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HARITAI GEOGRAFI

Harita az kalimai yunoni girifta shuda manoyash varaq meboshad. In ba nomi kharita muvofiqat menamoyad, chunki kharitaho dar varaqhoi qogaz tartib doda meshavand. Onho kurashaklii Zaminro hamvor tasvir mekunand. Ammo shakli kuraro ba hamvor tabdil dodan be kandashavi va chinshavi tasavvurnopazir ast. Az hamin sabab dar sokhtani kharitaho ba sahv roh doda meshavad. On dar saheh nabudani samt, masofa va masohat (dar kharita) zohir megardad. Baroi on ki hangomi sokhtani khariga sahvu khato kam shavad, az proeksiyahoi (naqshahoi gunoguni kartografi) gunogun istifoda mebarand.

kuhho

Misol, kharitae, ki olimi mashriqzamin Aburayhoni Beruni talif namudaast, dar asosi proeksiyahoi kununi va stereografi sokhta shudaast. Qati nazar az on ki kharitaho dar zaminai kadom proeksiya sokhta meshavand, vobasta ba tayinotashon dar onho obekt va hodisahoi mukhtalifi geografi (joygirshavii materikho, ukyonusho, daryoho va kuhho), samti” vazishi shamol, harakati jarayonhoi bahry, sohahoi khojagi, hududi davlatho va gayra tasvir va bo alomathoi sharti ishora karda meshavand. Az in jo kharitai geografi tasviri khurd va jambastgardidai hamvorii sathi Zamin buda, dar on tamomi obekt va hodisahoi geografi bo alomathoi sharti ifoda shudaand. Miqyosi kharitaho nisbat ba miqyosi surati mahal khurdand. Onho vobasta ba miqyos ba se guruh judo meshavand: kalonmiqyos (1:200000 va kalontar).

 Miqyosi kharita har qadar khurd boshad, mahal dar on bo tamomi juziyotash tasvir nameebad. Misol, mahal dar Miqyosi M000 bo tamomi juziyotash, dar Miqyosi 1:1000000 hamchun yak nuqta tasvir meyobad.

Tafovuti suryati makha.1 az kharita. Naqshi mahal az kharita na fakat bo miqyos, balki bo digar jihatho niz farq mekunad:

a) Naqshi mahal bevosita dar mavzei muayyan va yo az rui surati az samolyot aksbardorishuda gartib doda meshavad. Baroi tartib dodani kharita vobasta ba mazmun va tayinotash az manbahoi gunogun, az jumla surathoi az kayhon aksbardorishuda istifoda mebarand.

b) Dar naqshi mahal alomathoi sharti muvofiqi miqyos guzoshta meshavand, dar kharita boshad, vobasta ba mazmun va tainot alomathoi sharti intikhoban guzoshta meshavand.

v) Hangomi ba naqsh giriftani mahal az sababi khurd budani masohati on nohamvorikhoi sathi Zamin tasir namerasonand. Tamomi tarh va masofai obek goho biduni sahvu khato muvofiqi miqyos inikos karda meshavand. Ba kharita, ki masohati nikhoyat vasero dar bar megirad, nohamvorii sathi Zamin tasir merasonad. Az hamin sabab dar tartib dodani kharita sahvu khatoho noguzirand.

g) Naqshi mahal be shabakai darajador gartib doda meshavad. Haritaro boshad, be chunin shabaka, yane be khathoi muvozi va meridian tartib dodan gayri imkon ast.

d) Dar naqshi mahal samthoi SHimol va Janubro bo tircha ifoda mekunand. Dar in surat tarafi chapi tircha samti Garb va garafi rosti on SHarqro nishon medihad. Dar kharita in vazifaro khati meridian va khati muvozi ijro menamoyad. Meridian SHimolu Janub. khatkhoi muvozy Garbu SHarqro nishon medikhand.

Savol va supornsh

  1. Haritai geografi chist?
  2. Haritaho az rui miqyos ba chand guruh judo meshavand?
  3. Surati mahal az kharita chi tafovut dorad?
  4. Alomathoi shartii surati mahal va kharitaro muqoisa namuda, gued, ki onho purra bo yakdigar mutobiqat mekunand yo ne?
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