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HARITAI GEOGRAFI VA GLOBUS

Farqi kharitai geografi az naqshai topografi va globus

  1. Tasnifi kharitahoi geografy
  2. Usulhoi sokhtani kharitahoi topografi

Haritai geografy. Baroi shinokhti obekthoi sathi zamin, khususiyathoi joygirshavii onho, samtyoby az ruyi onho, kharitahoi geografy, globus va naqshahoi topografii mahal sokhta meshavad. Inho hamchun sarchashmai malumot istifoda meshavand.

Haritahoi geografy az ruyi muhtavo va sokhtori farogiri ba du guruh chudo meshavad (ras. 16).

Haritai geografy – aksi muayyani khurd, umumy va matemati-kii sathi zamin dar havopaymogirifta meboshad.

Az ruyi muhtavo kharitaho ba du guruh chudo meshavad: kharitai umumichugrofy va mavzuy. Ba kharitahoi umumichugrofi kharitahoi fizikii olam (nimkurra) materikho, davlatho, mintaqaho dokhil meshavand. Dar in kharitahoi relef, rud, qul, shahrho va sarhadhoi davlathovu mintaqaho inikos yoftaand. Dar kharitahoi mavzuy yak yo du chuzi tabiat, khojagi, aholy inikos mekunand. Masalan,kharitai satkhi zamin,ob.iqlim va khok. Dar kharitadoi umumigeografy in mafdumdo yo vuchud nadorand va yo in ki ba tavri kofy ovarda nashudaand.Mundarijai kharitakhoi mavzui bar asosi mavzue muayyan meshavand,ki ba on bakhshida shudaand.

In kharitakho bar asosi darbargirii obektnoy geografy va nishona^o bo khu- susiyati mavzuiashon farq karda meistand.

Bar asosi darbargirii sarzamin: kharitai dunyo, materikho, uqyonuszo,mintaq akhho, mamlakatuo.

Dar in kharitado tadlili mufassali khususiyathoi tabii obektno joy doda meshavad. Haritaho bar asosi miqyos ba kharitahoi khurd, miyona, va kalonmiqyos taqsim meshavand va dar onho obektno dar shakli khurd va yo kalonshuda nishon doda meshavand.

Globus.

Globus- in usuli kartografii tasvir namudani boloi zamin meboshad va dar in holat shak­li geometrii zamin hifz megardad. Dar yak vaqt Zamin khatho, maydonho va konturnoy obektnoy tasvirshavanda tasvir meyobad. Dar on be taggir va bo nihoyati daqiq kory uqyonusho, bahrho, khalijhoi kalon jaziraho (rasmi 17) inikos shudaand.

Globus (az zaboni lotiny globus – kur- ra) – modeli bamarotib khurdshudai kur- rai zamin meboshad.

Avvalin globusro dar soli 1492 Martin Bekhaym- geografii olmony sokht (rasmi 17) va dar onuqyonus va materiki oi dar asri 15 malum (Amerika hanuz kashf nashuda bud) tasvir yofta budand.Hathoi daraja dar globus va kharitahoi geografy

Meridiannoe, ki kurrai zaminro pechonida giriftaand dar du nuqta bo nam vomekhurand. Onhoro qutbho menomand.

Bar asosi qutbho khathoi muvozy (muvozy) va meridianho kashida meshavand. Bo istifoda az khathoy muvozy va meridianho nuqtahoi geografii obektno dar rui zaminro muayyan menamoyand. Nuqtaho boshand dar zaminay khathoy avvaly tayin megardand va onro meridiani sifr va khati ustuvo (ekvator) menomand.

Meridianho in khathoy burishi rui zamin meboshand, ki az mehvari charkhishi Zamin va inchunin nar du kutbi on meguzarand. YAke az meridianzoro ba tavri sharty ogoz yo nuqtai sifr nom guzoshtaand.Bar asosi SHartnomai baynalkhalqii soli 1884 meridiani Grinvich, ki az rasadkhonai Grinvich dar London meguzarad, chunin nomguzory shudaast. Meridiani sarshavanda zaminro ba du nimkura taqsim mekunad: nimqurai Garby va nimkurai SHarqy. Iborai «muvozy» ba polati in khat dar nisbati khati ustuvo (ekvator) ishora menamoyad: zamin nuqtahoi khati muvozy ba masofai barobar az khati ustvuvo ( ekvator) qaror giriftaand. Dar globus ba khuby tagiryobii shakli muvoziro metavon mushohida namud, ki az ekvator ba jonibi qutbho daroziashon kamtar megardad. Ekvator ba unvoni kalontari khati muvozy ba shumor meravad. Hati muvoziro az zar nuqtai boloii zamin metavon guzaronid. Har yak khati muvozy az garb ba sharq nigaronida shudaast.

Masalan,baroi donistani nuqgahoi geografii shadri Bishkek muayyan namu- dani khati muvozy va meridianii (bar asosi daraja) az Bishkek guzaranda, zarur meboshad. Nuqtadoi geografi holatu joygirshavii mintaqahoi boloi zaminro daqiq menamoyand.Bar asosi kharitai geografy in nuqtaho chunin voqe shudaand: 42°50′ arzi shimoly va 74°40′ tuli sharqy.

Arzi geografy – in kunji bayni samti mahally vaqti qiyom va hamvorii ekvator meboshad, ki az 0° to 90° az du samti ekvator hisob meshavad.

Tuli geografy-in kunji dutarafai bayni hamvorii meri- diani az in nuqta guzaranda va hamvorii ogozi meridiani sifr meboshad,ki az on hisobi tuli geografy cap meshavad.

Meridianho va khathoi muvozy shabakai darajai Zaminro tashkil medihand (ras. 18).

Darozii khati ekvator 40 000 km. 40 000 : 360 = 111 km meboshad. Davrodavri meridian 1° -111 km hisob shudaast.SHabakadoi darajay dar globus va kharitaho az yaqdigar farq karda meistand. SHabakahoi darajay dar globusdo shakli u aqiqitari rui zaminro nishon medidad. SHabakai darajaii kharitadoi geografy boshad, bo nazardoshti nohamovr budani zamin dangomi dar kogaz tasvir shudanash, ishtibo- khoti muayyanro pesh meovarad. Hangomi tasvir namudani shabakauoi darajay dar kharitai nimkuraho, malumoti daqiqtar joy doda meshavad.

Masohati Zamin 6378 km va dar qismati qutbho 6356 km-ro tashkil medihad. Ba tavri miyona in masodat ba 6375 km barobar ast.

YAne, farqi masohati zamin dar kutbdo 22 km-ro tashkil medihad.In farqiyat sobit menamoyad.ki Zamin shakli bayzaviro (tukhmshakl) dorost.

Hududi Zamin 6378 km. ro tashkil medihad. Dar nohiyai qutbho boshad 6356 km. ro. Hamin tariq tafoEuti hududy dar qutbho ba 22 km. barobar ast. In ta- fovut sobit mekunad, ki zamin shakli ellipsy (darozii darozruya) dorad.

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