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HOK VA AHAMIYATI ON DAR OLAMI RASTANIHO

Rastanihoi sabz in istehsolkunandagoni kislorod dar sayyorai mo buda, tanho dar rastanihoi sabz moddahoi gayriorganiki ba moddahoi organiki mubaddal meshavand. In non, mevai poleziho, mevahoi darakhton, sabzavot va chizhoi digar, ki be onho ba odam zindagy kardan mushkil ast.

Hamai rastaniho dar sayyorai Zamin dar yak sol ba atmosfera 400 milliard tonn kislorod khorij mekunand. Hamzamon onho ba khud 600 milliard tonn gazi angidridi karbonro furu burda, 450 milliard tonna moddai organiky ba vujud meovarand. Dar Zamin hama chiz yake ba digar aloqamand buda, rastany be khok nametavonad zindagy kunad. Rastany az on ob va moddahoi gizoiro qabul mekunad.

Hok in qabati hosilkhezi qabati boloii khushkii Zamin ba shumor meravad. Agar andak khokro girifta, onro ba bonkai tunukagin guzoshta, vayro dar boloi otash nigoh dorem, mebinem, ki khok rushan meshavad. In bayongari sukhtani moddahoi organiky (gumus) dar khok ast, ki ba vay rangi torikro medihand.

Andak khoki tasfonidashudaro bo bonka meguzorem. Ba on ob rekhta, omekhta mekunem. Ob andak tira meshavad, zero dar tarkibi khok loy mavjud ast. Dar qari bonka peg, ki niz qismi tarkibii khok ba shumor meravad, tahshin meshavad. Obro ohista ba digar bonka rekhta, tasfiya (filtr) mekunem. Andak obi tasfiyashudaro ba shisha chakonida garm mekunem. Pas az bukhorshavy dar shisha doghoi safed boqi memonand. In namakhoi madany meboshand.

Olimon ba chunin khulosa omadand.

A Hok in mavjudi makhsusi tabiy buda, az peg, gil, moddahoi organiky (pusidagy/gumus) va namakhoi madany iborat meboshad.

Dar khok hamchunin havo mavjud meboshad. Dar holi hozir qismati kaloni satqi khushkii Zamin bo khok pushida shudaast. Qabati khok tunuk buda: az 2-3 sm to 2 m-ro tashkil medihad. Dar sharoiti gunogun 1 sm gafsii qabati khok dar 100 sol va goho dar 300 sol ba vudud meoyad.

Hosilnoki khosiyati asosii khok ba shumor meravad. Hosilnoki az miqdori gumus- mahsulote, ki az boqimondai organizmhoi pusidayu khushkida, ob va havoi on iborat ast, vobasta meboshad. Har qadar dar khok gumus biser boshad, hosilnokii on ba hamon andoza baland shuda, dar khoki hosilkhez rastaniho hub mesabzand. Agar zakhirai moddahoi gizoy pur nashavad, pas khok kharob gardida, hosilnokii on qat megardad. Sarchashmahoi moddahoi gizoy baroi rastaniho poruhoi organiki va madany ba pgumor meravand.

Ba poruhoi madany dokhil meshavad: akhloti hayvonot, torf, ki dar asosi tajziyai rastanihoi murda va organizmhoi hayvonot ba vujud meoyand. Poruhoi organiki tavassuti mikroorganizmho – bakteriyaho, obsabzahoi bahry, zamburughoi mayda tadrijan to ba moddahoi madany taqsim meshavand. On moddaho tavassuti reshay rastaniho jabbida meshavand. In yak ravandi bisyor tulony ast. Az in ru, mavodi organikie, ki ba khok hamroh karda shudaast, na tanho ba hosilnokii imsola, balki hosilnokii solhoi minbada tasir merasonand.

Poruhoi madany- azoti, fosfori, namakhoi kaliy dar korkhonaho az madanhoi tabii sokhta meshavand. Poruhoi azoty va kaliydor dar khoki nam zud munhal mesha­vand. Az in ru, onhoro pesh az kishti tukhmi ba zamin meposhand. Poruhoi fosfori ba ohistagy munhal meshavand. Az in ru, onhoro yakjoya bo porui mahally tiramoh ba zamin meposhand, to ki to bahor munhal shuda tavonand.

Vobasta ba mavjudiyati ob, havo, mavodhoi madany dar tarkibashon, khokho gu­nogun meshavand.

Misol, khokhoi siyohzamin, khokhoi kamnamaki khokistari, khokhoi khokistarii beshagy, khokhoi shurzamin va gayra. Hokhoi siyohzamin dar tarkibashon mikdori zi- yodi gumus dorand.

Vay regu gilro ba hamdigar, ba luqmahoi khurd siresh menamoyad, ki bayni onho ob va havoi ziyod mavjud ast. Dar jumhurii mo khokhoi khokistarrang, siyohzamin, kuhy, biyoboni, jangali, balandkuhi, biyoboniyu dashti, margzory, tundragi va digar navhoi khok mavjud ast.

Hok durdonai purqimati tabiat meboshad.

Vay moro mekhuronad, mepushonad, mavodi khom baroi sanoat va chub baroi sokhtmon medihad.

Olimi rus Vasiliy Vasilyevich Dokuchaev ilmero dar borai khok, qonunhoi paydoishi on va hifzi samaranokii on asos guzosht, ki onro khokshinosi menomand. Vay takid karda bud, ki bo khok boyad ehtiyotkorona munosibat kard, zero vay ba osony bo ob shusta shuda, bo shamol rufta meshavad. Dar Jumhurii Qirgiziston tar- kib, sokhtmon va khususiyati khokkhri sahroi va kuqiro akademik Aman Mamitov tahqiq kardaast.

Vay kharitai khokhoi Osiyoi Markazy va Qirgizistonro tartib dodaast. U soli 1927 tavallud shuda, doktori ilmhoi kishovarzy, professor va akademik bud. Soli 2000 vafot kardaast.

Pas az boronhoi paydarpay obi tiragun dar juyho ravon meshavad. Vay qabati qosildihandai khokro ba daryoho va kulho mebarad. Hokho az tasiri shamol zud vay- ron meshavand. Mavridhoe budand, ki tavassuti shamol tamomi qabati kishtshavan- dai zamin burda shudaand. Masalan, tundbodho tanho dar tuli soli 1934 az khududi Damvorihoi Buzurgi Amriko nazdik ba 300 million tonna gumusi hosilkhezro, ki tayi sadsolaho dar zeri rastanihoi sershumor jam shuda budand, bo khud burdand. SHamol in gumushoro dar shakli talu teppaho dar nohiyahoi durdasti kishvar, dar fosilai bayni kuhhoi bisyorsakhrai garbi to ba sohilhoi sharqii uqyonusi Atlantik jam ovardaast. Az tufoni purgard viloyathoi Rostov, Qafqozi SHimoli, dashthoi Qazoqiston ziyoni sakht didaand. CHi tavr khokro az eroziyashavi hifz va hosilnokii onro tamin boyad kard? YAke az muhofizoni khubi khok in rastani meboshad. Onho bo reshahoi khud khokro doshta, vayro az shustashavi emin medorand.

Alafu buttaho, hamchun qolin khokro mepushonand va onro az shamol muhofizat mekunand. SHinonida shudani darakhthoi jangali dar nishebii kuhho va sokhtani zinapoyahoi ufuqi dar nishebikh,oi khamgashta jarayonhoi obiro nigoh medorand. Oda- mon poruhoro nodurust istifoda burda, hosilnokii khokro kharob mesozand. Baroi korkardi khok partovhoi sanoati, khishtqoi shikasta, mavodhoi nodarkori shishagin va plasmassagin monea ejod mekunand.

Dar natija, in ba kamquvvatii khok va az bayn raftani organizmhoi khoki dar on ovarda merasonad, ki on boisi bad shudani samaranokii khok megardad. Hok hamchunin az tasiri naqliyot, ekskavatorho va digar tekhnikahoi kishovarzi vayron meshavad. Hokro boyad az mikrobho, ki boisi cap zadani har nav bemoriho megar- dand, ehtiyot boyad kard. Dar khoki chirkin bakteriyahoi gunogun, ki boisi cap zadani har guna bemoriho megardand, metavonand muddati daroz zindagi kunand. Olimon isbot kardaand, ki mikrobhoe, ki boisi cap zadani dizenteriya( ishol) meboshand, dar khok 45 ruz, mikrobhoi manbai tif boshand, to yak sol dar khok zindagi karda me­tavonand.

ASOSITARIN NUKTAHOI MAVZU:

Pursishho

  1. Hok chist?
  2. Gumus chy tavr ba vujud meoyad?
  3. CHaro khokro narm mekunand?
  4. Kadom namudi khok dar joe, ki SHumo zindagy mekuned, duchor meshavad?
  5. Eroziyai khok chist?
  6. CHy tavr khokro az eroziya muhifizat boyad kard?
  7. SHumo in chumlaro chy tavr sharh medihed? «Zamin razzoq (rizkdihanda) ast va vayro niz boyad gizo dod!»
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