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HARFI RAVI VA QOFIYAI MUQAYYADU MUTLAQ

Vobasta ba harfi ravi, qofiya ba du nav judo meshavad: qofiyai muqayyad va qofiyai mutlaq.

Dar ilmi badei klassiki qofiyaero, ki harfi ravi bo harfi vasl nachaspidaast, qofiyai muqayyad menomand. Ba tavri digar guem, qofiyai muqayd qofiyaest, ki okhirin harfi on ravist va badi on harfi digare naomadaast. Misol:

Kase nest be ozu nomu nang,

Hamon oshti behtar oyad zi jang. (Firdavsi)

Dar in bayt kalimahoi «nang»-u «jang» qofiyai buda, juzvi «-ang» r e sh a i q o f i ya ast. Muvofiqi qoidai ilmi qofiya sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, hamsadoi «n» q a y d va harfi «g» r a v i s t. Azbaski qofiyai in bayt bo harfi ravi ba okhir rasidaast va badi on harfe naomadaast, onro qofiyai muqayyad (bastashuda, ishkel kardashuda) menomand. Agar dar qofiya harfi ravi bo harfi v a s l chaspida boshad, yane badi harfi ravi harfi digare omada boshad, chunin qofiyaro q o f i ya i m u t l a q menomand. Misol:

Mardoni qabila rakht bastand V-az arsa hame berun nishastand.

Dar in bayt kalimahoi «bastand» va «nishastand» qofiya buda, juzvi «-astand» reshai qofiyaro tashkil medihad. Dar in reshai qofiya sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, harfi «s» qayd, harfi «t» r a v i i m u t – l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l, harfi «d» kh u r u j meboshad.

CHi tavre ki mebined, dar qofiyahoi bayti bolo – «bastand» va «nishastand» badi harfi ravi – «t» boz yak sadonoku (harakatu) du hamsado omadaast. Pas, in qofiya qofiyai mutlaq ast.

Harfhoi qofiyai muqayyad inhoyand: tasis, dakhil, ridf (ridfi mufrad yo asli, ridfi murakkab yo zoid), qayd va ravi. YAne harfhoi qofiyai muqayyad harfhoeand, ki hamesha pesh az ravi meoyand. Holo ba tavri mukhtasar doir ba har kadomi on malumot medihem.

Tasis kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash bunyod guzoshtan, asos guzoshtan ast. Dar ilmi qofiya yake az harfhoi reshagist. Tasis sadonoki darozi «o» («alif»)-i pesh az ravi buda, hatman dar bayni on va ravi boyad yak hamsadoyu yak sadonoki kutoh voqe shavad. Sadonoki «o»- ro baroi on tasis menomand, ki on asosi qofiyaro tashkil medihad, yane ogozi harfhoi qofiya az hamin harf sar meshavad. Tasis hamesha bo harfi dakhil meoyad, harfhoe, ki pesh az tasis meoyand, ba reshai qofiya dokhil nameshavand. Misol:

Garchi darbastam dari madhu gazal yakboragi,

Zan(n) mabar, k-az nazmi alfozu maoni qosiram.

Balki dar har nav, k-az aqroni man donad kase

Hoh juzve gir onro, khoh kule, mohiram.

(Anvari)

Dar in du bayti Anvari, ki dar bahri Ramali musammani mahzuf suruda shudaast, kalimahoi «qosiram»-u «mohiram» qofiya, juzvi «- osiram»-u «-ohiram» reshai qofiya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «o» t a s i s, harfi «s» (dar qofiyai duyum harfi «h») d a kh i l, harfi «i» ishbo, harfi «r» r a v i i m u t l a q, harfi «a» m a j r o va harfi «m» v a s l ast.

Baze shoiron takrori tasisro Dar qofiyai sher zarur nameshumorand. Misol:

Ay lali jonfizoyat naqdi khazinai dil,

Z-on naqd nest moro juz khuni dida hosil. (Vosifi)

Kalimahoi «dil» va «hosil»-i bayti Vosifi qofiyai onro tashkil medihand, kalimai «h o s i l» tasis dorad, ammo dar kalimai « d i l» tasis ishtirok nadorad.

Ashore, ki dar qofiyahoi onho harfi tasis istifoda shuda boshad, khele kam ast.

Dakhil kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash dalolatkunanda, baromada; hamroh, sharik ast. Dar ilmi qofiya yake az harfhoi reshagiero guyand, ki hamesha dar bayni t a s i s va r a v i meoyad. Misol:

Falak dar soyai barri havosil,

Zaminro parri tuti kard hosil. (Abulfaraji Runi)

Dar bayti bolo kalimahoi «havosil» va «hosil» qofiya buda, juzvi «- osil» reshai qofiya ast. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «o» t a s i s, harfi «s» d a kh i l, sadonoki kutohi «i» i sh b o va harfi «l» ravii muqayyad ast.

Aksari shoironi adabiyoti klassiki fors-tojik takrori harfi dakhilro dar qofiya zarur nameshumorand. Agar takrori harfi dakhil dar qofiyai sher rioya shavad, onro az muhassanoti sher hisob mekunand, zero tasir va ohangnokii kalomi mavzun ziyod megardad.

Dakhil dar baze kitobhoi adabiyotshinosi bo nomi h o y i l niz duchor meoyad ba in khotir, ki bayni t a s i s u d a kh i l guyo judoi afkandaast.

Ridf niz kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash pai ham daromadan, chizest, ki pasi chizi digar daroyad; tobei chize buda, ammo dar ilmi qofiya yake az harfhoi reshagii qofiyaro guyand, ki hamesha pesh az ravi meoyad. Ridf du khel ast.

  1. R i d f i m u f r a d yo asli, harfi sadonoki darozest, ki dar qofiya pesh az harfi ravi meoyad. Ba tavri digar guem, sadonokhoi darozi «o», «u», «u», «i» va «yo» ba vazifai ridf omada metavonand.

Misol:

CHashm agar in astu abru inu nozu shiva in, Alvido, ay zuhdu taqvo, alfiroq, ay aqlu din.

Dar in bayt kalimahoi «in» va «din» qofiya buda, juzvi «-in» reshai qofiya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya «i» ridfi mufrad va harfi «n» ravii muqayyad ast.

  1. R i d f i m u r a k k a b yo z o i d harfi hamsadoest, ki dar bayni ridfi mufrad va ravi meoyad. Dar qavli muhaqqiqoni adabiyoti klassiki, kharfhoe, ki ba vazifai ridfi murakkab meoyand, shashtoyand: «n», «r», «s», «sh», «kh» va «f». Pas, kalimahoi «bokht» bo «tokht», «sukht» bo «dukht», «bekht» bo «rekht», «kord» bo «ord», «most» bo «rost», «dosht» bo «pindosht», «yoft» bo «boft», «kuft» bo «ruft», «fireft» bo «sheft», «mond» bo «rond» hamqofiyaand va harfhoi «kh», «r», «s», «sh», «f» va «n» ba vazifai ridfi murakkab omadaand.

SHoire in shash harfro ba tavri zerin dar rishtai nazm kashidaast: Ridfi zoid shash buvad, ay zufunun,

«Ho»-vu «ro»-yu «sin»-u «shin»-u «fo»-vu «nun».

Misol:

Zi shokhu zi lashkar saronro bikhond,

Sazovor bo u ba romish nishond. (Firdavsi)

Dar in bayt, ki dar bahri Mutaqoribi musammani maqsur suruda shudaast, kalimahoi «bikhond» va «nishond» qofiya buda, juzvi «-ond» reshai qofiya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «o» ridfi mufrad (asli), harfi «kh» ridfi murakkab (zoid) va harfi «d» ravii muqayyad ast. Takrori ridfi murakkab dar hamai qofiyaho shart ast.

Qofiyae, ki dar reshai on harfi r i d f omadaast, q o f i ya i m u r -d a f menomand, va dar ilmi badei klassiki yake az sanathoi lafziro niz m u r d a f guyand.

Qayd kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash band, zanjir buda, ba manoi istilohi nomi yake az harfhoi reshagii kalimai qofiya ast, ki pesh az harfi ravi omada boshad. Ba tavri digar guem, tamomi harfhoi hamsadoi zaboni tojikiro, ki pesh az harfi ravi omadaandu pesh az onho sadonokhoi kutoh joy giriftaand, chun qayd istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Masalan, dar kalimahoi «sard» va «nard» harfi «r» qayd ast. Misol:

Maneh dil bar oyini davri sipehr, K-az u goh kin zoidu goh mehr.

Dar in bayt, ki vaznash Mutaqoribi musammani maqsur ast, kalimahoi «sipehr»-u «mehr» qofiya buda, juzvi «-ehr» reshai qofiya meboshand. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «e» h a z f, harfi «h» q a y d va hamsadoi «r» ravii muqayyad ast.

Agar pesh az harfi qayd sadonoki daroz omada boshad, on hamsadoro q a y d ne, balki r i d f i m u r a k k a b menomand. Misol:

Ruze zi sari sang uqobe ba havo khost,

Az bahri tama bolu pari khesh biorost.

(Nosiri Husrav)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi maqsur) kalimahoi «khost» va «biorost» qofiya, juzvi «-ost»-i hardu kalima reshai on buda, sadonoki darozi «o» r i d f i m u f r a d, hamsadoi «s» r i d f i m u r a k k b va harfi «t» r a v i i m u q a y ya d ast.

Muvofiqi tarifi qayd, harfi «s»-i qofiyai bolo boyad qayd boshad, ammo dar in jo ba vazifai ridfi murakkab omadaast, chunki pesh az on sadonoki «o», yane r i d f i m u f r a d omadaast.

Aksari muhaqqiqoni tarikhi adabiyot takrori harfi qaydro dar qofiya shart donistaand. Faqat dar surate takrori q a y d r o zarur nashumoridaand, ki agar harfi r a v i bo harfi v a s l chaspida boshad, yane dar qofiyai mutlaq takrori harfi qayd shart nest. Misol:

Navruz daromad, ay Manuchehri,

Bo lolai surukhu bo guli humri.

Murgoni zabongiriftaro yaksar

Bikshod zaboni suriyu ibri.

(Manuchehri)

Dar in baytho (vaznash – Hazaji musaddasi akhrabi maqbuz) kalimahoi «Manuchehri», «humri» va «ibri» qofiya, juzvhoi «-hri», «-mri» va «- bri» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «r» r a v i i m u t l a q, kharfi «i» v a s l, harfhoi «h», «m» va «b» qayd meboshand, zero harfi ravi bo harfi vasl payvast shudaast. Harfi qayd dar sheri forsi-tojiki khele seristemol ast.

Ravi niz kalimai arabist, az reshai kalimai r i v o girifta shudaast. Rivo resmone boshad, ki bo on bori ushturro bandand. Dar ilmi qofiya okhirin harfi reshagii kalimai qofiyaro ravi menomand. Pas tamomi harfhoi zaboni tojiki – hamsado va sadonokhoi daroz (ba juz sadonokhoi kutohi «a», «i», «u») ba vazifai ravi omada metavonand. Misol:

Ba yoroni kuhan yori nakardi,

CHafo kardi, vafodori nakardi.

(Kamol)

Dar in bayti Kamoli Hujandi, ki dar bahri Hazaji musaddasi mahzuf ejod shudaast, kalimahoi «yori» va «vafodori» qofiya, juzvhoi «-ori»-yu «yori» reshai qofiya buda, harfhoi «yo» va «o» r i d f i m u f r a d (asli), harfi «r» r a v i (r a v i i m u q a y ya d)[1], harfi «i» vasl meboshand. Ravi du khel ast:

  1. R a v i i m u q a y ya d (ba qayd omada, giriftor, poband), raviero guyand, ki on bo harfi v a s l nachaspida boshad. YAne qofiya bo harfi ravi ba okhir rasidaast. Misol:

Ruyat guli serob naguem, chi guem?

On lab shakari nob naguem, chi guem?

(Kamol)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi maqsur) kalimahoi «serob» va «nob» qofiya, juzvi «-eb» r e sh a i q o f i ya buda, harfi «o» ridfi mufrad (asli), harfi «b» ravii muqayyad meboshad.

Misoli digar:

Zikri mah kardam shabe, ruyi tuam omad ba yod,

YOdi shab kardam ba mah, dil bo sari zulfat fitod.

(Kamol)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi maqsur) kalimahoi «serob» va «nob» qofiya, juzvi «-ob» r e sh a i q o f i ya buda, harfi «o» ridfi mufrad (asli), harfi «b» ravii muqayyad meboshad.

  1. R a v i i m u t l a q (komil, purra, tamom), raviero guyand, ki on bo harfi v a s l chaspida boshad, yane badi harfi ravi harfi digare omada boshad. Misol:

Fosh meguyamu az guftai khud dilshodam,

Bandai ishqamu az har du jahon ozodam.

(Hofiz)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Ramali musammani makhbuni aslam) kalimahoi «dilshodam» va «ozodam» qofiya, juzvi «-odam» r e sh a i q o -f i ya meboshand. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «o» riDfi mufraD (asli), harfi «d» ravii mutlaq, sadonoki kutohi «a» majro, harfi «m» vasl ast. Misolho:

Ay dust, turo bar sari vaqtam guzare nest,

Az holi dili bekhabaronat khabare nest.

(Hasani Dehlavi)

***

Man ba bui tu havokhohi nasimi saharam,

K-u zi bui tu khabar doradu man bekhabaram.

(CH,omi)

***

Ki hayhot, qadri tu nashnokhtam,

Ba shukri qudumat napardokhtam.

(Sadi)

Dar bayti yakum kalimahoi «guzare» va «khabare», dar bayti duyum kalimahoi «saharam» va «bekhabaram», dar bayti seyum kalimahoi «nashnokhtam» va «napardokhtam» qofiyaand, ki harfi «r»-i qofiyai bayti yakumu duyum, harfi «t»-i qofiyai bayti seyum ravii mutlaqand.

Takrori harfi ravi dar qofiyai sher shart ast. SHerero, ki dar on harfi ravi istifoda nashuda boshad, onro sher namehisoband.

Az harfhoi qofiya tasis, dakhil, ridf, qayd va az harakathoi qofiya ras, ishbo, hazv, tavjeh hamesha pesh az ravi va vaslu khuruju mazidu noyira, majro va nafoz badi ravi meoyand.

Azbaski qofiya be harfi ravi vujud doshta nametavonad, baroi hamin muhaqqiqoni tarikhi adabiyot qofiyaro aslan az yak harf iborat donistaand. Vahidi Tabrezi meguyad:

Qofiya dar asl yak harf astu hasht onro taba,

CHor peshu chor pas, on nuqta inho doyira.

Harfi tasisu Dakhilu rifu qayd, on gah ravi,

Bad az on vaslu khurus astu mazidu noyira.

Misolho baroi harfhoi qofiyai muqayyad:

Misol baroi harfi ravi:

Tozavu khurram ast chun rukhi yor

Sahni geti zi rangu bui bahor.

(Imomii Hiravi)

Misol baroi tasis va dakhil:

Biyo, ki turki falak khoni ruza gorat kard,

Hilol id ba davri qadah ishorat kard.

(Hofiz)

Misol baroi harfi qayd:

Gubori roh shav, to sarvraftoron khirom orand,

Buvad to gushai chashmi turo az khok bardorand.

(Hoziq)

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Harfi ravi chist va chand khel meshavad?
  2. Kadom navi qofiyaro qofiyai muqayyad menomand?
  3. Tafovuti qofiyai muqayyadro az qofiyai mutlaq fahmoned.
  4. Qofiyai muqayyad az kadom harfho iborat ast?
  5. Dar bayti zer kadom navi qofiya vujud dorad?

Navruzi buzurgam bizan, ay mutrib, imruz,

Zero ki buvad navbati Navruz ba Navruz.

(Manuchehri)

  1. Harfi tasis bo dakhil chi irtibot dorad?
  2. Kadom harfi qofiya ba vazifai ravi omada metavonad?
  3. Ridf chand khel meshavad?
  4. Manihoi lugavi va istilohii qaydro gued.

YU.Harfi qayd bo ridfi murakkab chi munosibat dorad?

  1. Dar bayti zer kadom navi ridf omadaast?

Ruze zi sari sang uqobe ba havo khost,

Az bahri tama bolu pari khesh biorost.

 

[1] Muqayyad – ba qayd aftoda, giriftor

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