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HARAKATI QISHRI ZAMIN

Ba tarzi gunogun khobidani jinshoi kukhi. Sathi qishri Zamin az hamvorikho, teppaho, kuhho, vodihoi daryoho, furukhamidagaho iborat ast. Inho shaklhoi gunoguni relef meboshand. Qabathoi jinshoi kuhi boshand, ba shakli onho muvofiq khobidaand.

Onro az rui rasm fahmidan mumkin ast. Dar hamvori ba tavri ufuqi (khobishi hamvory), dar teppaho barjasta, dar furukhamidagiho pastu baland (yak qismi qabatho ba poyon va qismi digari onho ba bolo baromadaand), dar kuhho ba jinshoi fishurdashuda tabdil yofta, lagjish va joyivazkunii yak qabat nisbat ba qabati digar mushohida meshavad.

Dar tabiat ba tarzi gunogun khobidaii qabati jinshoi kuhiro dar sohili daryoho, domanai kuhho, teppaho va hangomi koftani chohho didan mumkin ast. Az in ba khulosae meoem, ki dar sathi Zamin qabathoi jinshoi kuhy ba tariqi gunogun khobidaand. Sababi chunin gunoguni muntazam harakat kardani qishri Zamin meboshad. Dar natijai on chokho, tarkishho, bardoshtashavi. fururavy, chindorshavii jinshoi kuhi ba amal meoyad. Harakati qishri Zamin du khel meshavad: amudi (vertikaly) va ufuqi (gorizontaly).

Onho bo khususiyathoi khud az yakdigar farq mekunand. Ba kharakati amudy yakbora bardoshtashavi va yakbora fururavy khos ast. Dar natijai in harakat khobishi ibtidoii qabatho ba tavri jiddi tagyir nameyobad, vale masohati ziyodro faro megirad.

Harakati ufuqi nisbat ba harakati amudi bosurat meguzarad. Dar natija chokiqavy, kandashavi va chindorshavii qabatho ba amal meoyad. Hobishi ibtidoii qabatho ba kulli tagyir meyobad. Vale doirai harakati amaliyoti ufuqi mahdud meboshad. On ba monandi harakati amudi masohati vasero dar bar namegirad. Harakati qishri Zamin bssabab nameshavad.

Sababi asosii on hodisahoe (balandshavii kharorat, gudokhtashavi va tabdilyobii moddaho) meboshand, ki dar dokhili Zamin ba amal meoyand. On hodisaho ba hama qismi qishri Zamin yak khel tasir namekunand. Tasiri onho  dar kismi ustuvori qishri Zamin sust, dar qismi noustuvori on (serharakat) beshtar meboshad.

Harakati susti amudi. CHunin harakat na faqat dar davrahoi guzashta, balki dar zamoni mo ham ba amal meoyad. Dar natijai on yak qismi qishri Zamin ohista baland, qismi digari on ohista furu meravad. Dar sohili bahrho in hodisaro mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Dar avvali asri XVIII malum bud, ki shahrhoi bandarin

SHvetsiya, ki dar sohili Bahri Baltika voqe gardida budand, holo dar natijai bardoshta shudani khushki az sohil dahho kilometr dur shudaand. Ba Hollandiya va davlathoi ba on hamsoya, ki dar sohili janubii Bakhri SHimoli joygir shudaand, chand asr ast, ki obi bahr tahdid mekunad. Baroi zaminhoro az tahdidi doimii obi bahr muhofizat namudan aholy kal- qadi sohili bahr devoru dargotho sokhtaast. Az sababi on ki furukhamii qishri Zamin kholo ham davom dorad, devoru dargothoro baland mekunand. Furukhammi qishri Zamin dar sohili shimolii Bahri Miyonazamin niz ba mushokhida merasad. Taqriban 2000 sol pesh dar sohili Haliji Neapol (nazdikii shahri Neapol) ibodatkhona sokhta budand. On dar natijai khamidani qishri Zamin dar asri XIII zeri ob mond va in holag to asri XVI davom kard.

Faqat dar avvali asri XIX barobari bardoshta shudani qishri Zamish ibodatkhona qarib purra az zeri ob baromad. Dar avvali solhoi 60-umi asri XX dar natijai az nav khamidani qishri Zamin sutunhoi ibodatkhona 2,5 Metr ba ob furu raftand, ki on hozir ham davom dorad. In hodisa nishon medihad, ki dar yak qitai qishri Zamin dar vaqthoi gunogun furukhami va bardoshtashavi rukh medihad.

Harakati susti amudin qishri Zaminro az sufahoi sohili bahrho niz muayyan kardan mumkin ast. Sufahoi sohili Bahri Siyoh va Bahri Kaspiy (domanai qatorkuhhoi Qafqoz) az 20 to 160 metr bardoshta shudaand. CHunin sufaho dar sohili Atlantikai nimjazirai Skandinaviya az sathi bahr dar balandii az 100-150 to 200 metr voqe gardidaand. Az qabati jishoi tahshinii sufaho boqimondai organizmkhoi bahriro yoftaand, ki az bardoshta shudani sufahoi sohily guvohi medihand.

Dar bisyor nohiyahoi hamvori sathi khushki jinshoi kuhi qabat-qabat, pay dar ham khobidaand. Omuzishi tarkibi onho nishon dod, ki dar guzashta on qabatho dar vaqtkhoi gunogun dar zeri obi bahr tahshin shudaand. Bad dar natijai bardoshtashavii amudii qishri Zamin az zeri obi bahr ozod shuda, ba khushki tabdil yoftaand. Masalan, dar natijai omuzishn qabathoi jinshoi kuhii tahshiny dar qalamravi nazdi Moskva va mavzehoi digari atrofi on muqarrar karda shud, ki dar on joyho jinshoi kukhii tahshini bo tartib qabat- Qabat khobidaand va az peg, gil, ohaksang ibort meboshand, ki dar qari bahr hosil shudaand. Dar qabati onho bokimondakhoi hayvonoti bahri yoft shudaand, ki ziyoda az 150 mln. sol pesh az in khayot ba cap meburdand. On taqriban 70 mln. sol muqaddam ba khushki tabdil yoftaast. Holo boshad on har sol 2-4 mm past shuda istodaast. Kuhho (kuhhoi javon), ki dar mintaqai nisbatan serharakati Zamin voqe gardidaand, surati Harakati amudii (bardoshtashavii) onho  ziyod ast. Onho  dar yak sol yakchand santimetr baland mevazand.

Omukhtani harakati susti amudii qishri Zamin ahamiyati amali dorad. On az jumla dar koftukovi sarvathoi zerizamini madad merasonad.

Harakati ufuqii qishri Zamin. In namudi harakati qishri Zamin ba monandi harakati amudii qishri Zamin sust msguzarad. Ammo in harakatho dar shaklhoi gunogun zohir megardand. Geologho du namudi harakathoi ufuqii qishri Zaminro farq mekunand: chinkunanda va porakunanda. Agar harakathoi ufuqi istiqboly (az du taraf) boshand, dar natija chinhoi mavjnok hosil meshavand. Hangomi chinshavi qabatho ba fishor tob naovarda, kanda meshavand. Dar joyhoi kandashuda tarkishho ba vujud meoyand. Onho chinhoi alohida va guruhi chinhoro az yakdigar judo mekunand. CHinho bo darozi, balandi va vusati khud az yakdigar farq mekunand. Arap kharakati ufuqi ba samthoi gunogun pahn shavad, qishri Zamin pora gardida, dar on chokho va surokhihoi khurdu kalon paydo meshavand. Onho dar surate ba vujud meoyand, ki agap yak qismi mahal furu khamida, qismi digari on bardoshta shavad. Masalan, kuli Baykal dar makhali furukhamida voke gardidaast. Bazan chunin hodisa rukh medihad, ki yak qismi qishri Zamin nisbat ba qismi digarash bardoshta meshavad yo on az boloi qismi digari on lagjida meguzarad.

Omukhtani harakathoi ufuqii qishri Zamin ahamiyati kalon dorad, chunki onho ba hosilshavii bisyor namudhoi sarvathoi zerizamini tasir merasonand. Masalan, dar on mahalhoe, ki jinshoi kuhy qabat-qabat pay dar ham khobida. ba chin tabdil yoftaand, baroi gunshavii neft va gaz sharoiti musoid faroham meoyad.

Zaminjunbi. Hama guna junbishhoi tabiiero, ki dar in yo on qismi qishri Zamin ba amal meoyavd, zaminjunbi yo zilzila menomand. Ammo shiddatn zilzila na hama vakt yak khel meshavad. Dar baze holatho zilzila chunon okhista meshavad, ki onro odam his namekunad. Barobari in dar qismhoi alohidai qishri Zamin zilzilahoe rukh medihand, ki dar natijai takonhoi onho  qabati Zamin pastu baland shuda, tarqishkho ba vujud meoyand va kad-qadi onho qabathoi kaloni qishri Zamin ba tavri amudi yo ufuqi joy ivaz mekunand. Dar rui Zamin lagjish, fururavii kuhho ba amal meoyad. Muqarrar kardaand, ki ba hisobi miyona dar yak sol yak bor zilzilai khalokatovar, 100 bor kharobiovar va ziyoda az yak million zilzilai khisshavanda (biduni zilzilahoe, ki dar ukyonusho meshavand) rukh medihand.

Zaminjunbie, ki 21 mai soli I960 dar CHili rukh dod, kismi janubii mamlakatro ba larza ovard. Takonhoi on shahru dehot, rohho, khathoi aloqa, noqilhoi quvvai barq, bandarhoi bahri, kuprukhoro kharob kardand. Vulqonhoi khomush otashfishon shudand, kuhho furu galtida, majroi daryohoro bastand. Gudozae, ki az tanurai vulqon berun meomad, tamomi mavjudotro dar rafti jarayoni khud mesuzond.

Savol va suporish

  1. Qabathoi jinshoi kuhy dar sathi Zamin chi tavr khobidaand?
  2. Sababi ba tarzi gunogun khobidaii qabathoi jinshoi kuhy chist?
  3. Namudhoi asosii harakati qishri Zaminro nombar kuned.
  4. Harakati susti qishri Zamin ba chy vobasta ast?
  5. Dar mahali shumo harakati qishri Zaminro az rui kadom alomatho mushohida kardan mumkin ast?
  6. CHand namudi harakati ufuqii qishri Zaminro medoned?
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