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HOKIMIYATI SUDI: Mafhumhoi hokimiyati sudi va adolati sudi.

Prinsiphoi adolati sudi

CHi tavre ki dar mavzuhoi guzashta qayd namuda budem, hokimiyati davlati dar Jumhurii Tojikiston ba se shokhai mustaqil – qonunguzor, ijroiya va sudi taqsim meshavad va har yake az onho dar asosi Konstitutsiya va qonunho bo tarzu usuli muayyan vazifahoi ba khud khosro ijro menamoyand. Hokimiyati sudi niz hamchun navi mustaqili hokimiyati davlati muvofiqi moddai 84-i Konstitutsiya ba hifzi huququ ozodihoi insonu shahrvand, manfiati davlat, tashkilotu muassisaho va qonuniyatu adolat masul ast.

Tajribai tarikhi guvohi medihad, ki murofiai sudi yagona shakli muqarrar namudani haqiqati voqei, behtarin rohi halli har guna munoqishahost.

Mo dar zindagi borho shohidi on meshavem, ki dar natijai poymol kardani qonunho va sodir namudani qonunshikani ashkhosi gunogun ba jazohoi ba kirdorashon sazovor kashida meshavand. Nuqtai okhirinro dar muayyan kardani asli kirdor va jazo baroi on tanho sud meguzorad.

Hamin tavr, sud na tanho manfiati shakhsi alohida yo tashkilotu muassisa, balki davlatro niz himoya mekunad, ki dar majmu onro adolati sudi meguyand.

Tamini adolat hamon vaqt imkonpazir megardad, ki agar khudi maqomoti sud az har guna fishoru dakholati sokhtorhoi davlati ozod buda, sudyaho haqiqatro dar asosi dalelhoi mavjuda, kholisona, az rui vijdon va donishu malakai kasbiashon justuju va daryoft kunand.

Konstitutsiya aniq muqarrar kardaast, ki hokimiyati sudi mustaqil buda, az nomi davlat va az tarafi sudyaho amali megardad. In mulohiza chunin mani dorad, ki yagon maqomoti digar yo shakhsoni alohida huquqi tamini adolati sudiro nadorand.

Honandagoni aziz ba khubi dark kardaand, ki dar davlati huquqbunyod yagon maqomot yo tashkilotu muassisa be asosi qonuni, khud az khud amal karda nametavonad.

Baroi hamajoniba ravshan kardani vazifaho, tarzu usuli faoliyat va halli masalahoe, ki dar nazdi maqomoti sudi qaror dorand, Qonuni konstitutsioni «Dar borai sudhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston» az 6-umi avgusti soli 2001 qabul shudaast, ki rohnamoi faoliyati maqomoti sud meboshad.

Ham dar Konstitutsiya, ki bobi 8-umi on purra ba sud bakhshida shudaast va ham dar qonuni konstitutsionii nombarshuda prinsiphoi adolati sudi muqarrar shudaand. Prinsip gufta, usulhoi asosii rohbarikunandaro dar in yo on navi faoliyat menomand. Dar Konstitutsiya zikr shudaast, ki adolati sudiro tanho maqomoti sud – Sudi konstitutsioni, Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi, Sudi harbi, Sudi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, sudhoi viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya, Sudi iqtisodii Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, sudhoi iqtisodii viloyat va shahri Dushanbe amali mekunand.

Zeri mafhumi «adolati sudi» chiro fahmidan mumkin ast? Adolati sudi ba manoi vaseash hamin ast, ki sudho meyorhoi huquqiro nisbat ba bahsho va masalahoi digari huquqi az rui parvandahoi grajdani, jinoyati, khojagi va mamuri dar majlishoi sudi tatbiq menamoyand.

Barobarii shahrvandon sarfi nazar az nasabu najod, vazi ijtimoi, aqidahoi siyosi, mansubiyat ba dinu mazhab va navi mashguliyat dar nazdi sud yake az prinsiphoi asosii faoliyati sud ba shumor meravad. YAne dar istifoda az huquqi himoyai sudi

hama shahrvandoni Jumhurii Tojikiston, inchunin shahrvandoni khoriji va shakhsoni beshahrvandi niz barobar meboshand.

Prinsipi digar – mustaqiliyati purrai sudho meboshad. Hangomi ba amal barovardani adolati sudi onho tanho ba Konstitutsiya va qonun itoat mekunand.

Vakolat, dakhlnopaziri, makhfi budani mashvarati sudho hangomi barovardani halnomaho, huquqi ba istefo baromadan, javobgari baroi beehtiromi ba sud va digar masalahoi faoliyati sudro qonun muayyan kardaast.

Prinsipi seyum – ba tavri dastajami va yo tanho muhokima shudani parvandahoi grajdani va jinoyati az tarafi sudho meboshad. Ba tavri dastajami yo khud tanho barrasi shudani parvandaho az chigunagii parvanda va jinoyati sodirshuda vobastagi dorad.

Masalan, agar parvanda – parvandai grajdanie boshad, onro yak khudi sudya barrasi mekunad, vale agar baroi jinoyati sodirshuda qonuni jinoyati ziyoda az 5 sol mahrumiyat az ozodiro peshbini kunad, on goh dar barrasii parvanda barobar bo sudya du mashvaratchi niz ishtirok mekunand.

Prinsipi chorum zaboni murofiai sudi meboshad. Dar moddai 88-umi Konstitutsiya in masala hal shudaast, yane dar on gufta meshavad, ki murofiai sudi ba zaboni davlati va yo zaboni aksariyati aholii mahal barguzor megardad. SHakhsone, ki zaboni

murofiaro namedonand, bo tarjumon tamin karda meshavand.

Oshkoro surat giriftani barrasii parvandaho dar tamomi sudho prinsipi panjumi adolati sudi meboshad. Ammo qonun muayyan kardaast, ki dar baze holatho murofia metavonad pushida guzarad, lekin qaror yo hukmnomai sud dar in mavrid oshkoro elon karda meshavad.

Tanho sud qodir ast, ki badi murofiai sudi shakhsro gunahkor yo begunoh etirof kunad. Dar tajribai sudii kishvari mo borho hodisahoe shudaand, ki sud in yo on shakhsro bad az hamatarafa barrasi namudani parvandai u begunoh elon kardaast. CHunin holatho az on sabab rukh medihand, ki maqomoti taftishi ibtidoi ba tavri lozima holathoi parvandaro namesanjand yo khud ba shitobkori roh medihand.

Prinsipi shashum – man budani dakholat ba faoliyati sudho meboshad. Qonunhoi amalkunanda baroi sodir namudani beehtiromi ba sud hangomi barguzorii majlisi sudi yo in ki khalaldor namudani jarayoni barrasii parvandaho javobgari muqarrar namudaast.

Prinsipi haftum hamin ast, ki sudya huquqi dakhlnopaziri dorad. In dakhlnopaziri na tanho ba shakhsiyati sudya, balki ba manzil, joi kor, naqliyot, vositahoi aloqai dar ikhtiyori u buda, hujjatho va ashyoi shakhsii u niz taalluq dorad.

Parvandai jinoyatiro nisbati sudya tanho Prokurori generali metavonad ogoz kunad. Be rizoiyati Majlisi millii JT sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni, Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi va be rizoiyati Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston sudyai Sudi harbi,

Sudi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, sudi viloyati, sudi shahri Dushanbe, sudi shahr va nohiya, Sudi iqtisodii Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, Sudi iqtisodii viloyatho, Sudi iqtisodii shahri Dushanbero ba javobgarii jinoyati kashidan va ba habs giriftan mumkin nest.

Hatmi budani ijroi sanadhoi sudi prinsipi digari adolati sudi ba hisob meravad. Sanadhoi sudi iborat az halnomaho, hukmho, tainot va qarorhoi sudho badi etibori qonuni paydo kardanashon baroi ijro hatmi meboshand.

Nihoyat, prinsipi okhirin tamini amniyati sudyaho meboshad. Na faqat sudyaho, balki azoi oila va molumulki onho niz muvofiqi qonun tahti himoyai makhsusi davlat qaror dorand. Agar sudya zarur shumorad, bo ariza dar khususi muhofizati shakhsi va azoi oila, inchunin khonai istiqomati va molumulkash murojiat mekunad va in guna muhofizatro maqomoti korhoi dokhili ba tavri roygon tamin mekunand.

Sudya inchunin baroi girifta gashtan, nigoh doshtan va istifodai siloh huquq dorad.

  1. Mavqei sudya dar maqomoti sudi: tarzi intikhob, tain va ozodkunivu bozkhond Sudya shakhsi mansabdori davlati buda, adolati sudiro ba amal mebarorad. Az in sabab Konstitutsiya va Qonuni konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sudhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston» az 6-umi avgusti soli 2001 nisbat ba khohishmandoni vazifai sudya talaboti muayyan guzoshtaand. In talabotho vobasta ba maqomi sud az hamdigar tafovut dorand.

Dar moddai 11-i Qonuni konstitutsionii nomburda muayyan shudaast, ki sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsioni az jumlai huquqshinosone intikhob karda meshavand, ki sinnashon az 30-sola kam va az 65 ziyod naboshad va besh az dah sol sobiqai korii kasbi doshta boshand.

Ba vazifai sudyahoi Sudi Oli va Sudi Olii iqtisodi boshad, huquqshinosoni hamin sinnu sol intikhob meshavand, vale boyad haddi aqal 5 sol sobiqai kasbi doshta boshand. Nisbat ba khohishmandoni vazifai sudyahoi Sudi harbi, Sudi VMKB, sudhoi viloyati va shahri Dushanbe chunin talabotho peshnihod shudaast:

doshtani kasbi huquqshinosi, sinnu soli khohishmandoni in vazifa az 30 kam va az 65 ziyod naboshad, haddi aqal 5 sol sobiqai korii sudyagi doshta boshand. Sinnu soli onhoe, ki ba vazifai sudyahoi sudi shahru nohiya, Sudi harbi, Sudi iqtisodii VMKB,

Sudhoi iqtisodii viloyati, Sudi iqtisodii shahri Dushanbe tain meshavand, boyad az 25 kam va az 65 ziyod naboshad va haddi aqal 3 sol sobiqai kori kasbi doshta boshand.

Sudya boyad shoistai nomi khud boshad, yane pesh az hama, khudash qonunhoro bechunucharo rioya kunad, az har guna amalhoe, ki boisi past shudani obrui hokimiyati sudi megardand, hazar namoyad. Qonun ba vazifai digar mashgul shudan, inchunin vakili maqomoti namoyandagi, uzvi hizb yo sozmonhoi siyosi budani sudyaro man kardaast. Ba faoliyati sohibkori, gayr az faoliyati ilmivu ejodi va omuzgori mashgul shudani sudya mumkin nest. Muhlati vakolati sudyaho dar hama zinaho 10 sol ast.

Tarzi intikhob va taini sudyaho ba vazifaashon vobasta ba maqomoti sud az hamdigar farq mekunad. Agar rais, muovinoni rais va sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsioni, Sudi oli va Sudi Olii iqtisodiro bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston

Majlisi millii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston intikhob namoyad, pas sudyahoi Sudi harbi, Sudi VMKB, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya, sudyahoi Sudi iqtisodii VMKB, viloyat va shahri Dushanbero Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston bo peshnihodi SHuroi adliya tayin menamoyad.

Sudyaho niz misli digar mansabdoroni davlati az vazifa ozod yo bozkhond shuda metavonand, inchunin onho huquqi ba istefo baromadan dorand. Sababho gunogun shuda metavonand, masalan, bo sababi oilavi tagyir dodani joi istiqomat, az hududi kishvar baromada raftan, ba kori digar guzashtan, etibori qonuni paydo kardani hukmi aybdorkunii sud, binobar vazi badi salomati yo sababhoi digari uzrnok na kam az 4 moh paiham ijro karda natavonistani vazifai sudyagi, bedarak goib shudan yo favtida elon namudan, ikhtisor shudani shumorai sudyaho, vafoti sudya, vayron kardani qonunguzorii mehnati, tamom shudani muhlati vakolat, oshkor shudani nomuvofiq budani sudya ba vazifai ishgolkardaash va gayra.

Tartibi bozkhond yo az vazifa ozod kardani sudyaho ba monandi hamon tartibest, ki onhoro tain va yo intikhob kardaand. Masalan, sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsioni, Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi az jonibi Majlisi millii JT bo peshnihodi Prezidenti mamlakat, sudyahoi sathi digar (Sudi harbi, Sudi

VMKB, viloyatho, shahru nohiyaho, Sudhoi iqtisodii VMKB, viloyatho, shahri Dushanbe) ba peshnihodi SHuroi adliya az tarafi Prezidenti JT az vazifa ozod karda meshavand.

Qonun muayyan kardaast, ki sarfi nazar az sinnu sol hangomi na kam az bist soli sobiqai kori umumii huquqshinosi, az jumla na kam az dah soli sobiqai korii sudyagi doshtan har sudya huquqi ba istefo raftan dorad, sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni boshad, na

kamtar az 20 sol sobiqai umumii huquqshinosi boyad doshta boshad. Baroi sudyai ba istefo baromada nomi sudya, kafolati dakhlnopazirii shakhsi va mansubiyat  ba jomeai sudyaho nigoh doshta meshavad va dar in bobat ba u shahodatnoma doda meshavad.

  1. Nizomi sudii Jumhurii Tojikiston Muvofiqi moddai 84-i Konstitutsiya va Qonuni konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai sudhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston» az 6-umi avgusti soli 2001 nizomi sudii Jumhurii Tojikistonro sudhoi

zerin tashkil medihad: Sudi konstitutsioni, Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi, Sudi harbi, Sudi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, sudhoi viloyati, sudi shahri Dushanbe, sudhoi shahru nohiya, Sudi iqtisodii Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon,

Sudhoi iqtisodii viloyati, Sudi iqtisodii shahri Dushanbe.

Holo ba tavri mukhtasar maqomi baze az in sudhoro dida mebaroem.

Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston Dar Konstitutsiya hangomi nombar kardani sudho ba Sudi konstitutsioni joi avval doda shudaast. Inchunin yake az moddahoi bobi 8-um, ki «Sud» nom dorad, ba tarzi tashkil va salohiyati Sudi konstitutsioni

bakhshida shudaast. Dar in modda gufta meshavad, ki Sudi konstitutsioni az 7 nafar iborat buda, yake  az onho namoyandai Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon meboshad. Ba vazifai sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni huquqshinose intikhob karda meshavad, ki sinni u az 30 kam va az 65 ziyod naboshad va besh az 10 sol sobiqai korii kasbi doshta boshad. Tibqi Konstitutsiya ba uhdai Sudi konstitutsioni chunin salohiyat voguzor shudaast:

  1. Muayyan namudani muvofiqati qonunho, sanadhoi huquqii yakjoyai Majlisi milli va Majlisi namoyandagon, Majlisi milli, Majlisi namoyandagon, Prezident, Hukumat, Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi va digar maqomoti davlatiyu jamiyati, qarordodhoi ba quvvai qonun nadaromadai Tojikiston ba Konstitutsiya.
  1. Halli bahshoi bayni maqomoti davlati doir ba salohiyati onho.
  2. Ijroi vakolathoi digare, ki Konstitutsiya va qonunho muayyan kardaand.

CHunonki az in nishondodi Konstitutsiya va az unvoni khudi sud barmeoyad, Sudi konstitutsioni bo maqsadi tamini voloiyati meyorhoi Konstitutsiya va amali bevositai on dar qalamravi jumhuri, hifzi Konstitutsiya, huquq va ozodihoi inson va shahrvand tasis gardidaast. CHunonki dar bolo zikr namudem, Sudi konstitutsioni az 7 nafar – rais, muovini rais va 5 sudya iborat ast, ki yake az onho namoyandai Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon meboshad.

Muhlati vakolati sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsioni 10 sol ast.

Rais, muovini rais va sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston az tarafi Majlisi millii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston ba tariqi alohida intikhob karda meshavand. SHakhse

intikhobshuda hisob megardad, ki aksariyati ovozi shumorai umumii azoi Majlisi milliro girifta boshad.

Sudyahoi Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar vaqti ijroi vazifahoi khud mustaqil buda, faqat tobei qonun meboshand. YAgon khel mudokhila ba faoliyati onho, inchunin ba yagon shakle tasirrasoni bo maqsadi mamoniat kardan ba faoliyati onho mumkin nest.

Maqomi sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni bo vakolati vakili, uzviyati hizbi siyosi va ittihodiyai jamiyatiyu siyosi, ishgoli vazifai digar, faoliyati sohibkori, ijroi kor va giriftani muzd dar digar maqomoti davlati va jamiyati, mashguliyat ba fao-

liyati khususi, ba istisnoi faoliyati ejodi, ilmi va omuzgori nomuvofiq meboshad.

Sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni huquq nadorad, ki dar sud yo digar maqomoti hifzi huquq ba sifati himoyatgar yo namoyanda, gayr az namoyandai qonuni budan ishtirok kunad, yagon shakhsro baroi sohib shudan ba huquq yo ozod gardonidan az masuliyat himoya namoyad.

Sudyai Sudi konstitutsioniro be rozigii Majlisi millii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba javobgarii jinoi kashidan, habs kardan, mavridi chorahoi jazoi mamuri qaror dodan mumkin nest.

Dastgir kardan, majburan ovardani vay faqat dar mavride mumkin ast, ki dar joi sodir namudani jinoyat bozdosht shudaast va dar in bora favran ba raisi Sudi konstitutsioni yo muovini u khabar doda shuda boshad. Parvandai jinoi doir ba kirdori sudyai Sudi konstitutsioni faqat az tarafi Prokurori generalii Jumhurii Tojikiston ogoz karda meshavad.

Bozkhondi sudyai Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston az tarafi Majlisi millii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston dar mavridhoi zerin amali megardad:

– bo sababi qone gardonidani khohishi sudya dar borai istefoyash; nisbati u mavjud budani hukmi aybdorkunii Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki etibori qonuni paydo kardaast; dar asosi qarori quvvai qonuni paydokardai sud dar borai gayri qobili amal, bedarak goibshuda yo favtida donistani on; bo sababi vafoti sudya; mashgul shudani sudya ba faoliyate, ki ba vazifai u nomuvofiq ast; mahrum shudani sudya az shahrvandii Jumhurii Tojikiston;

sodir namudani kirdore, ki shanu etibori sudyaro past mezanad.

Qarorhoi Sudi konstitutsioniii Jumhurii Tojikiston qati buda, doir ba onho shikoyat kardan mumkin nest va ijroi onho az tarafi hamai maqomot, korkhonaho, muassisaho, tashkilotho, ahzobi siyosi va digar ittihodiyahoi jamiyati, shakhsoni mansabdor va shahrvandon, ki qarorho ba onho dakhl dorand, hatmi meboshand.

Sanadhoi Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston az qaror, khulosa va tainot iboratand.

Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston. CHunonki az unvoni sud malum ast, Sudi Olii JT maqomi olii sudi ba hisob meravad va nazorati sudiro az boloi faoliyati sudhoi harbii garnizonho, Sudi VMKB, viloyatho, shahru nohiyaho, shahri Dushanbe oid ba parvandahoi grajdani, jinoyati, mamuri va digar parvandahoi dar tobeiyati in sudho buda ba amal mebarorad.

Boyad guft, ki vazifa va salohiyati Sdi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston khele murakkab va purmasuliyat meboshad.

Vay dar doirai salohiyati khud parvandahoro ba sifati sudi zinai yakum va duyum bo tartibi nazorati az rui holathoi navoshkorgardida barrasi menamoyad;

huquq dorad dar borai konstitutsioni budani qonu- ni tatbiqshuda oid ba parvandai mushakhkhas ba Sudi konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston murojiat  namoyad; tajribai sudiro jambast menamoyad, omori sudiro tahlil menamoyad, ba sudho doir ba masalahoi tatbiqi qonunhoi amalkunanda, ki hangomi barrasii parvandahoi sudi ba miyon meoyand, tavzehoti dasturi medihad, baroi az tarafi sudho ijro namudani in tavzehot nazorat mekunad; dar doirai salohiyatash

masalahoero, ki az shartnomahoi baynalmilalii Jumhurii Tojikiston barmeoyand, hallu fasl menamoyad; digar salohiyathoero, ki qonun peshbini namudaast, amali megardonad.

Dar muayyan kardani hayati Sudi Oli bevosita Prezident va Majlisi milli ishtirok mekunand.

CHunonchi, Majlisi millii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikistonro dar hayati rais, muovini yakum, muovinon, sudyaho va mashvaratchiyoni khalqi intikhob namuda, shumorai sudyahoi Sudi Oliro bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar menamoyad.

Dar Sudi Oli vohidhoi zerini sokhtori – Plenumi Sudi Oli, kollegiyai sudi oid ba parvandahoi grajdanii Sudi Oli, kollegiyai sudi oid ba parvandahoi jinoii Sudi Oli va kollegiyai harbi tasis doda meshavand.

Plenumi Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston zinai olii sudi buda, dar hayati Raisi Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, muovini yakum, muovinoni u va sudyahoi Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston amal mekunad.

Plenumi Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar mavridhoi zaruri, vale na kamtar az du marotiba dar yak sol davat karda meshavad. Jalasai Plenumro Raisi Sudi Oli tayin mekunad.

Tavzehoti dasturii Plenumi Sudi Oli oid ba tatbiqi qonunguzori, ki dar mavridi barrasii parvandahoi sudi paydo meshavand, baroi sudho, digar maqomotu shakhsoni mansabdor, ki qonuni tavzehshudaro tatbiq menamoyand, hatmi meboshand.

Sanadhoi Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston -halnomaho, hukmho, tainot va qarorho meboshand.

Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston. Dar davlathoi peshraftai mutamaddini jahon hama gunna bahsho dar maqomoti sud hal karda meshavand. Bo  rivoj yoftani shaklhoi gunoguni molikiyat va rushdi sohai iqtisodi dar in davlatho khohu nokhoh zud-zud bahshoe paydo meshavand, ki mazmuni molumulki va iqtisodi dorand, yane ba munosibathoi pulivu moli, qarz, andoz, sohibkori va tijorat dakhl mekunand.

Baroi sari vaqt hal namudani chunin bahsho sudhoi makhsus – sudhoi iqtisodi tasis doda meshavand.

Dar nizomi sudii JT niz chunin navi sud amal mekunad va dar viloyatho va shahri Dushanbe sudhoi iqtisodi ba halli muammohoi sohai iqtisodi mashgul meboshand. To qabuli Konstitutsiyai soli 1994 bahshoi khojagii korkhonavu tashkilothoro maqomi makhsus – sudi arbitraji hal mekard.

Hamin tavr, Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba halli bahshoi iqtisodi va par vandahoi digare, ki az tarafi sudhoi iqtisodi mavridi barrasi qaror megirand, maqomi olii sudi buda, dar shaklhoi murofiavie, ki qonun peshbini kardaast, ba faoliyati onho nazorat mekunad va doir ba masalahoi tajribai sudi tavzehoti dasturi medihad.

Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston az rais, muovini yakum, muovini rais va sudyaho iborat ast. SHumorai sudyahoi in sudro Majlisi milli bo peshnihodi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar menamoyad. Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar hayati Plenumi Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston, rayosati Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston, kollegiyai sudii ba tariqi apellyatsioni taftish namudani qonuni va asosnok budani qarorhoi sudhoi iqtisodi, ki etibori qonuni paydo nakardaand; kollegiyai sudii ba tariqi kassatsioni taftish namudani qonuni va asosnok budani qarorhoi sudhoi iqtisodi, ki etibori qonuni paydo kardaand, amal mekunad.

Plenumi Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston zinai olii sudi buda, dar hayati Raisi Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston, muovini yakum, muovinhoi u va sudyahoi Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston amal mekunad.

Plenumi Sudi Olii iqtisodii Jumhurii Tojikiston masalahoi muhimtarini faoliyati sudhoi iqtisodiro hal mekunad.

Sudhoi harbii Jumhurii Tojikiston. Paydoishi sudhoi harbi ba sohibistiqlolii Jumhurii Tojikiston, tasisi artishi milli va maqomoti harbii Tojikiston vobastagi dorad.

Sudhoi harbi dar tamomi qismhoi harbi, muassisayu korkhona va tashkilothoi Quvvahoi Musallahi Jumhurii Tojikiston, qushunhoi dokhilii Vazorati korhoi dokhilii Jumhurii Tojikiston, qushunhoi sarhadii Kumitai hifzi sarhadi davlatii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, Vazorati amniyati Jumhurii Tojikiston, Vazorati holathoi favqulodda va mudofiai grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston, maqomoti idorai harbi va digar qismhoi alohidai harbi adolati sudiro ba amal mebarorand.

Dar qismhoi harbii digar davlatho, ki dar qa- lamravi Jumhurii Tojikiston voqe gardidaand, adolati sudi az nomi Jumhurii Tojikiston muvofiqi sozishnomahoi baimzorasidai baynidavlati ba amal barovarda meshavad.

Sudhoi harbi dar hayati Quvvahoi Musallahi Jumhurii Tojikiston az rui prinsipi hududi dar mahalli voqeshavii garnizonho tasis doda shuda, az sudhoi harbii garnizonho va kollegiyai harbii Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston iborat meboshand. Faoliyati sudhoi harbi ba hifzi huququ ozodihoi khizmatchiyoni harbi, shahrvandone, ki az jamomadi harbi meguzarand va digar shahrvandon, huquq va manfiathoi qonunii qismho, korkhonayu muassisa va tashkilothoi harbi, mustahkam kardani qonuniyat va tartiboti huquqi nigaronida shudaast.

Ba sudhoi harbi halli chunin parvandaho voguzor shudaast:

– parvandaho dar borai tamomi jinoyathoe, ki khizmatchiyoni harbi, hamchunin uhdadoroni harbi dar davrai guzashtani jamomadi harbi sodir namudaand; parvandaho dar borai tamomi jinoyathoe, ki shakhsoni hayati afsari, praporshikho, serjantho, starshinaho va askaroni Vazorati amniyati Jumhurii Tojikiston, khizmatchiyoni  harbii qushunhoi sarhadii Kumitai hifzi sarhadi davlatii nazdi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, hamchunin khizmatchiyoni harbii Gvardiyai milli va Vazorati holathoi favqulodda va mudofiai grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston sodir kardaand;

  • – parvandaho dar borai jinoyathoe, ki khizmat-chiyoni harbii qushunhoi dokhili, vohidho va qismhoi milisai az rui davat tashkilkardashudai Vazorati korhoi dokhilii Jumhurii Tojikiston va sokhtmon-chiyoni harbi sodir kardaand;
  • – parvandaho dar borai jinoyatho bar ziddi tar-tibi muqarrarshudai adoi khizmat, ki shakhsoni hayati rohbarikunandai muassisahoi islohi sodir namudaand;
  • – parvandaho dar borai josusi;
  • – parvandaho dar borai jinoyathoe, ki qonun peshbini kardaast.

Ba nizomi sudhoi harbi kollegiyai harbii Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston va sudhoi harbii garnizonhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston dokhil meshavand.

Sudi harbii garnizon dar hudude, ki yak yo yakchand garnizoni harbi voqe gardidaast, tashkil meshavad va az rais, muovini rais, sudyaho va mashvaratchiyoni khalqi iborat ast. Dar sudhoi harbie, ki az panj va ziyoda az on sudyaho iborat ast, vazifai muovini rais muqarrar karda meshavad.

SHumorai sudyahoro baroi har yak sudi harbii garnizon Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar menamoyad.

Savolho:

  1. Dar Jumhurii Tojikiston kadom maqomoti davlati adolati sudiro ba amal mebarorad?
  2. Fao-liyati sudhoro gayr az Konstitutsiya boz kadom sanadi meyorivu huquqi ba tanzim medarorad?
  1. Adolati sudi chist?
  2. Prinsiphoi adolati sudi kadomhoyand va chi guna mazmun dorand? 5. Murofiai sudi bo kadom zabon surat megirad? 6. Mafhumi dakhlnopaziri ba kori sudyaro SHumo chi guna mefahmed? 7. Parvandai jinoyatiro nisbati sudya ki ogoz karda metavonad?
  3. Sudyahoi kadom maqomoti sudi bo peshnihodi SHuroi adliya az jonibi Prezident tain va ozod karda meshavand? 9. Kiho ba vazifai sudyahoi Sudi Oli, Sudi Olii iqtisodi, Sudi VMKB, sudi viloyat va shahri Dushanbe intikhob va tain shuda metavonand?
  4. Muhlati vakolati sudyaho chand sol ast?
  5. Oyo sudya huquqi ba istefo baromadan dorad va on chi guna amali megardad?
  6. Nizomi sudii Jumhurii Tojikistonro nombar kuned.
  7. Sudi konsti-tutsioni dar nizomi sudi chi guna mavqe dorad?
  8. Salohiyati Sudi Olii Jumhurii Tojikistonro nombar kuned.
  9. Maqsadi tasisi sudhoi harbi chist? 16. Sudhoi iqtisodi ba halli kadom masalaho mashguland?

 

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