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HUSUSIYATHOI IQLIMI MAHALI HUD

Az guftahoi bobi “Iqlim” barmeoyad, ki iqlimi mahalhoi mukhtalifi Zamin asosan ba arzi geografi, mavqei onho  nisbat ba bahru uqyonusho, khususiyathoi anbuhi havo, inchunin ba gunogunii sathi Zamin (hamvory yo kuhsor, yo regzor budan va gayra) vobasta ast.

Dar sharoiti marzi Tojikiston balandii mahal az sathi bahr, relef va joygirshavii qatorkuhho nisbat ba samti Harakati anbuhi havo ba iqlim tasiri kalon dorad.

Agap guftahoi poyonro nagz mutolia kuned, dar darshoi minbadai geografiya gunogunii iqlimi mahalhoi Zaminro ba osoni dark menamoed va khosiyathoi muhimi iqlimi mahali khudro muayyan karda metavoned.

Iklimi Tochikiston

Vobastagii iqlim ba arzi geografi. Agar sathi Zamin dar hama arzho, mahalho yak khel va tamoman hamvor mebud, on goh ba sathi har yak arz miqdori barobari garmi va ravshani merasid. Dar on surat iqlimi mahalhoi dar yak arz voqebuda faqat az Mavqei nisbat ba khati istivo doshtaashon vobasta meshud. Vale sathi Zamin nihoyat mukhtalif ast. Az in ru, nurhoi oftob ba on bo kunjhoi gunogun rasida, sathi Zamin har khel garm meshavad, Gayr az in, sathi ob va khushki, mintaqahoi sernabotot, regzor va gayra ba darajan gunogun garmu sard meshavand.

Vobastagii iqlim ba balandnn mahal az sathi bahr va khususnyati relef dar troposfera barobari afzudani balandi harorati havo past meshavad. Dar har mintaqai iqlimi iqlimy mahalhoe, ki az sathi bahr balandand, nazar ba iqlimi mahalhoi past khunuktar ast. Masalan, relefi kuhii Tojikiston tasiri garmii Oftob va anbuhi havoro khele tagyir medihad. Az hamin sabab zimistoni Pomir, ki dar nuqtai janubtarini Ittihodi Davlathoi mustaqil voqe ast, chun zimistoni mintaqai kutbi qahratum meboshad. Dar Pomiri SHarqi, dar atrofi Bulunkul khunuki ba – 60° merasad. Az hamin sabab Bulunkulro “qutbi khunuki Tojikiston” ham menomand. Dar Pomir harorati miyonai bisersolai mohi yanvar -15°S, mohi iyul +18°S meboshad. Dar; janubi pastii Turon harorati mohi yanvar -20°S. iyul + 30°S ast (Dar kharita Pomir va pastii Turonro yobed).

Ba iqlim na tanho balandi, inchunin khususiyati relef tasir merasonad. Qatorkuhhoi samti arzii marzi Tojikistonii Tiyonshoni Garbii vodii Fargona, qatorkuhkhoi nohiyai Kuhiston Tojikistoni Janubiro az bodhoi khunuki shimoli sharqi muhofizat mekunand. Kuhhoi baland anbuhi havoi az garb omadaro nigoh doshta, boisi dar balandihoy 1500-3000 metr judo shudani namii onho megardand. Bo tasiri kuhho anbuhi havo ba mahalhoi dokhilii Tojikiston ba vositai vodiho va agbahoi na on qadar baland dokhil meshavand.

Dar marzi Osiyoi Miyona iqlimi nishebihoi janubii qatorkuhho az iqlimi nishebihoi shimoli farq mekunad. Iqlimi vodihoi chuquri kuhi az iqlimi nishebiho farq, dorad. In makhsusan baroi kuhhoi Tojikiston khos ast. Mahalhoi serborishi Tojikiston dar bayni balandihoi 1500-3000 metr joy giriftaaid. Dar domanahoi janubi garbii katorkuhi Hisor (dar balandii 1750 m) dar yak sol to 1600 mm borish meshavad.

Tasiri bahru uqyonusho ba iqlim. Iqlimi har mahal ba mavqei nisbat ba bahru ukenusho doshtaash vobasta ast. Az sababi on ki Tojikiston dar bayni Evropayu Osiyo (Evrosiyo) voqe gardidaast, az tasiri bahru uqyonusho dur ast va dar havo miqdori bukhori ob kam, osmon khele kamabr, kamborish meboshad. Evropa boshad, ba uqyonus nazdik ast, az in ru ba iqlimi on uqyonusi Atlantika va jarayoni garmi oi tasiri kalon merasonad (az kharita nishon dihed). Dar ii jo bodhoi serrutubati garby beshtar mevazand. Binobar in dar jazirahoi Britaniyan Kabir aksar vaqt obu havoi abrnoku boroni meshavad, harorati miyonai mohi yanvar – 4°S, mohi iyul + 16°S ast (amplitudai haroratro muayyan kuned). Borishot sole to 1000 mm meshavad. Zimiston ahyon-ahyon barf borida, der namepoyad, aksar vaqt tumankhoi gafs meshavand. CHunin iqyalmro, ki amplitudai harorat ziyod nestu borishot tamomi faslhoi sol barobar ast, iqlimi bahri menomand.

Baroi durust dark namudani tagyiryobii amplitudai harorat va miqdori borishot dar vaqti az garb ba sharq harakat kardan shumo mebined, ki tagyiroti amplitudai harorat ziyod, vale miqdori borishoz kam meshavad. Borishot tanho dar SHarqi Dur ziyod meshavad (sababi on chist?).

Ba tarafi sharqii Rusiya khar kadar durtar raved, obu havoi khunuki oftobi hamon qadar beshtar, ampligudai harorat ziyodgar shuda, borishot kamtar ast. SHahri Irkutsk, ki bo London takhminan dar yak arz voqest. chunin obu havo dorad. Ba iqlimi on chunin anbuhi havoe, ki az Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHnmoly va Osiyoi Miyona meoyad, tasir merasonad. Iqlimi injo nihoyat khushk (kontinentali) ast. Vale ba iqlimi shahri Voronej, ki dar hamon arzi Irkutsk joygir asg, uqyonusi Atlantika tasiri kalon merasonad, ba in jo anbukhi havo Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli niz tez-tez meoyad. CHunin iklimi muloimi kontineitalii mutadil menomand.

Hususiyati muhimi iqlimi Tojikiston: tagyiryobii kaloni harorati shabonaruzi va mavsimi, khunukii havo, kamabri tobistoni khele garm, havoi serchangu gubor, zimistoni nisbatan khunuk, miqdori kami borishot va nobarobarii borishoti faslhoi sol. In iqlimro shushsh nihoyat kontinentali menomand.

Vobastagii iqlim ba mavqei mahal nisbat ba qatorkuhho va hamvoriho. Mahalhoe, ki dar nazdikii qatorkuhho va yo dar pasi onho joy giriftaand, vobasta ba on ki dar sari rohi kadom anbuhi havo voqeand, iqlimi ba khud khos dorand. Agar dar sari rohi anbuhi havo kuhhoi baland vokhurand, tadrijan az nishebiho baland baromada, khunuk va borik meshavad . Havoi nami talafdodai khunuk a katorkukhho guzashta poyom mefaroyad va nisbatan garm shuda, az holati seri ba havoi noser tabdil meyobad va az on borish khos nameshavad. Az hamin sabab hatto dar masofai na on qadar kalon iqlimi mahali yak tarafi qatorkukh az iqlimi mahali tarafi digari on farq mekuiad. Farqi kaloni iqlim bayni Pomiri Garby va Pomiri SHarqy yain mushohida megardad.

Balandtarin kuhhoi jahon Himoloy dar sari rohi khav rutubatdori Uqyonusi Hind (bodi mavsimii tobistony) voqe gardidaast va baroi on mone meshavad. Binobar in iqlimi nishebihoi janubii kuhho na tanho garm, balki nihoyat sernam ast (dar CHerrapunja ba hisobi miyona dar yak sol 12 hazor mm borish meshavad). Dar shimoli Himoloy boshad, biyoboni qarib beob joygir ast (az kharita Himoloyro yobed).

Qarib dar hama katorkuhhoi Tojikiston harorati miyonai mohona va solona dar nishebihoi janubi balandtar, dar domanahoi shimoli pasttar ast. Az hamin sabab mevajot dar nishebihoi janubi kamash 1 – 2 hafta peshtar mspazand.

Dar hamvorihoi buzurgi farokhi Evropai Garby va Evropai SHarqi, Sibiri Garby anbuhi havo hazorho kilometr masofaro bemamoniat meguzarad va borish ham nisbatan kam ast. Iqlimi mahalhoi az hamdigar dur ham farq dorad.

Oyo qlii tagyir meebad?

Olimon muqarrar kardaand, ki iqlim dar davomi fosilahoi kaloni vaqt tagyir meyobad. Masalan. millionho sol muqaddam dar marzi hozirai Tojikiston iqlimi garm va serrutubat hukmron bud, navhoi gunoguni nabotot rui Zaminro zich pushondya budand: maydoni besha kham ziyod bud. Dar Tojikiston yoft shudani konhoi kaloni angishti SHurob, Fon- YAgnob va gayra daleli tagyiryobii ikdim meboshand.

Dar jazirakhoi Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli va Antarktida ham angisht hast. CHi tavre ki malum ast, angishtsang az boqimondakhoi nabototi farovon, ki sadho million sol pesh dar iqlimi garmu nam mavjud budand, hosil shudaast. In misolho ba tavri bovaribakhsh az on shahodat medikhand, ki iqlim dar fosilahoi kaloni vaqt nihoyat tagyir yoftaast, iqlim ham khunuk va ham garm shudaast.

Tamomi qismi shimoli garbii Evroparo takriban 1 mln. sol pesh yakhi gafs pushida bud, ki on tanho dar iqlimi khunuk paydo shuda metavonist. Iqlimi Zamin dar zamoni hozira ham tagyir meyobad. Zimnan faoliyati khojagii odamon ba on tasiri toraft beshtar merasonad.

Savol va suporish

  1. Oyo iqlim tagyir meyobad? Doir ba iklimi marzi Tojikiston kadom dalelhoro ovarda metavoned? Nombar kuned, ki iqlimi mahalaton ba kadom omilho vobasta ast, chavobro bo misolho purra kuned.
  2.  Farqiyati nishebihoi shimoly va janubii kuhhoi atrofro oid ba unsurhoi iqlim dar chi mebined? Onhoro sharh dikhed.
  3. Dar misoli mahalaton vobastagii iqlim ba balandii mahalro bo misolho naql kuned. Dar nazdi shumo vazifa istodaast, ki dar asosi malumothoi giriftaaton khususiyatkhoi iqlimi makhalatonro doned. Sababhoi onro fahmed. Az rui donishi hosilkardaaton tavsifi iqlimi mahalatonro tartib dihed. On boyad az du qism iborat boshad: a) khususiyathoi iklim, b) sababhoe, ki iqlim ba on vobasta ast. Dar dafzar navised: Tavsifi iklim… (nomi mahali aholinishin). Dar tavsifnomai iklim ba tasviri chunin nuktaho ahamiyag dihed: mavqei jugrofii mahal, relef, bodhoi asosi va mahalli. Dar tavsifi mavqei jugrofy boyad dar kadom arz va mintaqahoi ravshani voqe budani mahal, duri az bahru uqyonuskho, mavkei mahal nisbat ba qatorkuhho gufta shavad. Dar khotimai tavsifnoma dar borai iqlimi mahalaton khulosa barored (garm yo khunuk. Mutadil, kontinentaly).

Savolho baroi tikrori mavzui “Atmosfera”

  1. Atlyusfera chist?.
  2. Oyo dar mahali shumo havo iflos meshavad? Sababhoi iflosshavii on chist? Baroi iflos nashudini havo kadom chorahoro behptar meshumired?
  3. Obu havo chist? Dar tasviri obu havo kadom unsurho va zuhurotro boyad qayd kard. Obu havoi yagon muhlatro tasvir kuned.
  4. Dar misoli tasviri obu-havoi shabonaruz dar borai vobastagin bayni harorat va digar unsurhii zuhuroti obu havo naql kuned.
  5. Bod chist? Sababi paydoiish onro bo misolho fahmoned.
  6. Sababi asosii dar mahalshnon yakbora tagyir yoftani obu havo chist? In holat beshpar dar kadom faslhoi ruy medihad? .
  7. Navi obu havo chist? Ba mahalatonn beshtar kadom navi obu havo khos ast?
  8. Sababi asosii paidoiish abr chist? Dar mahali shumo zimiston va bahor kadom namudi abr ziyod meboshad? Oyo shumo tumanro mushohida kardaed?
  1. Iqlim chist? Omilhoi acocsii iqlimhosilkuiandaro naql kuned.
  2. Hususiyathoi muhimi mahalaton chi guna ast? CHaro in tavr ast?
  3. Mintiqahoi ravshaniro nombar kuned. Sarhadhoi onhoro aniq karda, dar borai onho hikoya kuned.
  4. Hosiyathoi asosii iqlimi mintaqahoi tropiki va mutadilro sharh dihed.
  5. Farqi iqlimi kontinentali az iqlimi bahri dar chist?
  6. Oyo Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli ba iqlimi mahali shumo tasir merisonad?
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