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HAMVORIHOI HUSHKI

Hamvoriho va relefi onho. Odatan, sathi takht va mavjnoki qishri Zaminro, ki balandii nisbii on az 200 metr ziyod nest, hamvori menomand. Hamvoriho na faqat masohati vasei sathi khushki, inchunin qari uqyonushoro niz ishgol kardaand. Onho dar sathi khushki az jihati paydoish va relef az yakdigar farq mekunand. Qitai farokhi khushkiro, ki sathi hamvor dorad, hamvorii takht meguyand. Qismi janubii khamvorii Sibiri Garbi va nazdi Kaspiy az qabili chunin hamvoriho meboshand. Dar in jo jinshoi tahshini ba tavri ufuqi khobidaand. Gayr az- hamvorihoi takht dar sathi khushki hamvorihoi teppador kam ba mushohida merasand.

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Masalan. hamvorii Evropai SHarqi va qismi shimolii hamvorii Sibiri Garbi. Dar sathi in hamvoriho shaklhoi gunoguni relef: teppaho, chuquriho, khamiho, jariho, pastiho, vodii daryoho har jo-har jo vomekhurand. Hamin tavr, dar rui Zamin hamvorihoi tamoman takhtu hamvor vujud nadorand. Baroi onho monyai, mavjnoky va geppanoki khos ast. Binobar in hamvoriho bo relefi khud az yakdigar farq mekunand. Onho takht, moil, pastu baland, ba yak su khamida! mavjnok va gayra meshavand. Hamvoriho na faqat bo shaklhoi gunoguni relefi khud, inchunin bo tarzi paydoishashon az yakdigar farq mekunand. Az in jihat onho ba se guruh judo meshavand: hamvorihoi qabat-qabat, akkumulyativi (chinihoi kuhii obovard) va sufta. Hamvorihoi qabat-qabat az du qabat jinshoi kuhii gunogun tarkib yoftaand. Bunyodi onho az jinshoi sakhti bulur iborat buda, sathashonro jinshoi takhshin pushondaast. Masalan, havorii Evropai SHarqy va Amerikai SHimoli (Hamvorii Kabir). Hamvorihoi sufta asosan dar mintaqai kuhsor dar natijai vayronshavii duru darozi kuhhoi qadim paydo shudaand. Sathi onho  khamvori teppador meboshad.

Teppahoi pasti Qazoqiston, pahnkuhi Sibiri Miyona va Pomiri SHarqi az qobili chunin hamvoriho meboshand. Dar hamvorihoi qabat-qabat jinshoi kuhii tahshin ba tavri ufuqi khobidaand. Hamvorihoi sufta az jinshoi kuhii sakht tashkil yoftaand va tarzi khobidani onho  gunogun ast.

Gayr az hamvorihoi qabat-qabat va sufta dar sathi Zamini hamvorihoe mavjudand, ki dar natijai ba khamihoi qishri: Zamin jinshoi kuhii porayu maydashudaro ovarda khobondani obhoi ravon paydo shudaand. Tashakkulyobin onho beshtar ba faoliyati daryoho vobasta msboshad. Hamvorihoi daryo bavujudovarda du khel meshavand: sohily va rezishgohi (deltavi). CHunin hamvoriho dar vodi va rezishgohi daryoi Nil, Missisipy va Missuri, Hindu Gang, YAntzy, Huankhe va gayra masohati kalonro ishgol kardaand. Hamvorihoi nisbatan khurd dar vodii darshoi Vakhsh. Kofarnihon, Zarafshon va Sir niz tashakkul yoftaand. Dar hamvorihoi nomburda az zamonhoi qadim aholi maskun gardidaast. Bazei onho markazhoi tashakkulyobii tamadduni jahony ba hisob meravand.

Hamvoriho ham ba monandi kuhho az sathi bahr dar balandihoi mukhtalif joygirand. On hamvorihoero, ki az sathi bahr DDR balandii kamtar az 200 metr voqe gardidaand, pasti menomand va bo rangi sabz ifoda mekunand (Masalan. pastii Amazonka va yak qismi hamvorii Evropai SHarqi, ki az sathi bahr az 100 to 200 metr balandi dorand). Dar barobari in dar sathi Zamin hamvorihoe mavjudand, ki sathi onho  az sathi bahr past ast. In namudi hamvoriho dar kharita bo rangi sabzi tira ifoda yoftaand. Pastii nazdi Kaspiy az qabili chunin hamvoriho meboshad. On az sathi bahr 26-28 metr past voqs gardidaast. Gayr az namudhoi dar bolo qaydshuda hamvorihoe mavjudaid, ki onho  az sathi bahr dar balaidii az 200 to 500 metr va beshgar voke gardidaand. Onkhoro muvofiqan balamdi va sufakukh memomand (rasmi 42). Dar kharita balandikhoro bo rangn zard. sufakuhhoro bo rangi kakhvarang tasvir msnamoyand. Masalan, balandii Miyonai Rus. Valdosi sufakukhi Arabiston. Eron va Dakan (dar nimjazirai Hiiduston).

Tagyir sfgann hamvoriho. Hamvoriho ham monandi Digar namudkhoi relef mungazam tagyir m<#band. In tagyirot asosan ba quvvakhoi berunii Zamin (obkhoi ravom, bod, borishot. ssl va gayra) vobasta meboshad. Dar on joykhoe, ki rutubat. borishot ziyod, obkhoi ravon (khokh doimi va khoh muvakka gy) bisyor ast, shustashavi va jarihosilshavi meafzoyad. In khodisaro Ibni Sino chunin tasvir namudaast: “Selkho dar ibtido hamvora Zaminro meshuyand va oqibat gorkhoi kalonro (chariho) ba vujud meorand, lekin on qismatn Zamin, ki az selob dur mondaast. ba teppa mubaddal megardad”. Hodisai ‘irihosilshavi beshtar dar hamvorii Rus mushohida meshavad. DaR in jo ruzkhoi serborish dar muddati kutoh jarihoe hosil meshavand, ki dahho metrro tashkil menamoyand.

Dar nohiyahoe, ki borishot kam ast, relefi hamvoriho tahti tasiri bod tagyir meyobad. Bod, khususan dar biyobonho  jinshoi kuhii sakhtro vayron karda, peg va khokro ba harakat ovarda, shaklhoi navi relefi bodkhurdashaviro ba vujud meovarad. Teppahoi regi, talhoi regi ravon, chuquriho (dar sathi jinshoi kuhii sakht), sutunhoi zanburugmonand az  qabili shaklhoi relefi bodhosilkarda meboshand. CHunin shaklhoi relef dar biyobonhoi Sahroi Kabir, Qayroqum  va Qizilkum, dar vodii daryohoi Sir, Panj, Vakhsh dida meshavand. Relefi hamvoriho dar natijai faoliyati istehsolii odamon niz tagyir meyobad. Az jumla hangomi sokhtani rohho, istifoda kardani sarvathoi zerizamiii, sokhtmoni kanalho, obanborho, kandani zahburho va gayra relefi ibtidoii hamvoriho ba tagyirot duchor meshavad. In digargunikhoro tagyiroti antropogeny (az tarafi inson bavunudovarda) menomand. CHunin tagyirothoro dar vodii Vakhsh, dashthoi Dangara, Dilvarzin va gayra mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

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