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HOKIMIYATI MAHALLI

 Hokimiyati mahalli az maqomoti namoyandagii mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati iborat meboshad (moddai 76 Konstitutsiya). Faoliyati onho dar asosi Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston, Qonuni konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston az 17 mayi soli 2004 «Dar borai maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati», qonunho, digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston, inchunin sanadhoi huquqii baynalmilalie, ki Jumhurii Tojikiston onhoro etirof kardaast, ba tanzim darovarda meshavad. Asosi iqtisodi va moliyavii faoliyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlatiro mablaghoi bujeti, molikiyati onho, inchunin obekthoe, ki baroi khojagidori ba onho suporida shudaand va on obektho manbai ba dast ovardani daromad va qone gardonidani talaboti ijtimoiyu iqtisodii aholi meboshand, tashkil medihand. Onho faoliyati khudro bo rohi faroham ovardani sharoiti musoid baroi az jonibi shahrvandon amali namudani huquqhoi konstitutsionii khud oid ba ishtirok dar idorakunii korhoi davlati va jamiyati anjom medihand.

Faoliyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati dar asosi prinsiphoi qonuniyat va adolati ijtimoi; hifzi huququ ozodihoi inson va shahrvand;

mutobiqati manfiathoi mahalli va umumidavlati;

ba tavri demokrati, oshkoro va bo darnazardoshti gunogunandeshii siyosi hal namudani masalaho; masuliyat baroi natijahoi faoliyati khud dar nazdi aholi; izhori irodai aholi ba vositai Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor; mustaqiliyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati dar halli masalahoi doirai vakolati khud; hatmi budani ijroi sanadhoi maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, ki dar doirai vakolati onho qabul shudaand; dastajami budani faoliyati maqomoti namoyandagii mahallii hokimiyati davlati va yakkasardorii faoliyati maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati ba roh monda shudaast.

Qismi tarkibii maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlatiro maqomoti namoyandagii mahallii hokimiyati davlati tashkil medihad. On az Majlisi vakiloni khalqi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya iborat meboshad. Majlisi vakiloni khalqi Viloyati Mukhtori

Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiyaro intikhobkunandagoni vohidhoi marziyu mamurii dakhldor dar asosi prinsiphoi umumi, barobar, mustaqim, bo ovozdihii pinhoni ba muhlati 5 sol intikhob mekunand. Har yak shahrvandi Jumhurii Tojikiston az sinni 18 metavonad vakili Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor intikhob shavad. SHumorai vakiloni Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldorro Majlisi vakiloni khalqi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya dar doirai meyorhoi zerin muayyan mekunad: baroi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat va shahri Dushanbe – to 70 nafar baroi shahr va nohiya to 40 – nafar.

Majlisi vakiloni khalq dar surati intikhob shudani na kamtar az se du hissai shumorai umumii muqarrarshudai vakiloni on vakolatdor meboshad.

Tartibi intikhobi vakiloni Majlisi vakiloni khalqro Qonuni konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston az 20 dekabri soli 1999 «Dar borai intikhoboti vakilon ba majlishoi mahallii vakiloni khalq» tanzim menamoyad.

Majlisi vakiloni khalq doroi salohiyathoe meboshad, ki qonunguzorii amalkunanda muayyan namudaast. Ba salohiyati on qabuli bujet, nazorat az boloi on va tasdiqi hisoboti on; muqarrar namudani andoz va pardokhtho muvofiqi qonun; tarzi idora va ikhtiyordori namudani molikiyati kommunaliro muayyan namudan va istifodai samaranoki onro nazorat kardan; dar doirai vakolati khud munosibathoi vobasta ba istifodai ob, zamin va digar sarvathoi tabiiro tibqi sanadhoi meyorii huquq tanzim namu-dan, barrasi namudani hisoboti rohbaroni sokhtori mahallii maqomoti markazii hokimiyati ijroiya va tashkilothoi dakhldor va hangomi zarurat ba maqomoti dakhldor dar khususi ba javobgari kashidani shakhsoni mansabdori on peshnihod irsol namudan;

dar holathoi muqarrarnamudai qonun pesh az muhlat qat namudani vakolati vakiloni Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor; oid ba tamini huququ ozodihoi inson va shahrvand tibqi sanadhoi meyoriyu huquqi tadbirhoi zaruri andeshidan; oid ba tagyir dodani sarhadi marzhoi mamurivu hududi qarori khudro ba maqomoti dakhldor peshnihod namudan; komissiyahoi doimi, muvaqqati va maqomoti digarro tasis dodan;

hayat va nizomnomai onhoro tasdiq namudan; dasturi Majlisi vakiloni khalqro qabul namudan va digar salohiyathoero, ki amali namudani onro qonunguzori muqarrar namudaast, dokhil meshavand.

Hamzamon Majlisi maqomoti namoyandagiimahallii hokimiyati davlati huquq dorad, ki ba Raisi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya hangomi mavjud budani asos bo ovozdihii pinhoni va bo tarafdorii na kamtar az se du hissai shumorai umumii vakiloni Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor nobovari izhor namuda, ba Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston dar borai ozod namudani u peshnihod manzur namoyad.

SHakli asosii faoliyati Majlisi vakiloni khalq ijlosiya meboshad. Ijlosiyai yakumi on na dertar az yak mohi badi intikhoboti Majlisi vakiloni khalq az tarafi raisi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya va dar vaqti nabudani rais az tarafi yake az muovinoni

u, ki vakili in Majlisi vakiloni khalq meboshad, davat karda meshavad. Ijlosiya sole na kamtar az chor marotiba davat karda meshavad. Ijlosiyai Majlisi vakiloni khalq bo tashabbusi na kamtar az se yak hissai shumorai umumii vakiloni on niz davat shuda metavonad. Qaror dar borai davati i jlosiya na dertar az 10 ruzi to barguzorshavii ijlosiya va dar holathoi zaruri favran qabul karda shuda, ba malumoti vakilon rasonida meshavad.

Ijlosiyai majlisi vakiloni khalqro rais va hangomi nabudani rais yake az muovinoni u, ki vakili majlisi vakiloni khalq meboshad, mekushoyad va ba on raisi mekunad. Ijlosiya dar surate vakolatdor hisobida meshavad, ki dar on na kamtar az se du hissai shumorai muqarrarshudai vakilon ishtirok doshta

boshand. Az rui masalahoe, ki dar ijlosiya barrasi meshavand, majlisi vakiloni khalq bo ovozdihii oshkoro yo pinhoni bo tarafdorii az nisf ziyod yo az se du hissai shumorai umumii vakilon qaror qabul mekunand. Qarorhoi majlisi vakiloni khalq dar hududi on khususiyati umumihatmi dorand. Hamzamon, ijroi qarorhoi Majlisi vakiloni khalq, ki dar doirai vakolati on qabul shudaand, baroi maqomoti davlati, muassisaho, korkhonaho va tashkilotho, novobasta az tobeiyati idoravi va shakli molikiyatashon, shakhsoni mansabdor va shahrvandon dar hududi dakhldor hatmi meboshand. Majlisi vakiloni khalq metavonad qarorhoi khudro tagyir dihad va yo bekor kunad. Dar surati ba Konstitutsiya va qonun muvofiqat nakardani sanadhoi Majlisi vakiloni khalq onho az tarafi khudi Majlisi vakiloni khalq, maqomoti boloi va yo sud bekor karda meshavand. Dar faoliyati Majlisi vakiloni khalq mavqei komissiyai doimi khele kalon ast. Onhoro Majlisi vakiloni khalq tasis medihad.

Nomguy va shumorai hayati komissiyai doimi va muvaqqatiro bo peshnihodi Raisi majlisi vakiloni khalq Majlisi vakiloni khalq muayyan menamoyad.

Rais va azoi onho az hisobi vakilon intikhob karda meshavand. Komissiyahoi mazkur bo maqsadi musoidat ba barrasii peshakii masalaho va ba ijlosiya manzur namudani onho, tatbiqi qarorhoi Majlisi vakiloni khalq va sanadhoi meyorii huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston tasis doda meshavand.

Qismi digari maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlatiro maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati tashkil medihad. On az Raisi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahri Dushanbe, shahr va nohiya, idoraho, kumitaho, shubaho va digar sokhtorhoi mahallii maqomoti markazii hokimiyati ijroiya iborat meboshad. Rais namoyandai Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston buda, hokimiyatiijroiyaro dar mahal amali menamoyad va maqomoti namoyandagi va ijroiyaro dar vohidhoi marziyu mamurii dakhldor sarvari mekunad. Vayro Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston ba vazifa tain va az vazifa ozod menamoyad va ba tasdiqi Majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor peshnihod menamoyad. Dar surati dar majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor tasdiq nashudani nomzadii rais Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston huquq dorad uro takroran ba Majlisi vakiloni khalq baroi tasdiq peshnihod namoyad yo shakhsi digarro ba in vazifa tain namuda, baroi tasdiq ba Majlisi vakiloni khalq peshnihod namoyad. Hamzamon, hangomi peshnihodi Prezidentro dar khususi az vazifa ozod namudani rais tasdiq nakardani majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor, masala takroran baroi tasdiq peshnihod karda meshavad. Dar surate ki shakhs vakili majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor naboshad, u ba vazifai rais hamchun ijrokunanda tain karda va badi vakil intikhob shudanash bo tartibi dar bolo ovardashuda ba vazifa tain va baroi tasdiq peshnihod karda meshavad. Rais dar hududi vohidhoi marziyu mamurii dakhldor salohiyathoi muayyankardai qonunguzoriro amali menamoyad.

Vay ijlosiyai vakiloni majlisi khalqro davat namuda, ba on raisi mekunad, faoliyati komissiyahoi doimii majlisi vakiloni khalqro hamohang mesozad, loihai bujetro baroi qabul ba majlisi vakiloni khalq peshnihod menamoyad, pas az qabul ijroi onro tamin va az rui on hisobot medihad, baroi tasdiqi Majlisi vakiloni khalq barnomahoi taraqqiyoti ijtimoiyu iqtisodi va digar barnoma va naqshahoi rushdi ijtimoiro peshnihod menamoyad va doir ba ijroi onho dar ijlosiya hisobot medihad, dar doirai vakolati khud oid ba takmili tartiboti huquqi va purzur namudani muboriza bo jinoyatkori, tamini amniyati shahrvandon, hifzi huququ ozodihoi onho choraho meandeshad, molikiyati kommunaliro dar doirai vakolati khud idora menamoyad, dar doirai vakolati khud masalahoi oid ba zaminro hal menamoyad, tashkilotho, muassisaho va korkhonahoi davlatiero, ki ba molikiyati kommunali asos yoftaand, bo tartibi muqarrarkardai qonunguzori tasis va barham medihad, qabuli shahrvandonro ba roh memonad, arzu shikoyat va taklifhoi onhoro barrasi menamoyad, inchunin digar vakolathoero, ki qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar namudaast, amali menamoyad.

Oid ba masalahoi vakolati khud rais dar nazdi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston, maqomoti boloi va majlisi vakiloni khalqi dakhldor hisobotdihanda va masul meboshad.

Raisi Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon, viloyat, shahr va nohiya hangomi dar asosi arizai khud ba istefo raftan; ba quvvai qonuni daromadani halnomai sud dar khususi gayri qobili amal donistani u; ba quvvai qonuni daromadani hukmi aybdorkunii sud, muntazam ijro nakardani uhdadorihoi khizmati va qati shahrvandii Jumhurii Tojikiston az vazifa ozod karda meshavad.

Muvofiqi moddai 78 Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston maqomoti khudidorakunii shahraku deha jamoat ast. Faoliyati jamoat dar asosi Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai maqomoti khudidorai shahrak va deha» az 1 dekabri soli 1994 ba tanzim darovarda meshavad. Mutobiqi Qonuni mazkur khudidorai mahalli az nizomi tashkili faoliyati aholi baroi mustaqilona va tahti masuliyati khud mustaqiman yo ba vositai maqomoti intikhobkardai khud dar asosi qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston hallu fasl namudani masalahoi doroi ahamiyati mahalli iborat ast.

Maqomoti khudidorai mahalli masalahoero, ki ba salohiyati onho taalluq dorad, mustaqiman yo ba vositai namoyandagoni khud hal menamoyand. Maqomoti khudidorai shahrak va deha jamoat meboshad. Onho az rui usuli marzi tashkil karda meshavand. SHakli asosii khudidorai mahallii shahrvandon Majlisi namoyandagon meboshad. Dar kori jamoatho shahrvandone ishtirok menamoyand, ki sinnashon ba 18 rasidaast va dar hududi mazkur doimi istiqomat mekunand.

Jamoatro raisi jamoat bo maslihati majlisi dakhldori vakiloni khalq yo raisi shahr, nohiya dar mavridi zarurat, vale sole kamash du bor davat mekunad. Jamoat inchunin az tarafi Majlisi vakiloni khalq, raisi shahr, nohiya yo khud bo tashabbusi kamash seyaki shahrvandone, ki huquqi dar jamoat ishtirok kardan dorand, davat shuda metavonad.

Dar jamoati shahrak namoyandagoni kuchaho, mahallaho, digar vohidhoi marzii qalamravi on, dar jamoati dehot boshad, namoyandagoni dehahoi dakhldor chun vakil ishtirok menamoyand. Meyori namoyandagi va tartibi peshbarii vakil az tarafi Majlisi vakiloni khalqi shahr, nohiya yo raisi shahr yo nohiya muqarrar karda meshavad.

Jamoatho ba sharte bosalohiyat hisob karda meshavand, ki dar onho kamash az se du hissai namoyandagoni shahrvandoni ba jamoatho peshbarigardida hozir boshand.

Baroi ijroi kori jamoat rayosat intikhob karda meshavad. Jamoatro raisi on idora mekunad. Qarorho az rui hamai masalaho bo ovozdihii oshkoro va bo aksariyati oddii ovozhoi hoziron qabul karda meshavand. Raisi jamoatro bo peshnihodi raisi shahr yo nohiyai dakhldor jamoat intikhob mekunad.

SHumorai hayat va muovinoni raisi jamoatro raisi shahr yo nohiya muqarrar menamoyad. Muovinoni rais va kotibi jamoat bo peshnihodi raisi jamoat on goh intikhobshuda hisob meyoband, ki ba tarafdorii onho ziyoda az nisfi hoziron ovoz doda boshand. Rais, muovinoni rais va kotibi jamoat ba muhlati 5 sol intikhob karda meshavand.

Rais, muovinoni u va kotibi jamoat pesh az muhlat az nav intikhob shudanashon mumkin ast. In dar mavridi muntazam rioya nakardani Konstitutsiya, qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, ijro nakardani qarorhoi jamoat, majlisi vakiloni khalq, sanadhoi Prezident va Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, etibor paydo kardani hukmi sud, inchunin az hududi jamoati dakhldor kuchida raftan va shakhsi beshahrvand shudan imkonpazir meboshad.

Asosi iqtisodi va moliyavii maqomoti khudidoraro molikiyati on tashkil medihad. Inshoothoi sokhtashuda, kharida yo khud bo tartibi muqarrarkardai qonun dodai muassisahoi jamiyati, ijtimoivu madani va tainoti digar, inchunin vositahoi naqliyot, lavozimoti khojagi va amvoli digar ba molikiyati maqomoti khudidora dokhil meshavand. Zakhirai moliyavii maqomoti khudidora az mablagi bujet, ki majlishoi shahri va nohiyavii vakiloni khalq bo tartibi muayyankardai qonun judo mekunand, az sahmi ikhtiyorii shahrvandon va kollektivhoi mehnati, mablagi az fondhoi khayriya va manbahoi digar judokarda hosil meshavad.

Jamoat faoliyati khudro dar doirai vakolathoi khud, ki qonunguzori muqarrar namudaast, ba roh memonad. Az jumla, obodonii shahraku deha va khizmatrasoni ba aholii mahalro ba roh monda, naqshai chorabinihoi obodoni va behbudii vazi sanitarii mahal, inchunin naqshai kharojoti maqomoti khudidoraro tasdiq mekunad, ba kharojoti mablagi dar ikhtiyorash buda nazorat mekunad va masalahoi dar qalamravi khud muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarkardai qonun tasis namudani korkhonahoi khurd, kooperativho, ustokhonaho va sekhhoi hunarmandiro hal mekunad. Hamzamon, masalahoi digarero, ki qonunguzori ba salohiyati u dodaast, amali menamoyad. Jamoat dar doirai vakolathoyash qarorho qabul mekunad, ki ijroi onho baroi hamai shahrvandoni hududi jamoat hatmi meboshad. Az boloi qarorhoi gayriqonunii jamoat ba sud yo Majlisi vakiloni khalq shikoyat kardan mumkin ast.

Raisi jamoat dastgohi khudro dorad, ki shumorai kormandoni on bo maslihati Majlisi vakiloni khalqi shahr, nohiya yo az tarafi raisi on muqarrar karda meshavad. Raisi jamoat ijroi qarorhoi jamoat, inchunin faoliyati jorii onro ba roh memonad.

Baroi ijroi talaboti meyorhoi Konstitutsiya, qonunho, digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi dar hududi jamoat kor mebarad, zakhirahoi moliyaviro ikhtiyordori menamoyand, bo shakhsoni huquqi va voqei shartnomaho mebandad, manfiathoi shahrvandonro dar maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, sudho, dar munosibat bo tashkilotho dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonunguzori himoya menamoyad, dar borai behbudii sharoiti moddi va manziliyu maishii shahrvandon choraho meandeshad, nazorati jamiyatiro ba kori tashkilothoi savdo, khizmatrasonii maishi, ijtimoivu madanii hududi khud ba roh memonad; ba tashkili nazorati vazi sanitarii mahalho, manbahoi obrasoni, manzilu maktabho va muassisahoi digar musoidat mekunad; ba hifzu istifodai amvoli besohib, inchunin amvole, ki bo tariqi meros ba davlat guzashtaast, tadbirho meandeshad; bo maqomoti hifzi huquq dar tamini tartiboti jamiyati dar qalamravi dakhldor hamkori menamoyad; shahrvandonro dar joi kor qabul mekunad, arzu shikoyati shahrvandonro barrasi menamoyad, doir ba onho chorahoi dakhldor meandeshad va digar vakolathoi peshbininamudai qonunguzoriiJumhurii Tojikistonro amali menamoyad.

Boyad qayd kard, ki mutobiqi qonunguzorii amalkunanda maqomoti khudidorai shahrak va dehot maqomoti davlati ba hisob nameravand va dar nizomi maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati joi mustaqil nadorand, harchand ki dar doirai khudidorai mahalli salohiyati vase dorand.

Savolho:

  1. Hokimiyati mahalli az kadom maqomotho iborat meboshad?
  2. Faoliyati maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati dar asosi kadom prinsipho amali karda meshavad?
  3. Maqomoti namoyandagii mahallii hokimiyati davlati ba kadom muhlat va dar asosi kadom prinsipho intikhob karda meshavad?
  4. Dar borai salohiyathoi majlisi vakiloni khalq malumot dihed.
    5. SHakli asosii faoliyati majlisi vakiloni khalq chi meboshad? 6. Dar borai maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati malumot dihed.
  5. Jamoat chi guna maqomot meboshad?
  6. Dar borai asosi iqtisodi va moliyavii maqomoti khudidorai mahalli malumot dihed.

 

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