Home / Gunogun / HIKOYaHO AZ «ANVORI SUHAYLI» («KALILA VA DIMNA»)

HIKOYaHO AZ «ANVORI SUHAYLI» («KALILA VA DIMNA»)

In hikoya takhminan dar asri IV yo soli 300 (yane taqri ban 1700 sol pesh az in) az tarafi muallifi nomalume dar Hinduston talif gardidaast.

Ammo matni aslii on to zamoni mo omada narasidaast. On kitobe, ki az rui on tahrirhoyu tarjumahoi badina ba vujud omadaand, soli 1199 tahrir yoftaast. «Kalila va Dimna» dar Hinduston bo nomi «Panchatanra» (yane «Panj kitob») mashhur ast.

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Hukmroni sulolai Sosoniyon Khusravi Anushervon (531-579) shunidaast, ki dar kuhhoi Hind giyohe meruidaast va agar onro ba murda dihand, zinda meshudaast. Anushervon Barzuya nom hakimi khudro ba Hinduston mefiristad, ki on giyohro dastras namoyad. Barzuya dar kuhsori Hinduston in giyohro bisyor justuju mekunad, vale onro paydo karda nametavonad Az donishmandi kuhansoli Hind sirri in giyohi «jonbakhsh»-ro mefahmad: giyohi jonbakhsh kitobi «Kalila va Dimna» budaast, ki sukhanoni pandomuzi on odamoni nodoni ba murda barobarro donovu bino mekardaast. Barzuya on kitobro paydo karda, az on nuskha mebardorad va ba Eron nazdi Anushervon meorad. Takhmin mekunand, ki Barzuya «Kalila va Dimna»-ro ba zaboni pahlavi tarjuma kardaast.

Dar natijai hamlai arabho bisyor osori tamaddun va adabiyoti khalqhoi Eronu Osiyoi Miyona az bayn raft. «Kalila va Dimna» dar qatori kitobhoi nobudnashuda, khushbakhto na, boqi mond va dar asri VIII az zaboni pahlavi ba arabi bo qalami shoir va mutarjimi mashhur Abdullo ibni Muqaffa tarjuma shud.

«Kalila va Dimna» badtar tadrijan ba zabonhoi yunoni, slavyani, yahudi, lotini, hamagi ba shast zabon tarjuma shuda, dusad marotiba tahrir yoft.

Dar asri XII Abulmaolii Nasrulloh «Kalila va Dim-na»-ro az zaboni arabi az nav ba zaboni forsi tarjuma namud. To asri XV tarjumai forsii Abulmaolii Nasrullohshuhrati kalone dosht. Bo mururi zamon, barobari tagyiroti siyosiyu iqtisodi, aqidavu afkori ijtimoi, pesh az hama, zavqu pisandi badei niz tagyir yoft. Aknun zarurati az nav tahrir namudani «Kalila va Dimna» ba vujud omad.

Navisandai barjasta, olimi namoyon va voizi behamtoi asri XV Mavlono Husayn Voizi Koshifi ba tarjumai Abulmaolii Nasrulloh libosi nav pushonida, «Kalila va Dimna»-ro az nav tahrir namud. U ba sharafi Shaykh Ahma-di Suhayli, ki az khosoni Sulton Husayni Boyqaro (1468-1506) bud, ba in kitob «Anvori Suhayli» nom guzosht.

Hikoyati «Kalila va Dimna» tarikhi duhazorsola dorad va dar muddati bist asr, beshubha, az jihati mazmun, sabk va uslub borho tagyir yoftaast.

Husayn Voizi Koshifi ba kitobi «Kalila va Dimna» hikoyati podshohi Chin va ba vositai on hikoyati Roy Dob shilim va Barahman Bidpoyro dokhil namud.

Dar mamlakati Chin podshohi adolatparvare bud, ki uro Humoyunfol meguftand. U Hujistaroy nom vaziri donishmand va sohibtadbire dosht. Ruze shohu vazir bo lashkari ziyod ba shikor baromadand. Ruzi daroz onho dar dashtu kuhsor jonvaronu hayvonotro sayd namudand. Badi shikor shoh lashkari khudro javob doda, hamrohi vazir va chand tan az sipohiyon ba tarafi shahr ravona shud.

Humoyunfol ba Hujistaroy taklif namud, ki dar yagon joi soyavu salqin kame istirohat namuda, pas ba roh daro yand. Hujistaroy uro ba domanai kuhe, ki margzori sabzu khurram va chashmasorhoi beshumor dosht, ovard. Onho dar labi in chashmaho va soyai darakhtho nishasta istirohat mekardand.

 Dar margzor darakhti kuhnai seb bud, ki az nashunamo monda, tanai on az zakhmi kirmon kholi shuda bud. Dar kovokii in darakht zanburhoi asal khona sokhta budand va bo navbatu tartib darobaro mekardand. Humoyunfol, ki in holro pesh az in nadida bud, chi budani in zanburho va sababi taku davi onhoro az vaziri khud pursid. Hujistaroy javob dod:

– In zanburho guruheand, ki manfiati bisyoru zarari andake dorand. Onho podshohe dorand, ki ba jussa az onho buzurgtar ast va hamai onho ba u sari itoat kham kardaand:

baroi idora namudani onho vazir, hojib, darbon, posbon va naqibi lashkar tain namudaast. Har yak az in zanburho baroi khud az mum khonai shashkunjae sokhtaast va ba hukmi sultonashon az khonahoyashon berun meoyand. Amirashon mefarmoyad, ki onho tani khudro ba har chizi nopok oluda nasozand. Az in sabab, onho faqat boloi gulu shukufahoi toza nishasta, gardhoi onro mekhurand.

Az gardi in gulu shukufaho dar dokhili onho sharbate hosil meshavad. Vaqte ki ba khonahoi khud meoyand, darbonon onhoro taftish mekunand, agar mabodo az onho bui bade oyad, hamon zamon onhoro du pora karda mekushand. Agar darbonon tagoful kunand va dar hamin hol onhoro ba khona roh dihand, podshoh az in bui bad khabardor shuda, ham on zanbur va ham on darbonro mekushad. Agar farzandi zanbure az zanburkhonai digar ba khonai onho daromadani shavad, onro man mekunand, agar gush nakunad, uro niz ba qatl merasonand.

Rivoyat mekunand, ki Jamshed tarzi davlatdoriro bo usuli hamin zanburho sokhta budaast. Humoyunfol az in sukhanoni Hujistaroy dar hayrat monda guft:

 «Ajab dar on ast, ki bo vujudi sirati hayvoni doshtanashon yakdigarro ozor namedihand va harchand nesh doshta boshand ham, hosili on faqat sharbati nush ast. Mo dar bayni odamon khilofi in odatro mebinem, ki jame az onho ba guruhi digare zarar merasonand va mekhohand, ki bunyode hamchun khudro barandozand».

Pas shohu vazir az akhloqi insoni va munosibati odamon bo hamdigar khele suhbatho kardand. Dar zimni in suhbat

Hujistaroy guft:

– Har podshohi odil, ki madori kori khudro bar hikmat nihad, pandu nasihati hakimon va donishmandonro dasturu amali kori khud kunad, ham mamlakatash obodon va ham raiyatash khushdilu shodon khohand shud. Chunonchi Roy Azami Dobshilimi hindi, ki asosi saltanati khudro az rui qoidahoi hakimi donishmand Barahman Bidpoy sokhta bud, ruzgori khudro ba komroni guzaronida.

Humoyunfol meguyad, ki u ham az qissai in Royi Azam bisyorho shunidaast, ammo tafsili on to hol ba u malum nest. Sipas az Hujistaroy khohish namud, ki in qissaro batafsil ba u hikoyat kunad.

Hujistaroy guft:

– Dar yake az kishvarhoi Hind podshohe bud, ki uro Roy Dobshilim meguftand. Dobshilim ba zaboni hindi podshohi buzurg guftan ast. Dobshilim shohi nihoyat raiyatparvar va sakhovatmand bud. Dar suhbati u payvasta hakimoni donish-

mand va olimoni fozil hozir budand.

– Ruze Dobshilim majlise ishrat orosta bud. Dar in majlis az khislathoi pisandida va sifathoi sutudai odamon va shohon sukhan meraft. Dar ayni suhbat sukhan az sakhovatmandi va ehsonu inom ba miyon omad. Hama guftand, ki baroi inson va makhsusan, shohon khislati behtarin va pisandatarin sakhovatmandi ast.

Dobshilim chun in sukhanho shunid, farmud, ki dari khazinaro kushoyand va zaru sim ba khosu om bidihand. Az in sakhovat va inomhoi bisyoru beshumori shoh khurdu kalon khursandu khushdil shudand.

Hamin shab Dobshilim dar khob did, ki piramardi nuronie peshi u omada guft:

– Imruz tu ganji garonmoyaro hadyai khosu om va khurdu kalon kardi. Subhidam barkhez va ba sui Mashriq birav, ki dar on jo ganje nihon ast va on nasibai tust.

Pagohii barvaqt Dobshilim az joy barkhesta, savor ba Sharq ravon shud. U ba domani kuhi balandqullae rasid, ki dar zeri on gori betage bud. Bar dari on gor piramardi ravshandile nishasta bud. Dobshilim chun nazdi on pir rasid, salom kard, piramard az diljuii shoh khursand shuda uro tahniyat khond va guft:

 – Shoho, man ba rasmi tuhfa ganjnomaero, ki az padaram meros mondaast, ba tu taqdim medoram. Dar on ganjnoma navishta shudaast, ki dar gushai in gor ganji farovone hast.

Man, ki az davlati dunyo dast kashidaam, mekhoham, ki in ganjro tu bibari va sarfi davlati khud bisozi.

Dobshilim ba khidmadgoron farmud, ki atrofi on gorro bikovand.Dar andak muddate khidmatgoron sanduqhoi bisyore paydo karda, peshi shoh ovardand. Dobshilim farmud,

sari sanduqho kushodand, dar onho simu zari farovon va tuhfahoi beshumor didand. Ammo dar bayni in sanduqho sanduqe didand, ki bo bandhoi mahkam basta va qulfi rumie ba on zada budand. Harchand justuju kardand, kalidi in qulf paydo nashud. Bo farmoishi Dobshilim ohangaroni chobukdast muvofiqi on qulf kalide sokhta sanduqro kushodand va az on durje berun ovardand. Daruni on durj huqqae bud. Huqqaro peshi shoh ovarda kushodand, ki az on porai harire berun omad, dar rui harir ba khati suriyoni chize navishta bud.

Pas olimero, ki az khatu zaboni suriyoni voqif bud, hozir kardand va on olim mazmuni in khatro chunin sharh dod:

– In ganjnoma maktubest, ki anvoi manfiatu foidaho dar on darj yoftaast. Mazmuni mukhtasari on in ast: Man, ki Hushang podshoham, in noma va khazinaro baroi Royi Azam Dobshilim nihodaam. Medonam, ki vaqte ki hamai in ganjho nasibi u meshavad, in vasiyatnomaro niz bayni in ganjho nihodam, to ki u ba zaru sim firefta nashuda, az rui hamin  vasiyatnoma korhoi khudro anjom dihad. Vasiyati avval on ast, ki agar podshoh har kasro az jumlai mulozimonash ba khud nazdik sozad, hargiz badguii digaronro dar haqqi u qabul nasozad. Zero har ki ba podshoh nazdik shud, albatta, jame az hamkoron ba u hasad mebarand va dar haqqi u har guna badgui mekunand, to uro az poy darovarand.

Vasiyati duvum: ba majlisi khud kasoni khabarkash va garazdorro roh nadihad va agar in sifatro az kase mushohida kunad, har chi zudtar dar payi peshgirii zarari u shavad.

Vasiyati savum: bo arbobi davlati khud hamesha tariqi mu vofiqat va nakukhohiro rioya namoyand, zero ba ittifoqi dustoni yakdilu yakjihat kor hamesha peshrav ast. Vasiyati chorum: ba lutfu mehrubonii dushman hargiz bovar nakunad, ki az dushman hargiz dusti naoyad.

Vasiyati panjum: chun gavhari murod ba dast daromad, dar muhofizati on gaflat nakunad, ki agar mabodo maqsud az dast ravad, ba dast ovardani on baso dushvor ast va dar raftani on pushaymoni sud nadorad. Vasiyati shashum: dar korho shitobzadagi va sabukkori nakunad, balki taammulu taanniro pesh girad, ki zarari tajil bisyoru manfiati sabru sukun beshumor ast. Vasiyati haftum: hej goh tadbiru choraandeshiro furu naguzorad. Chun binad, ki jame az dush-

manon ba qasdi vay ittifoq kardaand, saloh dar on binad, ki bo yake az onho dustivu mehruboni karda, ba in vasila rohi khalosi kunad. Vasiyati hashtum: az kasoni hasud va badkina hazar kunad va ba narmzabonii onho magrur nashavad, chun niholi kina dar zamini sina nishonda shud, samari on tanho zararu ozor khohad bud.

Vasiyati nuhum: anvor va bakhshidani gunohro shiori khud sozad va mulozimoni khudro ba andak jarima ba azobu shikanja giriftor nasozad. Vasiyati dahum: girdi ozori hej kas nagardad, to ki ba tariqi mukofot ba khudi u zarar narasad. Vasiyati yozdahum: ba kore, ki muvofiqi tavru loiqi holi u naboshad, mayl nakunad. Vasiyati duvozdahum: dar korho hamesha halimu vaznin va bosubot boshad.

Vasiyati sez dahum: mulozimoni azim va bovaribakhsh ba dast ovarda, az mardumi khoin va gaddor duri guzinad. Har yak az in vasiyatho, ki yod kardem, dostone va hikoyate dorad. Agar Roy khohad, ki ba tafsili in dostonu hikoyot khabar yobad, boyad ba Sarandeb ravad, ki sirri in guftor dar hamon jo kushoda khohad shud.

Dobshilim chun in sukhanho shunid, bo chande az arbobi davlat azimati safari Sarandeb namuda, ba roh baromad. U ba shahri Sarandeb rasida, du-se ruz az ranji roh barosuda, bad bo du-se tan mahramoni khud ba sui kuhi Sarandeb ravon gasht. Vaqte ki ba boloi kuh rasid, nazarash ba gore aftod, ki on maskani hakimi donishmand Bidpoy budaast.

Manii Bidpoy ba zaboni hindi tabibi mehrubon guftan ast. Dobshilim ba ziyorati u raft. Barahman Bidpoy uro bo mehruboni qabul namud, sababi ranji qadam pursid. Dobshilim qissai khud ba Barahman bozguft va az vasiyatnomai Hushang sukhan ba miyon ovard. Dobshilim yak-yak az in vasiyat horo ba hakimi donishmand Bidpoy Barahman arz mekard va Barahman dar on bob ba Dobshilim hikoyatho meguft. Kitobi «Kalila va Dimna» bayoni hamin suolu javobi Roy va Barahman ast.

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