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HARORATI HAVO

Havo chi tavr garm va sard meshavad? Dar troposfera havo nurhoi Oftobro misli shishai tireza az khud meguzaronad va az on havo qarib garm nameshavad (ba shishai nurhoi Oftob aftida va takhtai zeri on tireza dast rasoned).

Muqarrar shudaast, ki nurhoi Oftob avval sathi Zaminro garm mekunand, az garmii dar sathi Zamin pahnshuda havoi atmosfera garm meshavad. Binobar in havo dar nazdikii sathi Zamin hamesha nisbat ba qabathoi durtari on garmtar ast.

Garmshavii sathi Zamin nobasta ba on ast, ki nurhoi Oftob bo kadom kunj ba sathi Zamin meaftand. Kunji aftidani nurhoi Oftob ba sathi Zamin khar qadar kalon boshad (ba 90 daraja nazdik). sathi Zamin hamon qadar beshtar garm meshavad.

Dushaanbe ozero

Garmshavii sathi Zamin niz ba khosiyati on vobasta ast. Sathi khushki nisbat ba ob tez garm va tez sard meshavad. Sathi regi tez va sathi bo nabotot pushida susttar garm va khunuk meshavad. Vobasta ba hamin havoi dar boloi sathi Zamin buda ba qadri gunogun garmu sard meshavad.

CHen kardani haroratn havo. Harorati havo bo termometr (az yunony “termo” – harorat. ”metr” – chenak) chen karda meshavad. Baroi chen kardani harorati havo termometrro dar soya boyad guzosht. Zero termometri dar oftobjoy guzoshta chand daraja garm shudani khudi asbobro nishon medihad.

Dar stansiyahoi meteorology az khususi dar davomi shabonaruz tagyir yoftani harorati havo malumot megirand. dar on jo termometrro dar khonachai makhsusi chubin, ki dar balaidii 2 metr az sathi Zamin guzonshta shudaast va ba on havo ba osony medaroyad, vale nuri Oftob namerasad, meguzorand. Dar yak shabonaruz harorati havoro 8 marotiba (pas az har 3 soat) chen mekunand. Dar khudi hamon jo asbobi khudnavis – germograf (az yunoni” termo” – harorat, “grafo” – menavisam) guzoshta shudaast. Donistani harorati havoi mahal az bisyor jihat muhim ast.

Ravshanii shabonaruzii harorat. Dar hamai arzho, ham dar hamvoriyu kuhho, ham dar dashtu biyobonho hangomi havoi sof harorati pasttarin pesh az baromadani Oftob, harorati baland bsshad, dar qaribii nisfiruzi (badi soati 13) meshavad, chunki mahz nisfiruzi Oftob dar qiyom buda, nurhoyash ba sathi Zamin bo kunji kalontar meaftad va sathi Zaminro beshtar garm mekunad. In sathro dar geografiya sathi gusturda (yo sathi faol) menomand. Havoi boloi in sath garm shuda, vase megardad va baland mebaroyad. Ba joi vay havoi khunuktar omada, on ham garm meshavad. Dar natijai joyivazkunii doimii havo garmy ba balandy pahn meshavad. Badi nisfiruzi Oftob ba fururavi ba pasi ufuq cap mekunad, vale az sathi tafsida garmikhorijkuny davom dorad va on havoro garm mekunad. Hangomi gurubi Oftob dar mahalhoi kuhsor sathi Zamin nisbatan teztar khunuk meshavad va pastshavii harorati havo ogoz meyobad.

Farqiyati bayni harorati balandtarin va pasttarini shabonaruziro amplitudai (tagyiroti) shabonaruzii harorat menomand.

Dar Tojikiston va arzhoi miyona (mutadil) amplitudai kaloni shabonaruzii harorat bahoron va tobiston dar havoi sof rukh medihad. Hangomi havoi girifta abr sathi Zaminro chun kurpa az garmshavii ziyod va khunukshavy nigoh medorad, az hamin sabab amplitudai shabonaruzii havo kam ast.

Ravishi durusti shabonaruzii harorati havo bazan khalaldor meshavad: ruzona havo khunuk va shabona garm megardad. CHunin tagyiryobii gayrichashmdoshti harorat, masalan, bahor va tobiston hangomi az Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli dokhil shudani anbuhi havoi khunuk va zimiston hangomi az Uqyonusi Atlantika, Bahri Miyonazamin dokhil shudani khavoi garm, rukh medihad.

Harorati miyonan shabonaruzi. Dar natijai mushohidai harorati balandtarin va pasttarin harorati shabonaruzy muayyan karda meshavad. Dar statsiyahoi meteorologi odatan dar yak shabonaruz harorati havoro 8 marogiba sanjida, az rui hisobi miyonai arifmetikii onho harorati miyonai shabonaruzii havoro muayyan mekunand. Termometr bazan (dar bahoru zimiston) dar davomi shabonaruz ham harorati musbat – az 0° S baland va ham harorati manfi – az 0” S pastro nishon medihad. Dar in mavrid baroi muayyan kardani harorati miyona hosili jami harorati baland va pastro dar alohidagi megirand. Sipas az hosili jami ziyod hosili chami kamro tarh karda, farqiyatro ba shumorai chenkuny taqsim menamoyand. Ba raqami hosilshuda alomati taqsim meguzorand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Az rui qaydkho dar daftari havosanji dar davomi shabonaruz tagyir yoftani harorati havoro naql kuned.
  2. Amplitudai shabonaruzii harorat dar chi khel havo (abrnok sof) zied meshavad? Sabab chist?
  3.  Muvofiqi harorati miyonai harruza, ki dar daftari havosanchy navishtaed, dar muddati muayyai chy khel tagyir yoftani haroratro nakl kuned (past shud. baland shud, tagyir nayoft).

 

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