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HAJVU MUTOYIBOTI RUDAKI

Mavzui hajvu hazlu tanzu shukhi niz dar abyoti boqimondai Ustod Rudaki vomekhurand. Ba gufti Said Nafisi, «ahojii Rudaki dar miyoni soyiri ashori u bisyor kam ast, chunon ki dar miyoni 1047 bayt, ki az u monda, tanho nuh (9) bayt dar hijost. Az in jo paydost, ki shoire bisyor hajvu nosazogu nabudaast va in khud yake az mahosini buzurgi ust».151 Albatta, guftai ustodi pajuhishgar nisbist, zero, chunonchi muhaqqiqi digari Rudakishinos Abdulgani Mirzoev qayd menamoyad, «mazmuni osori hajvii boqimondai Rudaki asosan natijai ozurdagihoi shakhsii khudi shoir budaast. Dar mavzui tanqidi nodurusti va  razilathoi hayoti jamiyatii asri khud mumkin ast Rudaki bisyor sherhoi hajvi navishta boshad, ki to davrai mo narasidaand. Ammo dar in qismati osori ba dast daromadai u, mutaassifona, oid ba masalahoi hassosi hayoti jamiyatii asri X chize paydo karda nametavonem».152 Dar in mavrid haq ba jonibi Abdulgani Mirzoev ast.

Ustod Rudaki, masalan, romishgarero, ki tarzi surudkhonii noforami u ba gushi somion bad merasidaast, zarifona hajv mekunad, ki labkhandu tabassumi shunavandaro ba vujud meorad. Mahorati shoir dar on ast, ki biduni istifodai yagon lafzi qabeh va kalomi zisht matlabro ifoda menamoyad. Tanho vojai «kotura», ki manoi kinoyaviash «dardi sar dodan» ast, lahni hajviro ba vujud meorad. Dar asari A. Mirzoev «Abuabdullo Rudaki» (sah.225) va tarjumai rusii on kalimai «kotura» dar shakli «kotuza» chop shudaast, ki dar zakhirai lugati forsi chunin kalima vujud nadorad. Dar nashriyahoi Tojikistonu Maskav, ba juz Amon Nurov, hama in vojaro dar shakli «kotuza» sabt kardaand. Lafzi «kotura» dar osori Manuchehri niz ba manoi «sheftasor», «sargashta» va «hayron» duchor meoyad. Manuchehri mefarmoyad:

On bulbuli kotura barjasta zi matmura,

CHun dastai tanbura girad shajar az jangal.

Bayti hajvii Rudaki, ki mavridi bahs ast, in ast: 

Hech rohat menabinam dar surudu rudi tu,

Juz, ki az faryodu zakhmat khalqro kotura khost!

Dar bayti digar Ustod Rudaki namudi zohirii shakhsi hajvnamudai khudro bo vojahoi murakkabi «pushtkuj», yane «bukri», «sartavil» ba manoi «tossar» va tashbehhoi «ruy bar kirdori nil», yane «kabudi siyohchatob», ba suhon monand kardani soq va misli ustura, yane poku, pindoshtani dandonhoyash tasvir mekunad:

Pusht kuju sar tavilu ruy bar kirdori nil,

Soq chun suhonu dandon bar misoli ustura.

Digar, Rudaki dar mazammati aspi khud, sifathoi khandaovari on (avar-yakchashma, kusaj-dumu yolburida, lang), yane maoyibi on va bar boloi on   misli zogi alo (kalog)   nishastani    khudi shoirro    dar zayl tasvir mekunad. Albatta, chunin bayt mahz baroi hazlu shukhi gufta shuda boyad boshad, chunki mumkin nest, ki Rudaki barin shakhsi mutabare, ki sohibi dusad  (duvist)   gulom budu chahorsad shutur dar safarho   sarvati  uro mekashid,    ba chunin  aspe saru   kor  doshta boshad:

Buvad avaru kusachu langu pas man

Nishasta bar u chun kaloge bar avar!

Dar  porasheri  poyon  khislathoi    pastu  nangovari hajvshavanda faqat bo zikri sifati pasti u  (siflai dunu jakur, ki manoyash mumsiku khasis ast)   ba marazi  mushohida guzoshta  meshavad.  Sipas, hukmi shoir, ki hargiz  (!)  yod nadoshtani charkhi falak in khel shakhsi mumsiku khasisro takid menamoyad va hatto ba gufti Rudaki, Hoja Abulqosim nom shakhs, ki az aqraboi u bud, az holati nangini u sharm doshta, ruzi qiyomat ham az zeri khok sar namebarorad:

CHarkhi falak hargiz paydo nakard

CHun tu yake siflai dunu jakur!

Hoja Abulqosim az nangi tu

Bar nakunad sar ba qiyomat zi gur!

Ba Rudaki ruboiero    nisbat medihand,    ki    ba vasilai zikri kasbi pasti padar va peshai muftkhurona va nopisdandi    modari shakhsi uro ozordihanda holati hajvii on kasi nomatlubro bayon mekunad:

On kharpadarat ba dasht khoshok zadi,

Momot dafu duruya cholok zadi.

On bar sari gurho «Taborak» khondi

V-in bar dari khonaho taburrok zadi!

Quronkhoni dar sari guri murdaho va dafu naqorazani dar marakaho har du ham kasbhoi past ba shumor rafta, dar ayni zamon yake bar digare muqobil buda, ba ham rost nameoyad. Ammo padaru modari shakhsi shoirro ozordihanda chunon beruvu besharme hastand, ki az muqobili yakdigar budani on du peshai past ibo nakarda, ba chunin korho mashguland. Taborak khondan va taburrok zadan khud mazammatu hajv ast.

Ba hamin tariq, dar abyotu ashori boqimondai Rudaki, bo vujudi mavjudiyati baze baytu qitahoi hazlomezu hajvguna, hajvi ijtimoii sakht zananda ba nazar namerasad.

Bo vujudi khele kam boqi mondani osori hajvii Ustod Rudaki, malum meshavad, ki u dar hajvu hazl, shukhivu mutoiba niz az avvalin saromadoni chunin navi sher dar adabiyoti forsu tojik buda, adiboni nomii hajvnigor Munjik, Amaq, Suzani, Ubaydi Zokoni, Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi, SHahobi Tabrezi va digaron maktabi adabii Ustod Rudakiro davom dodaand.

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