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HAYOTI ILMI VA MADANII ASRI Ismoili Somoni

Tashkili davlati mutamarkaz, taraqqii iqtisodiyot va ravnaqi tijorat bo mamlakathoi khoriji dar asri X sabab shud, ki ilmu farhangi tojik khele rivoj yobad. Dar shahrhoi kaloni Movarounnahru Hurosonu Ho­razm, ki hama ba qalamravi Somoniyon dokhil meshudand, sanathoi memori, musiqi va hunar ru ba taraqqi nihodand. Hususan, Bukhoro na faqat chun mar­kazi siyosi va mamurii davlati Somoniyon, balki chun markazi madaniyu ilmivu adabi ahamiyat paydo kard. Ahli ilmu adabu hunar az har gushayu kanori mamlakat dar on jo jam meshudand. Dar Bukhoro, Samarqand, CHagoniyon, Tirmiz, Balkh, Hirot, Gazna, Nishopur, Gurgon, Urganj va gayra bisyor binohoi jamiyati-maktabu madrasa, kitobkhonaho, korvonsaroyu rabotho, kushkho, bozorhoi pushidai timdor, masjidu manoraho, hammomho, bemoristonho, maqbaraho, musofirkhonaho, havzho va chorbogho sokhta shuda budand. Memoronu binokoroni zamon dar sanati memori ananahoi sanati memorii sugdihovu bokhtarihoro bo sanati memorii markazhoi khilofat omezish doda, binohoi boshukuh mesokhtand. YOdgorihoi memorii on zamon, khususan Madrasai Magok va oromgohi Ismoili Somoni dar Bukhoro bo oroishu shukuhi khud to hol kasro maftun megardonand. Oromgohi Ismoili Somoni binoi jorkunjaest, ki az khishti pukhta sokhta shuda, chor peshtoq dorad. Dar binoi on rangu koshi ba kor naraftaast, vale khishtho ba tarze chida shudaand, ki dar barobari shaklhoi handasi burjho, shurfaho, lavhaho, ravoqho va ravoqchahoro bo nizomi makhsuse namoish doda, sanati balandi haykaltaroshi va rassomiro ba khotir meorand.

Dar natijai ravnaqi sanati memori dar asri H sanathoi kandakori dar chubu gaj, hakkoki dar sang va naqqoshi niz khele rivoj yoftand. Posutunho va minbare, ki dar sargahi vodii Zarafshon yoft shudand, aknun muzeyhoi Panjakent, Dushanbe va Sankt-Peterburgro zeb medihand. Kovishhoi bostonshinosii Hulbuk (nazdikii Kulob) va Lashkarbozor (Afgoniston) nishon medihand, ki ananai devori qasrhoro na tanho bo darakhtu rustaniho va jirmhoi osmoni, balki bo tasviri parrandayu hayvonho va surathoi khayoli oroish dodan to asri XI davom karda budaast. Dar hunari kulolgari, shisharezi, rekhtagari, abreshimbofi, misgari, zargari, qolinbofi va gayra niz in tamoyil his karda meshud.

YAke az shahrhoi obodi zamoni Rudaki Hujand bud. Jayhoni khabar medihad, ki «Hujand doroyi shahristonu kuhandiz ast. Masjidi jome dar shahru saroyu imorat dar maydon. On shahrest dar goyati khushivu poki, bad-on jo mevahoi farovon, chunonchi az eshon ziyodati meoyad va ba navohii digar mebarand;, mardumoni eshon bojamolu khuband,» (iqtibos az navishtahoi akademik Ahror Mukhtorov).

Talimi ibtidoyi dar maktabhoi nazdi masjidho,  darajai balandi omuzish dar madrasaho guzaronda meshud. Madrasaho na faqat dar shahrhoi kalon, balki dar shahrhoi muzofoti niz vujud doshtand. Dar viloyati Huttaliyon, ki markazash Hulbuk bud, on vaqtho 20 madrasa mavjud budaast. Madrasai Qubodiyon niz dar on davra khele shuhrat doshtaast. Vale purshukuhtarin madrasaho dar Bukhoro amal mekardand. Muvofiqi akhboroti tarikhnavison, dar markazi madanii poytakhti Somoniyon shahri Bukhoro — Juyi Muliyon chandin madrasa vujud doshta, boghovu gulgashtho ihotashon karda budaand. Hamai madrasaho kitobkhonahoi boy doshtand, rotibai omuzgoronu shogirdon az daromadhoi vaqf doda meshud. Talimi ilmhoi dini (qiroati Kuron, tafsir, hadis, kalom), mantiq, bayon, zaboni arabi dar madrasaho hatmi buaand. Ba shogirdon jugrofiya, tarikh, tib, hikmati tabii, riyoziyot (matemati­ka), sitorashinosi va falsafa niz omuzonda meshudand. Dar madrasaho munoziraho va bahshoi ilmi rivoj doshtand. Dar in munoziravu bahsho donishmandoni yunoni, yahudi va nasroni niz shirkat mevarzidand. Rudaki, Daqiqi, Forobi, Firdavsi, Beruni, Ibni Sino dar chunin madrasaho donish andukhtaand. Muhiti purquvvati ilmiyu adabi sabab shuda bud, ki chunin buzurgon dar ovoni khele javoni (16—18-solagi) tamomi ilmhoi mamuli zamonashonro azkhud namuda, khudashon ba kori ilmu adabiyot sar kunand. SHavqi savodomuzi va sohibmalumot shudan dar bayni namoyandagoni tabaqahoi gunoguni jomia ziyod bud. Aksari donishmandonu adibon az tabaqai miyonai aholi baromadaand. Ehtiromi khalq nisbat ba ilmu marifat va omilhoi siyosiyu iqtksodie, ki dar bolo zikr shudand, ba on ovarda rasondand, ki buzurgtarin simoho dar sohahoi gunoguni il­mu donish mahz dar hamin davra arzi vujud kunand: Al-Horazmi dar algebra (aljabr), Forobi dar hikmat, Abubakri Rozi dar falsafa, Abualii Sino dar falsafa va tib, Aburayhoni Beruni dar ilmhoi gunogun, Abumuhammadi Hujandi, ki sohibi rasadkhona bud, dar falakiyot, Balamiyu Jayhonivu Bayhaqi dar tarikh ustodoni komil budand. Jolibi tavajjuh ast, ki aksariyati olimoni on zamon dar sohahoi bisyori ilmu donish zabardast budand. Az in ru, onhoro olimoni mutabahhir (ba tabiri imruza «ensiklopedist», yane donandai ilmhoi ziyod, hamadon) menomidand. Hakim unvon giriftani baze adibon niz ba hamin manist.

Ahli tasavvuf, firqaho va talimoti onho niz dar eindagii jomia naqshi muayyane doshtand. Dar on davra az tamomi Eronu Hurosonu Movarounnahr mardoni buzurge dar in soha barkhosta, dar aksari viloyatho ba nashri aqoidi onho mepardokhtand. Ahli tasavvuf khususan dar Huroson beshtar jam omada budand. YAhyo ibni Maozii Rozi (vaf. 835—838), Ahmad ibni Hizraviyai Balkhi, Abuturobi Nakhshabi (vaf. 245/860), Boyazidi _Bistomi (vaf. 261/875), Abuhafsi Haddodi Nishopuri (vaf. 264/878), Hamdun Qassori Nishopuri (vaf. 271/884), Abuusmoni Nishopuri (vaf. 298/911) avvalin sufiyoni nomi budand. Badho Abubakri Varroqi Tirmizi, Abulqosim Hakimi Samarqandi (vaf. 342/954), Muso Al-Ansori (vaf. 320/932), SHaykh Abulfazl ibni Hasan Al-Sarakhsi (piri Abusaidi Abulkhayr), SHaykh Abualii Daqqoq (vaf, 425/1034), Abulhasan Ali ibni Jafari Haraqoni (vaf. 425/1034), Abdurahmoni Sulami (vaf. 412/1021), SHaykh Abdulkarimi Qushayri  (vaf. 465/1073)  va digaron ba faoliyati ahli tasavvuf ravnaq bakhshida, talimoti firqahoi gunoguni onro nashr  menamudand.  Vujudi firqahoi mukhtalifi tasavvuf sabab meshud, ki dar kishvar afkori gunogun ba ham barkhurd namoyand va boisi peshrafti falsafa, kalom va irfon gardand.

Ilmi asri X tojik bo ilmhoi antiqai YUnoni Qadim, Misr, Eron, Hinduston, Hitoy, inchunin donishhoe, ki ba zabonhoi ibri, arabi va lotini mavjud budand, aloqai nazdik dosht. Faoliyati tarjumonii tarjumonho to avvali asri XI davom kard. YAke az mutarjimini mashhuri davr mardi nasroni Abulkhayr ibni Hammor  (vaf. 943) – donishmandi sohai tibbu falsafa bud, ki  asarhoi  ziyodi qadimaro  az suriyoni  ba  ara­bi bargardonidaast. Az tarjumahoi u holo nuskhae az mantiqiyoti Arastu dar dast ast.

Ravnaqi ilmu adabiyot ba tasisi bisyor kitobkhonaho sabab shud. Dar Bukhoro, Samarqand, Marv, Balkh, Nishopur, Ray va gayra kitobkhonahoi buzurge mavjud budand, ki dar onho kitobhoi nodiri ziyode ba zabonhoi tojiki, arabi, yahudi, khitoyi, hindi va gayra roje ba sohahoi  gunoguni   ilmu   adab  dar sanduqho  nigoh  doshta meshudand.   Buzurgtarini  onho  Kitobkhonai    Somoniyon bud, ki az khazinai on Abualii Sino farovon istifoda burdaast:   «Vaqte  ki  ba  kitobkhona  dokhil  shudam, havlie didam bisyor  vaseu kalon,  ki doroi khonahoi ziyode bud. Dar har khona sanduqhoi pur az kitob meistodand, ki kitobhoro bo nazmu tartib dar onho chida budand. YAke az khonaho makhsusi kitobhoi arabi va sher, digare oid ba fiqh   (huquqshinosii shariati — A. A.) buda, hamchunin, har yak khona ba kitobhoi ilmhoi judogona khos bud… Kitobhoi gunogune, ki man dar on jo didamu khon­dam, kase hatto nomi onhoro nashunida bud. Man niz to on vaqt nadida budam va bad    az on ham digar nadidam».21

Aksari chunin kitobkhonaho dar vaqti hujumu istiloi ajnabiyon, khususan qabilahoi bodiyanishini tur­ku mugul, suzonda shudand.

Dar khususi akhloqi hamidai mardumi Movarounnahr Jayhoni chunin malumot medihad: « Sakhovatu javonmardii ashobi Movaroun-nahr dar beshtari viloyatu shahrhoi eshon chunon ast, ki, guyi, hamai mardumon dar yak saroandu kheshi yakdigarand. Hech kas ba khonai digare naravad, ki pindorad, ki khonai khesh astu khudovandi khonaro karohatevu nokhushdilie naboshad, balki on chi toqati u buvad, az rasmi mehmoni ba joy ovarad; on ki sobiqa dustevu kheshe buda boshad, albatta, hej mukofot talabu tama nadoradu hamesha himmate ba yake az eshon bar andozai on chi bar dasti u boshad, bisyor khush ziyodat kunad, chunon chi kase boshad, ki uro dastgohe naboshadu hech kas bad-u tavaqqui ziyodati moli nadoradu himmati u chunon boshad, ki kushku mehmonkhona sokhta boshad, jumla himmatu nahmati u bar on masruf monda, ki chun kase ba nazdiki u rasad, tartibi mehmonii u bar chi minvol sozad. Odatu sirati arbobi Movarounnahr on ast, ki chun begona birasad, dar mehmon doshtani u bo yakdigar muzohamat kunandu mubohotu mufokharat namoyand» (iqtibos az navishtahoi Ahror Mukhtorov).

Rivoju ravnaqi ilmu adab ba darajae bud, ki na tanho dar madrasaho, balki dar dukkoni kosibonu hujrai saroyho niz majlishoi munozira, bahsi ilmi va mushoria barpo meshud. Dar tamomi bozorho rastahoi kitobfurushi mavjud budand. CHunonchi, Abualii Sino az ras-tai kitobfurushii bozori Bukhoro chandin bor kitob kharidanashro naql mekunad.

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