qayd meboshad. Tarikhi khonhoi Huqand dar «Muntakhab-ut-tavorikh» nom asari Muhammadhakimkhon sharhu bayon yoftaast. Muallif khoharzodai khonhoi Huqand Olimkhon va Umarkhon buda, az ahvoli darbor khabar dosht va bisyor voqeahoro khamchun ishtirokchi va shohidi on ba qalam dodaast. Voqeahoi dar asar tasviryofta az zamoni hukmronii Norbutakhon (az soli 1770) to ayyomi saltanati Muhammadalikhon va qatli uro (soli 1842) faro giriftaand.

Asari Mullo Attor «Jahonnamo», ki soli 1810 talif yofta bud, asosan ba munosibati bayni amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Huqand bakhshida shudaast. Gayr az in, doir ba tarikhi davlati khonii Huqand, asarhoi digar, az qabili «Tarikhi SHohrukhi»-i Mullo Niyozmuhammad va «Tarikhi muhojiron»-i Dilshodi Barno navishta shudaand. Hamai asarhoi tarikhii nomburda ba zaboni tojiki talif yoftaand. Onho bisyor hodisa va voqeahoi tarikhiro aks namuda, baroi omukhtani tarikhi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona sarchashmai behtarin ba shumor meravand.

Dar nimai yakumi asri XIX dar poytakhti hamai khonigarihoi Osiyoi Miyona hayoti adabi dar avj bud. Dar khonigarihoi Bukhorovu Huqand ba du zabon – ba zaboni tojiki va uzbeki ejod mekardand. YAne shoironi zulisonayn ba vujud meoyand. Dar miyonai asri XVIII jarayoni tozae zuhur karda bud, ki dar asarhoi badina niz davom yofta, dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik ba nomi sabki bedili mashhur gasht.

Namoyandagoni in jarayon besh az hama ba tasavvufi Bedil taqlid menamudand. Sabki bedili mukallidoni peshqadami khudro dosht. Dar bayni payravoni Bedil odamone budand, ki dar asri XIX ejodiyoti khudro to andozae ba hayoti ijtimoii khalq nazdiktar namuda, goyahoi nisbat ba on zamon mutaraqqiro tablig mekardand. Umuman, raviyai demokrati ba nazmi in davra roh paydo menamud. CHunonchi, Mullo Husayn, ki bo takhallusi Donishi Bukhoroi mashhur ast, Mirzo Mahammadsoleh Munshi, Junaydullo Mahmudi Hoziq, Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani, Mahmur, Madan, Dilshod va digaron dar hamin davra umr ba cap burdaand. Dar ejodiyoti Gulkhani, Mahmur va Madan hajvi ijtimoi joi namoyonro ishgol menamud, ki on ba mazmuni lirikii shoironi maorifparvar tasir kardaast. Dostoni Hoziq «YUsuf va Zulaykho», masalhoi Gulkhani, sherhoi ijtimoii shoira Dilshod va digaron ba jumlai asarhoi ozodfikrona dokhil meshavand. Dar nimai avvali asri XIX, makhsusan dar davrai hukmronii amir Umarkhon (1800-1810) dar Huqand hayoti adabi khele pesh meravad. SHoironi zullisonayn, ba misli Umarkhon, Maknuna, Gulkhani va digaron ba arsai adabiyot omadand, ki asarhoyashonro bo zaboni tojiki va uzbeki insho mekardand.

Ejodiyoti dahonii khalq dar surudho, hikoyaho va guftorho zohir megasht. Sokinoni shahrhoyu dehahoro namoishhoi kuchagii maskharabozon, dorbozon va teatrhoi lukhtak shod megardondand. Musiqachiyoni boistedod tavassuti asbobhoi odii gunogunu sershumori musiqi ohanghoi gunogun meofaridand.

Dar bayni khalq bozihoi varzishi baso pahn gadida budand: buzkashi, gushtingiri, aspdavoni, poyga va gayra. Namudhoi gunoguni sanati amali niz khele ravnaqu rivoj yofta budand; naqshunigori devorho, kandakorii chub, gilkori, hakkoki, kuloli va gayra. Naqshunigori devorho va saqfi binoho az gaj khele pahn gashta bud.

Matohoi harkhela va gunogunrang, gulpartoii ustohoi mahalli, ki ba on ham mardon va ham zanon mashgul budand, bagoyat taraqqi karda bud.

Peshonabandhoi arus, kurtahoi chakan, pushoki pashmi (chakman) va kurtahoi ragza, parpari, khaltachaho baroi chizuchorai arus, gulduzihoi harkhela (joynamoz, rujo, borpush, suzani va hokazo) az sanati balandi chevaron va digar hunarmandon guvohi medodand.

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