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HOSIYATHOI SOHTI HUJAYRAI RASTANI

Dar hujayrai rastaniho yadro va hamai organoidhoe, ki baroi hujayrai hayvonot khosand, dida meshavand, masalan, turi endoplazmavi, ribosomaho, mitokhondriya, majmai Golji. Dar barobari in, hujayrai rastani khususiyati khudro dorad (ba rasmi 5.5. nigared) va az hujayrai hayvonot bo chunin alomatho farq mekunad: 1 – qabati gafsi pardai hujayra; 2 – organellahoi makhsus, yane plastidho, ki dar onho sintezi avvalai moddahoi organiki az hisobi madanho va energiyai oftob ba amal meoyad; 3 – inkishofi sistemai vakuolaho, ki bo khususiyati osmosii hujayra vobastagi dorad.

5-22

Hujayrai rastaniho ba monandi hujayrai hayvonot bo membranai sitoplazmavi ihota shudaast, vale on qabati gafsi devora niz dorad, ki az sellyuloza iborat meboshad.

Devorai hujayra surokhiho dorad, ki tavassuti onho juyakhoi turi endoplazmavi bo hujayrahoi hamsoya aloqa mekunand. Bartarii ravandi sintez, nisbat ba ravandi judo shudani energiya, az jumlai khosiyathoi muhimi mubodilai moddahoi rastani ba hisob meravad. Sintezi avvalini angishtobho az moddahoi gayriorganikii dar plastidho ba vujud meoyad.

Plastidho se namud meshavand:

  1. Leykoplastidho, ki berang buda, dar onho az hisobi monosakharidho va disakharidho krakhmal sintez meshavad (baze leykoplastidho safeda va charbhoro zakhira mekunand).
  1. Hloroplastho rangi sabz dorand, zero dar tarkibi onho pigmenti khlorofill mavjud buda, dar onho fotosintez meguzarad (rasmi 5.22).
  1. Hromoplastho, ki doroi pigmenthoi karotinoidho buda, gunogunrangii gul va mevaho ba onho vobasta ast. Plastidho qobiliyati ba yakdigar tabdil yoftanro dorand.
  2. Dar tarkibi hujayra KDN va KRN mavjud buda, bo rohi taqsimshavi metavonand ziyod shavand. Vakuolho bo membrana ihota shuda, az hisobi jomhoi turi endoplazmavi paydo meshavand.

Vakuolaho, safedaho, angishtobho, mahsuloti sintezi molekulahoi darajai past, vitaminho va namakhoi gunogunro dar holati mahlul nigoh medorand. Fishori osmosi, ki az hisobi hal shudani moddahoi shirai hujayra ba amal meoyad, boisi ba hujayra dokhil shudani ob va dar holati turgor, yane tarangi qaror yoftani devorahoi hujayra megardad. Holati turgor va chandirii devorahoi hujayra omili   muhimi ustuvorii rastani ba shumor meravand.

Rasmi 5.22.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Sokhti plastidho chi gunaand? Oidi ba yakdigar guzashtani plastidho misol ored.
  2. Dar kadom qismi plastidho fotosintez ba amal meoyad?
  3. Reaksiyai fotosintez va jarayoni dar rushnoi dar shakli ATF jam shudani energiyaro sharh dihed.
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