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Gunogunii rastanihoi guldor va tasnifoti onho

Dar Olami nabotot shubai rastanihoi pushidatukhm az hama sernamoyandatar buda, taqriban 250 hazor kheli rastanihoro darbar megirad. CHi tavre ki az darshoi guzashta ba shumo malum gardid, shuba dar navbati khud ba sinf, tartib, oila taqsim meshavad. SHubai rastanihoi pushidatukhm (yo guldor) ba du sinf – du- palla va yakpalla taqsim meshavad. Ba rastanihoi dupalla aksari darakhtonu buttaho va az rastanihoi alafi — oftobparast, mushung, lubiyo, tarbuz, kadu, pomidor, kartoshka va gayraho mansuband. Ba rastanihoi yakpalla zanbaq, piyoz, gandum, jav, juvorimakka, sholi, nakhl (palma) va gayraho dokhil meshavand. Az rui sershumori va gunogunkheliashon rastanihoi dupalla nisbat ba rastanihoi yakpalla taqriban chor marotiba ziyodtarand.

Rastanihoe, ki mansubi in yo on sinfand az yakdigarashon bo chandin alomatho va khosiyathoi khosashon farq mekunand. Janini ras- tanihoi dupalla du tukhmpalla dorad (nomi sinf niz az chunin khususiyati onho barmeoyad). Dar janini rastanihoi yakpalla boshad, faqat yak tukhmpalla mavjud ast. Rastanihoi dupalla reshai asosii nagz inkishofyofta dorand, ki az reshachai janin paydo shudaast. Sokhti (sistemai) reshagiashon tirresha meboshad. Dar rastanihoi yakpalla boshad, sistemai reshagi patakresha meboshad (gandum, piyoz va gayraho).

Kanori bargi rastanihoi yakpalla yaklukht buda, ragbandii bar- gashon kamonshakl (dar zufi obi) yo mutavozi (dar juvorimakka) me- boshad. Kanori bargi rastanihoi dupalla gunogun buda, ragban- dii bargashon parshakl yo panjashakl ast. Onho, inchunin, az rui sokhti poya va gulashon az yakdigar farq mekunand. Az in jihat aniq kardani miqdori juzhoi gul dar rastanihoi yakpalla va dupalla khele muhim ast.

Guli rastanihoi yakpalla chun qoida seazogiand. YAne, shumorai kismhoi gul dar yak davra ba tavri karati — setogi ast (3 kosabarg, 3 gulbarg, 6 gardbarg), dar dupallagiho dar aksari holatho gul chor yo panjazogi meboshad.

Tavassuti yak alomat rastanihoi pushidatukhmro ba sinfi yakpalla yo dupalla judo kardan baso mushkil buda, baroi muayyan namudani rastanii guldor va ba kadom sinf taalluq doshtani on donis- tani aksari alomathoi muhimi on hatman zarur ast. CHunonchi, sistemai reshai rastanii chinorak va shahtuti zamini patakresha boshad ham, in rastaniho az rui digar alomathoyashon ba dupallagiho taalluq dorand. Rastanii chashmi zog, ki dar jangalzorhoi mintaqai mutadil nashunamo dorad, ba 8 gulbarg doshtanash nigoh nakarda, ba rastanii yakpallagiho mansub ast.

Oilai rastanihoi guldor. Dar asosi majmui alomatho, ki muhimtarinashon sokhti gul va meva meboshad, ba kadom oila ta- alluq doshtani rastanihoi guldorro muayyan mekunand. Gunogunkhe- lii rastanihoi guldorro ba nazar girifta, nabototshinoson on- horo ba 390 oila chudo kardaand. Dar bayni onho oilahoe hastand, ki yak yo yakchand khel dorand, yo oilahoi digare mavjudand, ki hazorho khelro darbar giriftaand. Masalan, oilai murakkabgulon, ki ba sinfi dupallagiho taalluq dorad, yake az oilahoi kalontarin ba hisob rafta, taqriban 25 hazor khelro darbar megirad. Az sinfi yakpallagiho oilai sahlabiho (orkhideya) misol shuda metavonad, ki az rui sershumorii khelhoyash ba oilai murakkabgulon khele nazdik ast.

Dar mamlakati mo na khamai namoyandagoni 390 oila vomekhurand. CHunonchi, darakhti nakhl (palma) dar holati khudruy faqat dar mam- lakathoi garmi tropiki, guli khanjari (agava) dar qitai Amerika (khususan dar Meksika) meruyad. Namoyandagoni aksari digar oipaho az hama beshtar dar mamlakathoi iqlimashon mutadil vomekhurand. Masalan, oilai chillikgulho, chinorakho dar chunin sharoit vase pahn shudaand. Oilai lubiyoiho, murakkabgulon va khushadorho qarib dar tamomi mamlakathoi jahon vomekhurand.

Dar chorchubai barnomai talimi mo imkon nadorem, ki ba namo- yandagoni hamai oilahoi mavjudbuda shinos shavem. Binobar on, dar faslhoi oyandai kitobi darsi beshtar ba on namoyandagoni rastanihoi yakpalla va dupallae, ki dar jumhuriamon vase pahn shudaand va doroi ahamiyati ilmi — amali meboshand, diqqati jiddi doda meshavad.

  1. Rastanihoi yakpalla az dupalla az rui kadom alomathoyashon farq mekunand?
  2. Rastanihoi guldor chi qadar oilahoro darbar megirand?
  3. Oyo az rui yak yo du alomat tasnif kardani rastanihoi guldor mumkin ast?
  4. Baroi aniq muayyan kardani oilai rastaniho kadom uzvhoi rastani beshtar muhim ast?
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