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HUQUQ VA AHLOQ

Munosibathoi bayni odamon na tanho ba vositai meyorhoi huquqi, inchunin tavassuti meyorhoi akhloqi niz ba tanzim darovarda meshavand. Az davrahoi qadim odamon raftori khudro bo meyor va qoidahoe, ki khudi onho dar hayot sanjidaand va on meyoru qoidaho manfiati umumii onhoro ifoda mekardand, muvofiq mekardand. Onho mefahmidand, ki khudsari, inkor namudani manfiati digaron baroi hamai onho nomuvofiq va khatarnok meboshad. Tarikh guvoh ast, ki ba hama guna ofatho va tokhtutozhoi digaron hamon khalqhoe tob ovarda tavonistaand, ki ba meyorhoi umumi, qoidaho va odatho qatiyan rioya namuda, tajribai bisyorasrai faoliyati yakjoyai mehnati, molumulki, oilavi va amsoli inhoro durust istifoda kardaand.

huquqAkhloq, odat, anana, yane meyorhoi akhloqi, tasavvurot oid ba neki va badi, adolat va beadolati, bovijdoni va bevijdoni va amsoli onho qoidahoi avvalini raftori odamon budand. Odamon vayronkunandagoni chunin qoidahoro mahkum mekardand.

Bo mururi inkishofi jamiyat va murakkab shudani munosibathoi bayni odamon meyorhoi akhloqi imkoniyati purra tanzim kardani munosibathoi gunoguni jamiyatro az dast dodand. Paydoishi davlat va sinfho, inkishofi munosibathoi khojagi boisi murakkabshavii in munosibatho gardid. Aknun meyorhoi akhloqi na hamai munosibathoi bayni odamon va davlatro ba tanzim darovarda metavonistand. Ba in sabab, tadrijan namudhoi navi meyorhoi ijtimoi meyorhoi huquqi ba vujud omadand. Baroi vayron namudani in meyorho davlat jazo medod. Hamin tariq, huquq hamchun batartibdarorandai raftori odamon nisbat ba meyorhoi akhloqi dertar ba vujud omad.

Akhloq va huquq yakjoya qoidahoi raftori odamonro tanzim mekunand. Dar ayni zamon, baze raftori odamon faqat az tarafi akhloq va digarashon az tarafi meyorhoi huquqi ba tanzim darovarda meshavand.

Ammo dar aksar mavridho huquq va akhloq dar yagonagi munosibathoi jamiyatiro ba tanzim medarorand.

On raftore, ki ziddi talaboti meyorhoi huquqi meboshad, raftori ziddiakhloqi ast. Avboshi, duzdi, dashnom, tuhmat, ozor dodani digaron va ba in monand raftori noshoyam na faqat ba vositai meyorhoi akhloqi mahkum karda meshavand, balki baroi chunin raftor shakhsoni gunahkor ba javobgarii jinoyati niz kashida meshavand.

Huquq va akhloq yakdigarro purra menamoyand. Huquq amali shudani akhloqro tamin menamoyad va akhloq ba balandshavii samaranokii huquq musoidat mekunad. Dar barobari hamin, meyorhoi huquqi nisbat ba meyorhoi akhloqi to darajae aniq ifoda yofta, dar qonunho, farmonho, qarorho, nizomnomaho va digar sanadhoi zerqonuni navishta meshavand.

Onho munosibathoi muayyanro vozehu ravshan va dar yagonagi ifoda menamoyand.

Meyorhoi akhloqi nisbat ba meyorhoi huquqi do- irai vasei munosibathoi jamiyatiro dar bar megirand. CHunin raftori odamon, ba monandi duruggui, khasisi, hasudi, beehtiromi ba digaron az tarafi meyorhoi huquqi ba tanzim darovarda nameshavand.

Asosi meyorhoi huquqiro meyorhoi akhloqi tashkil medihand. Odamon hangomi qabuli qonunhoi alohida ba meyorhoi akhloqi takya menamoyand. Huquq ba akhloq takya karda, munosibathoi jam- iyatiro ba tanzim medarorad. Akhloq dar tanzimi munosibathoi jamiyati ba huquq yori merasonad.

Onho dar yagonagi berahmi, dagali, duzdi, khiyonat, zurovari, fireb va amsoli inhoro man menamo yand. Dar barobari hamin, akhloq majmui qoida va meyorhoi raftori odamon nisbat ba yakdigar va jamiyat meboshad.

Vale boyad qayd kard, ki meyorhoi akhloqi bar khilofi meyorhoi huquqi khislati hatmi va qonuni nadorand. Az in ru, baroi ijroi onho maqomoti davlati huquqi majbur kardan nadorad. Rioyai meyorhoi akhloqi bo tasiri afkori jamiyati va etiqodi khudi shakhs tamin karda meshavad.

Dar barobari in, ravandi az jihati manavi solim gardonidani jamiyat nihoyat murakkab va durudaroz meboshad.

Baroi in mo boyad ba hama guna firebgari, berahmi, khudpisandi, besharmi, nomuvofiqii sukhan va kor va munosibati badbinona ba inson harchi zudtar khotima dihem. Ehtirom ba shakhsiyat, huquq va hayoti inson, ozodii vijdon, hissi sohibikhtiyori, mustaqiliyati iqtisodi metavonad ba peshrafti kishvari mo yori

rasonad. Tarahhum, mehruboni, sharm, pushaymoni, ehsonkori barin khislathoi hamidai insoni, ki khususiyati umumibashari dorand, boyad rahnamoi har yak shakhs dar koru zindagi boshand. Zero tavre ki shoiri uzurgi tojiku fors Sadii SHerozi guftaast:

Bani odam azoi yakdigarand,
Ki dar ofarinish zi yak gavharand.
CHu uzve ba dard ovarad ruzgor,
Digar uzvhoro namonad qaror.

Savolho:

  1. Qoidahoi avvalini raftori odamon az chiho iborat budand?
  2. Huquq va akhloq kay paydo shudaand?
  3. YAgonagi, aloqamandi va farqiyati akhloq va huquqro fahmonda dihed.
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