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HARAKATI MEHANIKY

Olami moro ihotakunanda hamesha dar harakat karor dorad. Zamin dar girdi Oftob, Moh dar girdi Zamin davr mezanad. Dar natijai harakati molekaho moehoi ba ham hamhudud ba yakdigar omekhta megardand. Tavri misol, hangomi pukhtani karamshurbo, hama rangi surkhi lablaburo ba khud megirand. Hissachahoi ob, ki az jonibi reshahoi rastaniho jalb shudaand, to ba har barg merasand. Havo harakat karda shamolro ba vujud meovarad. Hun tavassuti raghoi khungardi inson va hayvon harakat mekunad. Dar khotimai in hama metavon guft, ki tabiati beharakat, zindagii beharakat vujud nadorad.

moshin

CHy tavr metavon muayyan kard, ki ashyo harakat mekunad yo na? Baroy in muayyan boyad kard, ki oyo ashyoi mazkur nisbat ba digar jismho holati khudro tagyir medihad yo na.

Agar vazu holati avtomashinaho nisbat ba binoho va darakhtoni kanori roh tagyir yobad, pas metavon guft, ki avtomashina harakat mekunad.

Pas holo chy tavr tagyiryobii holati avtomashinaro mushakhkhas mekunem? Inro az nazdikshavy va yo durshavy az ashyoi onro ihotakunanda fahmidan mumkin ast.

YAne, in tagyiryobii fosila bayni du uism ast.

Tagyiri holati jism bo guzashti vaqt nisbat ba digar jismhoro harakati mekhoniky menomand.

Harakati odam, avtomashini, havopaymo, raketaho, qaiqho, parvozi parrandagon, harakati abrho va havo (shamol) nisbat ba Zamin – in hama misolhoi harakati mekhoniky (rasmi 33) meboshand.

Harakati molekulai yagona niz harakati mekhoniki ba shumor meravad. Gayr az on, dar Tabiat harakate tavri vase mamul ast, ki pas az fosilahoi barobari vaqt takror meshavand. CHunin harakatro harakati jumbanda yo jumbish menomand. Tavri misol, boli parrandahoi parvozkunanda, hasharot, suzanakho, zanburi asal, bargi darakhton, ki az shamol mejunband va gayra.

Vaqte jism az yak nuqta ba nuqtai digar joy ivaz mekunad, vay az ruyi kadom yak khat harakat mekunad.

A Hate, ki az rui on jism harakat mekunad, traektoriya nomida meshavad.

Masalan, naqshhoi durakhshandai meteorho dar osmoni shabona traektoriyai namoyonro ba nazar meovarand. (rasmi 34). Az rui shakli tra­ektoriya harakathoi mekhoniky ba du nav: khati rost(mustaqim) va khati kaj taqsim mekunand. Tavri misol, agar traektoriyai avtomobil khati rost boshad, pas harakat bo khati rost ast. Harakati aqrabakhoi soat khati kaj dorad, zero ki davrodavr harakat mekunand.

Andozae, ki ifodagari harakati jism buda, barobar bo darozii traektoriya ast, rodi guzashtashuda nomida meshavad. Rod bo darfi S (es) ifoda tuda, damchun vodidi chenak 1 metr (1 m) istifoda meshavad. Gayr az on, kilometr (km), santimetr (sm), millimetr (mm) istifoda meshavad. Robitai mutaqobilai ondo chunin ast:

1 km = 1000 m,

1 m =100 sm,

1 m = 1000 mm.

Dar Tabiat barkhe jismdo tez darakat mekunand, barkhei digar suet. Baroy tavsi- fi tezii darakat chenaki surat jori karda meshavad. Mafhumi surat tavassuti muvofiqati rohi taykardashuda bo vaqt muayyan karda meshavad.

roh                           S

surat –         ———- va yo v – ————

vaqt                          t

kujo v surat, S – rod, t vaqt. Dar amal surat bo m/s va yo km/chas chen karda mesha­vad. Dar toblui 10 misolhoi harakatdoi gunogun ovarda shudaand.

Jismdoi darakatkunanda Mafdumi surat, m/s
Pashsha 5
Odami piyoda 1-2
Sochi siyod 20
Avtomashinai «Jiguli» 40
Havopaymo 180
Zamin davri Oftob 30 000
Mod davri Zamin 1 000
Ovoz (dangomi 0°S) 330

Surati tuqumshulluk – 1,4 mm/s.

Suporish. Surati harakati khudatro muayyan kun. Asbobhoi lozim: navori chenkunanda, soat..

Qoidai ijroi suporish:

  1. Qadami khudro tavassuti navori chenkunanda chen namuda, natijai onro dar metr nishon deh.
  1. Mikdori qadamho va vaqti baroi az maktab to ba khona va yo az khona to ba maktab dar roh sarfkardaatro muayyan kun.
  1. Mikdori qadamhoro ba darozii yak qadam zarb zada, darozii traektoriyaro muayyan kun.
  2. Mafhumi rohro ba vaqti sarfkarda taqsim namuda, surati khudro muayyan namo.

Pursishho

  1. Harakati mekhaniki chist? Misolho ovared.
  2. CHiro traektoriya menomem?
  3. Roh chist? Hamchun vohidi on chy istifoda meshavad?
  4. Tavassuti andozai «surat» mo chiro ifoda mekunem?
  5. Formula va vodidi suratro navised.
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