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HALQI TOJIK DAR ASRI XVI. Istiloi davlati TEMURIYON

Dar hududi Qazoqistoni hozira az zamonhoi qadim qabilahoi turki kuchmanchi zindagi mekardand. Dar asri XIII hududi kuchmanchiyoni mazkurro mugulho zabt namudand. Onho bo aholii tahjoi yak shuda, zaboni mahalliro qabul kardand. Badtar aholii kuchmanchii in dashtu biyobon ba khud nomi uzbekro girift. Dar nimai avvali asri XV dar in jo davlati puriqtidori bodiyavi toifahoi turkzabonro muttahid mekard. Vale in ittihodiyai bavujudomada mabdai iqtisodi nadosht va bo zuri siloh arzi vujud namud. Bad az favti Abulkhayrkhon – poyaguzori in davlat ittihodiyai mazkur az po aftod. Naberai u – SHaybonikhon khost, ki tajribai boboyashro takror namoyad.

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Muborizai SHaybonikhon baroi bunyod namudani davlati puriqtidor baror nagirift. U dar in muboriza borho az yoriyu dastgirii Temuriyon bahramand gardida bud. Bo vujudi on SHaybonikhon dar yake az jangho maglub shuda, ba Bukhoro omal va du sol mashguli omukhtani ilmu donish gardid.

Hamin solho dushmani ashaddii Temuriyon kuchmanchiyoni qismati shimolii Movarounnahr — mugulho Toshkandro markazi khud ikhtiyor kardand. Onho ba nohiyahoi markazi hamla namuda, aholiro toroj mekardand. Temuriyon SHaybonikhonro ba muqobili dushmani khud istifoda kardani shudand. Vale u aksar vaqt khilofi vadai khud amal karda, ba mulkhoi hardu taraf hujumhoi goratgarona menamud. Oqibat SHaybonikhon az hamqavmoni khud dastai qavii askari tashkil doda, bo mugulho muohida bast va soli 1499 ba istiloi Movarounnahr shuru namud. Avval u poytakhti Temuriyon shahri Samarqandro ba muhosira girift. Volii Bukhoro bo lashkari khud ba yorii Samarqand ravon shud. SHaybonikhon Samarqandro guzoshta, ba sui lashkari Bukhoro hamla namuda, dar roh onro torumor namud. Bad az muhosirai seruza shahri Bukhoro be jang ba SHaybonikhon taslim shud.

SHaybonikhon az muborizai bayni vorisoni Temur istifoda meburd. Hangomi Samarqandro muhosira namudani u in nizoho quvvat girift. Oqibat soli 1500 Samarqand be jang ba dasti SHaybonikhon daromad. Ammo yak qismi atrofi Bukhoro va Samarqand tarafdori barqaror namudani hokimiyati Temuriyon bud. Onho pinhoni bo shohzodai chavoni temuri – Bobur Mirzo muhoriba namuda, uro ba Samarqand ovarda, podshoh elon namudand. Vade nigoh doshtani shahr ba Bobur muyassar nagardid. SHahriyon yaroqu asliha nadoshtand. Dar shahri az tarafi SHaybonikhon muhosirashuda gurusnagi hukmfarmoi mekard. Benavoyon va muhtojon gushti cag va kharro mekhurdagi shudand. Ba Bobur kase imdod narasonid, u ba qahti va gurusnagi tob naovarda, rohi gurezro pesh girift. Soli 1501 Samarqand dubora ba dasti SHaybonikhon daromad. Az hamin sol ba sari hokimiyat sulolai khonadoni SHayboniho meoyad.

Bad az zabti Samarqand SHaybonikhon baroi ishgoli mulkhoi digar lashkar kashid. Hangomi ba Hisor khujum kardani u hokimi in mulk SHirin CHukhra bo yak dastai shujo qalaro mustahkam karda ba dushman taslim nashud. Muhosirai Hisor tul kashid. SHaybonikhon ishgoli Hisorro ba sarlashkaronash vo guzoshta, khudash baroi ishgoli shahri Qunduz meravad. Bad az zabti in shahr u ba sui Horazm lashkar kashid va soli 1505 onro ishgol namud. Oqibat ba SHaybovikhon ishgoli Hisor muyasar gardid. Vay barodaron Hamza Sulton va Mahdi Sultonro hokimoni in mulk tain kard. Zabti Hisoru Qunduz hukmronii SHayboiikhoiro dar Kulobu Badakhshon tamin namud.

Bad az poydor gashtan dar Samarqand SHaybonikhon khost Urotepparo ishgol namoyad. Dar in shahr hamagi du hazor lashkar nigoh doshta meshud. Bo vujudi on ishgoli in shahr muyassar nashud. CHunki Uroteppa chunon istehkomi mustahkam dosht, ki SHaybonikhonro ba hayrat guzoshta, ba khulosa ovard, ki in qalaro bo jang zabt kardan az imkon berun ast. Binobar on u qaror dod, ki qalaro muhosirai duru daroz namuda, hokimash Muhammadhusayn Mirzo va sokinonashro ba taslimshavi majbur namoyad. Vals kushishhoi chandkaratai SHaybonikhon be oqibat mondand.

SHaybonikhon bo lashkarash baroi ishgoli Hujand ravon gasht. Sokinoni in qalai mustahkam zeri farmoni shohzoda Jakhongir bar ziddi dushman istodagari karda natavonistand. Bad az zabti Hujand khon qatli om elon kard. SHahrro otash zadand. Mardumi ziyode halok shud.

Ishgoli qalai ustuvori Hujand rohi vodii Fargonaro kushod. Ba SHaybonikhon muyassar gardid, ki soli 1504 Fargonaro ishgol namoyad. YAk sol qabl az in, soli 1503 shahri Toshkand ba u tobe gashta bud.

Ishgoli shahrhoi kalontarini onvaqta Samarqand, Bukhoro, Toshkand, Fargona, Hujand, Hisor va qatlu gorati SHayboniyon dar in joyho baroi hokimi Uroteppa va mulki u oqibati halokatovar dosht. Ilova bar in, lashkari istilogar dehahoi atrofi shahrro gorat karda, ba ziroat otash zad. Muhammadhusayn Mirzo soli 1504 poytakhti khud shahri Urotepparo tark namuda, ba Hirot meravad.

Dar yak muddati kutoh shahru viloyathoi Movarounnahr tobei SHaybonikhov gashtand. Aknun u maqsad dosht, ki Huroson va poytakhti digari Temuriyon – shahri Hirotro zabt namoyad. Bo in maqsad dastavval u shahri Balkhro zabt namuda, ba khok yakson kard. Soli 1507 SHaybonikhon ba tarafi Hirot rahsipor gardid. U dar nazdikii shahr lashkari ba jang khub omodashudai temuriro maglub vamud. Hirotiyon natanho majbur shudand, ki taslim shavand, balki ba sifati inom va bakhshish puli ziyode meboist suporand.

Bo khamin istiloi davlati Temuriyon ba okhir rasid. Ba hukmronni onho zavol omad. Ba sari hokimiyat dar Movarounnahru Huroson sulolai SHayboni omad.

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