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HUJAYRAHOI EUKARIOTI

Ba hujayrahoi eukarioti organizmhoi darajai tashakkulashon gunogun – az soddatarinho to rastanihoi darajai oli va hayvonot mansuband (rasmi 5.4). Dar rasm namoyandagoni hujayrahoi eukarioti, az jumla, yakhujayragiho (14-amyoba, 15-suvoyki, 16-evglenai sabz), hamchunin organizm-hoi serhujayrai nabototi (1-6) va hayvonot (7-13) aks yoftaand.

Albatta, dar tabiat hujayrai hamabob mavjud nest, vale hamai hujayrahoi eukarioti gomologi buda, baroi navhoi gunoguni onho sokhti umumi khos ast . Har hujayra az du qismi bo ham aloqamand, yane sitoplazma va hasta iborat meboshad.

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Sitoplazma

Dar sitoplazma organoidhoi gunogun joy giriftaand va har yaki onho khosiyathoi khudro doshta, dar davrahoi gunoguni hayoti hujayra ishtirok mekunand.

Ba iborai digar, har yake az organoidho doroi vazifahoi muayyanand. Baze organoidho baroi hamai hujayraho khosand, masalan, mitokhondriya, markazi hujayra, apparati Golji, ribosomaho, turi endoplazmavi, lizosomaho. Hamchunin, organoidhoe mavjudand, ki faqat ba hujayrahoi muayyan khosand, chunonchi: miofibrillho, mijgonakho va gayra.

Hamin tavr, organoidho qismi tarkibi va doimii sitoplazmai hujayraand. Dar sitoplazma, inchunin, moddahoi gunogun, ba nom hissachaho mavjudand. Onhoro sokhtorhoi tagyiryobandai sitoplazma menomand (bazan ba in guruh hastaro niz dokhil mekunand) va farqashon az digar organoidho dar on ast, ki dar hayoti hujayra goh paydo va goh nest meshavand.

Hissachahoi durushtro granula va obakiro vakuol menomand. Dar jarayoni hayot dar hujayra mahsuli mubodilai moddaho dar shakli pigmentho, safedahoi granuli va dar hujayrai judokunanda moddahoi zakhiravi dar shakli donachahoi glikogeni, zarrahoi ravgan jam meshavand.

Asosi tashakkuli sokhtori hujayraro qonuniyati sokhtori membranavi tashkil mekunad. Pas, malum megardad, ki hujayra asosan az membrana tashkil yoftaast va hamai membranaho sokhtori yakkhela dorand. Dar zamoni hozira modeli sokhtori membranavi qabul shudaast (rasmi 5.6).

Rasmi 5.5. Sokhti hujayrai eukariotho:

A – hayvon, B – rastani, 1 – hasta bo hissacha, 2 – membranai sitop-

lazma, 3 – devorai hujayra, 4 – plazmodesma, 5 – turi endoplazmavi,

6 – vakuoli pinositozi, 8 – apparati Golji, 9 – lizosoma, 10 – qat-

rahoi ravgan, 11 – setriol, 12 – mitokhondriya, 13 – poliribosoma,

14 – vakuol, 15 – khloroplast.

Vobasta ba in membranai biologi az du qabati lipidi iborat buda, dar umqhoi gunoguni beruni va daruni molekulahoi bisyor va gunogunshakli safeda joy giriftaand. Membranai berunai sitoplazma qabati boloi hujayraro tashkil mekunad.

In qabat dar hamai hujayraho vujud doshta, mahsuloti sitoplazmaro az muhiti beruna judo menamoyad. Qabati boloii hujayrai zinda doimo dar harakat ast, dar vay chinho paydo shuda, harakati mavjmonand ba amal meoyad. Agar ba qabati boloi hujayra nigarem, mebinem, ki tarkibi on gunogun buda, sokhtori boloyash yakkhela nest, az jumla, khosiyati fiziologii on niz farq mekunad. Hamin tavr, qabati boloi mambranai hujayra az jihati morfologi va fiziologi makhlut meboshad. Qabati boloi hujayra nisbatan ustuvor buda, qismi osebyoftaro zud barqaror mekunad. Boloi pardai hujayra yaklukht nest. Dar membranai sitoplazmavi surokhihoi khurd vujud dorand, ki ba vositai onho ba daruni hujayra tavassuti fermentho, ionho va molekulahoi khurd vorid meshavand. Gayraz in, ionho va molekulahoi khurd metavonand bevosita az membrana ba daruni hujayra dokhil shavand.

Ionho va molekulaho ba hujayra na bo rohi gayrifaoli diffuziyavi, balki bo rohi faoli naqli dokhil shuda, dar in mavrid energiya sarf megardad. Harakati moddaho intikhobi buda, baze moddaho az membrana ba osoni meguzarand, moddahoi digar boshand, dar on dar memonand.

Hamin tavr, konsentratsiyai ioni K dar hujayra nisbat ba muhiti berunai on baland ast. Vale konsentratsiyaiioni Na +dar mahluli baynihujayragi ziyod meboshad. fagositozii ba hujayra dokhil shudani moddaho va zarrachaho niz mavjud ast (rasmi 5.7). Membranai hujayra shakli furukhamidaro girifta, dar juyaki paydoshuda gushakho bo ham mechaspand va moe (dar holati pinositoz) yo zarrachaho (dar holati fagositoz)-ro ba darun mekashand.

Pinositoz yake az rohhoi muhim va mekhanizmi asosii voridshavii moddahoi kalonmolekula ba hujayra meboshad.

Andozai vakuoli pinositozi 0,01 to 1,2 mkm ast (1,2,3). Badi chand muddat vakuoli pinositoz bo daruni sitoplazma dokhil meshavad.

Bayni vakuolahoi voridshuda, ki moddahoi gunogunro bo hujayra dokhil mekunand va lizosomaho, ki fermenthoi in moddahoro hazm menamoyand, aloqai makhsus vujud dorad.

Hamin tavr, tamomi sikli hazmi gizoi dokhilihujayravi az chor davri paiham iborat ast: dokhil shudani moddaho bo rohi pino-yo ki fagositoz, tajziya shudani onho zeri tasiri fermenthoi lizosoma; guzaronidani moddahoi tajziyashuda ba sitoplazma (dar natijai tagyir yoftani qobiliyati guzaronandagii membarani vakuolho); ikhroj kardani boqimondahoi hazmnashuda. Hudi vakuolho boshand, mahv shuda ba zarrahoi khurdi sitoplazma tabdil meyoband.

Membranai sitoplazmavi vazifai digarro niz ijro mekunad, masalan, aloqai bayni hujayraho va boftahoi organizmhoi serhujayraro tamin menamoyand.

Turi endoplazmavi

Turi endoplazmavi yake az juzhoi sitoplazmai hujayra buda, az juyakho va shokhchaho iborat ast. On yadroro ihota karda, membranai khudro dorad.

Dar hujayrahoe, ki mubodilai moddahoyashon ziyod ast, adadi juyakhoi tur khele bisyorand. Ba hisobi miyona az 30 to 50% hajmi hujayraro turi endoplazmavi tashkil mekunad.

Membranai turi endoplazmavi du shakl dorad: hamvor va chindor. Dar membranai hamvori turi endoplazmavi asosan sistemai fermentho mavjud ast, ki dar mubodilai charbho va angishtobho ishtirok mekunand. CHunin membrana beshtar dar gadudhoi ravgan duchor meoyad va sintezi charbhoro ba roh memonad. Dar hujayrahoi jigar boshad, sintezi glikogen va inchunin dar hujayrahoe, ki zakhirai moddahoi gizoi bisyor doshta (tukhmi rastaniho) vomekhurand.

Vazifai asosii membranai chindori turi endoplazmavi sintezi safedaho ast, zero ribosomaho dar membrana shakli chinro girifta, dar on chaspidaand.

Ba vositai juyakho moddaho harakat mekunand, az jumla, moddahoe, ki dar membrana sintez meshavand. Membranahoi turi endoplazmavi vazifai digarro niz ijro mekunand, yane fazai fermenthoro az ham judo mesozand, ki in baroi faoliyati mutassili onho dar reaksiyahoi biokhimiyavi zarur ast.

Ba hamin minvol, turi endoplazmavi sistemai umumii mubodilai moddahoi dokhilihujayravi buda, bo juyakchahoi on moddaho harakat mekunand, dar membranai in juyakchaho fermentho joy girifta, faoliyati hujayraro ba roh memonand.

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