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Gulzori Iram – Masnavii Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi

Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi na tanho dar ejodi gazalu qasida, ruboivu sheri tasmit, muqattaotu marsiya va g. mashhur ast, balki u dar masnavisaroi niz tabi baland doshtaast. SHoir masnavihoi «Soqinoma», «Gulzori Iram» va «Jahonnamo»-ro ejod karda dar tahavvuli sunnati masnavisaroi niz sahmi sazovor guzoshtaast.

Masnavii «Gulzori Iram» nakhustin masnavii Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi buda, az nigohi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo, obrazhovu qahramononi asosi khele jolib meboshad. Tarikhi talif, miqdori abyoti onro khudi shoir chunin ishora kardaast:

CHun adad khostam az in ashor,

SHud hazoru sadu chihil ba shumor

Bahri tarikhi in sahifa qalam,

Haftro dar du nuh nihod raqam.

YAne masnavii mazkur soli 1571/72 talif gardida, zohiran ba abdulohkhoni SHayboni ehdo shudaast:

Ay shahi nuktadon, ki husni kamol,

Az tu dar mulki nazm yoft nizom.

To ba nomat sukhan shudast qarin

Sufai bayt gashta shohnishin.

Masnavi az 24 fasl iborat buda, dar bahri Hafifi makhbuni mahzuf insho shudaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

– V – – / V – V – / V V –

YAne: foilotun, mafoilun, failun.

Asar ba tavri ananavi: hamdi Hudo, nat, munojot, sanoi Paygambar (s.) va yoroni u ogoz meshavad. Bad sababi talift doston zikr megardad, ki khohishi duston budaast.

Doston az naqli shakhsi solkhurdae, ki az dostonsaroii guzashta khub ogohi dosht, shuru megardad:

Dar Magribzamin Aql nom shohe bud. Aql shohi odilu donost. U farzand nadosht. Aql badtar sohibi farzand shudu tiflro Dil nom kard. Dil ba balogat rasida hamai ilmu hikmati zamonro omukht. Padarash uro ba mulki Badan qalae bud, ki Dimog nom dosht va Dil dar on jo zindagi mekard. Halq az usuli mamlakatdorii Dil rozi ast. Nadime dar yake az bazmho pinhoni ba Dil dar borai CHashmai Hayot khabar medihad. Dil badtar talabi chashmaro mekunad. Dil mamlakatro ba holi khud guzoshta bo gamu girya baroi chashma dar pinhoni menishinad. Dil dar kishvari khud Nazar nom josuse dorad. nazar az holi Dil purson meshavad. Dil ba Nazar asrorro meguyad. Nazar Dilro meguyad, ki tu oromona mulkro idora kun va man iloji CHashmai Hayotro meyobam. Nazar hangomi sayr ba mulke merasad, ki yagon kasi begona ba in sarzamin poy naguzoshtaast. Mardumoni on shodu ganiand va in shahr Ofiyat nom dorad:

Muddate chun Nazar safarho kard,

Har taraf, har taraf nazarho kard.

Sui shahre fitod chashmi Nazar,

Ki nazirash nadida bud digar.

Halq bar vay zi fitnaho emin,

Hama dar kui Ofiyat sokin.

Nazar az nomi shahr chun pursid:

«Kishvari Ofiyat»- javob shunid.

Hokimi shahri Ofiyat Nomus nom doshta, Nazar bo u hamsukhbat meshavad. Nomus meguyad, ki obi hayot nest va in hamon obrui insoni ast. Vale Nazar noumed nashuda, justujuro davom medihad. U ba kuhe merasad, on uqobon zindagi mekunand. Rangi kuh siyoh va havlnok meboshad. Dar on kuh qalaest, ki Zuhvu Riyo nom dorad. hokimi qala Zarq ast. U shakhsi makkoru dilozor ast. Nazar ba nazdi Zarq omada qissai obi Hayotro arz mekunad. Zarq bar khilofi guftai Nomus meguyad, ki Obi Hayot hast, vale dar jannat. CHamaero, ki in jo obi Hayot meguyand, hamon ashki chashmoni inson meboshad. Agar khohi, ki onro yobi giryavu zori bikun. Nazar boz safarro davom doda ba qalai digar duchor meshavad, ki hokimi on Himmat bud. Himmat pokdil, bofazlu kamol bud.

Nazar az Himmat niz imdod mepursad. Himmat meguyad, ki on chashma pinhon nest, vale roh yoftan ba on jo dushvor ast, Nazar zoriho mekunad. Himmat meguyad:

– Dar mulki SHarq Ishq nom shoh ast. Ishq dukhtare dorad, ki Husn nom dorad. ishq baroi dukhtari khud az nuqrai shaffof dar kuhi Qof qalae bino kardaast. In qala dar shahri Didor meboshad. Dar shahri Didor boge mavjud ast, ki onro Gulshani Rukhsor meguyand. CHashmai Obi Zindagoni on jost. Husn payvasta az on chashma menushad. Himmat boz meguyad, ki: Ey Nazar, man joi Obi Hayotro guftam, vale rohi on purkhatar ast. Dar sari roh shahri Sagsor ast va hokimi on Raqib meboshad va u tobei Ishq va nigohboni Didor ast. Pas az Didor jovushon manzil dorandu bad manzili digar az habashizodagoni zangichehr ast. Du kamondor onjo torojgaroni aqlu din hastand. Himmat ba barodari khud Qomat, ki sipahsolori Husn ast, nomae navishta ba Nazar medihad. Jovushoni Raqib-Jafo va Sitam Nazarro bandi mekunand. Nazar hunari zarsozii khudro ba Raqib izhor mekunad. Raqib meguyad, ki sangro zar mekunad. Raqib meguyad, ki Lola az Rum va Sunbul az CHin biyor va to guli Fors az nargisi Habashi dar nazar nakashi kor dushvor meshavad.

Inho dar shahri Didorand. Pas nazaru Raqiz ba shahri Salomat meoyand, ki dar on jo barodari Himmat-Qomat mezist. Dar shahri salomat Raqib khob meravad. Qomat az Nazar maqsad mepursad va Nazar ramai Himmatr ba Qomat medihad. Qomat nazarro ba shahri Didor ravon mekunad. YAke az amironi Husn, ki Zulf nom dosht, az Hinduston ba Turkiston omada bud, az garmoi havo dar kamari kuh istiqomat mekard. Nazar, ki padarash az Turkiston va modarash az Hinduston bud, bo Zulf oshno meshavad. Zulf kand afkanda Nazarro ba on kuh mebarad va Nazar on jo gul, sarv va bulbulu tazarvro tamosho mekunad. Nazar Zulfro vido mekunad va Zulf ba u chand tor az Zulf medihad, ki agar lozim shavad, dar boloi sangu ohan otash afruz va tore bar rui otash guzor, man hozir meshavamu turo khalos khoham kard. Nazar ba dasti morpoyon dar shahri SHom asir meaftad va az onho khalos shuda ba shahri Didor meoyad on jo zangibachahoro mebinad:

Hama dar rangu buy mushkinon, Gulu nasrinu yosumanchinon.

Nazar ki budani onhoro pursid. Onho guftand, k gulomoni Holi Husn hastand. Nazar Gamza nom barodare dorad. gamza harohi Husn ast. Nazar Gamzaro mebinad, ki dar Gulshani Rukhsor dar bayni nargiszor nishastaast. Gamza ba nazar hamla kard. Dar jang Nazarro bandi kard, vale shinokht, ki barodarash ast:

Guft: Man budamu barodari khud,

Har du du nuri chashmi modari khud.

CHun zi khurdi judo shudem zi ham,

Modar az mehr muhrae mahkam.

Dar du bozui mo zi lali khushob,

Bastu az hajr kard dida purob.

Husn ogoh shuda Nazaru Gamzaro davat mekunad. Hazinadori Husn Sadrkhozan dar rui kogaz paykari sangero kashida ba nazar medihad. Nazar surati Dilro meshinosad. Dil pisari shohi Magribu SHom meboshad. Husn az Nazar khohish mekunad, ki uro ba visoli Dil birasonad:

Ba Nazar roz dar miyona rasond, SHabi hijron dar fasona kushod.

Nazar sarguzashti Dilro ba Husn bayon mekunad. Husn gulomi khud Hayolro khotame medihad va bo hamrohii Nazar ba peshi Dil ravon mekunad. Dil bo Hayol suhbat karda mekhohad Husnro bubinad va bo Hayol meravad. Vaziri Dil holati Dilro ba padari u-Aq khabar medihad.pas az aqlu vazir mekhohand Nazaru Hayolro asir girand. Nazar khotamro ba dahon andohta Dil, Himmat va Hayolro gul zadu ba nazdi Husn raft. Nazar khost az chashmai Gulshani Rukhsor ob nushad, vale khotamro aftond. In vaqt raqib paydo shudu Nazarro mahbus kard. Nazar mue az Zulfro otash dod, ki Zulf hozir shudu uro najot dod. Nazar voqearo ba Husn guft va Husn Gamzaro bo Nazar firistod, to ki Dilro asiru aqlro dastgir karda biyorad. Zarqi Rohib pisare dosht, ki u Tavba nom dosht. U sokini kuhi Zuhd bud.

Dil va Aqlro ba nazdi Husn meorand va Husn doyae dosht, ki nomash Vafo bud. Bore Husn ba Vafo guft: Tu Dilro ba qasri visol biyor. Ba hamin tariq, Husn ba visoli Dil merasad.

Gayr niz mekhohad ba visoli Dil dast yobad. U chunin ham karda ba visoli Dil merasad. Hayol holati Dilu Gayrro mebinad:

Hardu mahushu mastu loyaqiil,

Az jahonu jahoniyon gofil.

Husn bokhabar shuda Dilro dar kuhi Uqob meafkanad. Gayr in holro ba padarash Raqib meguyad. Raqib boshad tabassum, Dil va Nazarro bandi mekunad va onhoro dar vodii Firoq mahbus menamoyad.

Himmat baroi khalosii Dil ba shahri Qomat omad. Bad Hammat ba shahri Badan omada Ishq Aqlro khalosi bakhshid va ba Mahr farmud, ki Raqibro zindon kunadva Dilu Tabassum va Nazarro ozod kunad. aqlro az CHin ovarda ba sadri vazorat joyt medihand. Dar okhir hama yak jo jam shuda Vafo, Noz va Mehr ba ham mepayvandand va Dilu Himmatro ehtirom mekunand. Dar hamin jo khutbai nikohi Husn va Dil khonda meshavad. Himmat Dilro ba sui chashma va paydo kardani Hizr mebarad. Doston ba hamin tamom meshavad.

Hususiyathoi Doston

In doston ramzi buda qahra monhoi on asosan uzvhoi insonand. Hususiyathoi uzvho ba nazar girifta shudaand. Inchunin maylhoi insoni niz har kadom tabiati sirishtii khudro nigoh medorand: Ishq, Husn, Aql, Dil, Hayol, Nazar, Gamza, Qomat, Himmat, Mehr, Vafo, Noz, Zulf, Tabassum, Nomus, Tavba, Zarq, Raqib va g. shirkatkunandagoni dostonand.

Tavassuti tashkhis va ramzu kinoya har kadom amal mekunand. Munosibatu raftor, guftoru kirdor va faoliyati musbatu manfi budavu doshtani onho misli on ast, ki onho dar vujudi insoni dorand.

Masalan, Gayr, Zarq, Tavba beshtar saddi rohi oshiqu mashuqaand vale, dar doston har kadomi inho faoliyatu amali khudro mustaqilona ba kor mebarand.

Qahramonhoi asosii asar: Aqlu Dil va Ishqu Husn meboshand. Digar kahramonhoi lahzagi va yo yorirason meboshand. Onho khatti amaliyotro faol gardonida ba jarayoni hodisavu voqeaho tahkim mebakhshand. Hadaf aslan bayoni holoti oshiqu mashuqa meboshad, ki onho Husnu Diland. In qahramonho (asosi va yovar) dar ashori orifona vazifai digar dorand. Inchunin dar ashori liriki niz duchor meshavand. Masnavii «Gulzori Iram» hatto az unvoni on paydost, ki doroi qavitari ohanghoi irfoni-tasavvufi ast.

Az nigohi sabku uslub, shevai bayonu hunari ejod, istifoda vaznu qafiya, radifu sanathoi adabi, mazmunhovu hunari tasvir, korbasti kalimahovu iboraho, tabirhoi khalqi va gayra niz doston khele jolib ast.

Kushishi shoir dar ejodi masnavi az on iborat ast, ki u khostast dar zaminai sunnati boy va bisyorsolai boganovat tozakori bikunad. U az uhdai on ham baromada tavonistaast.

Albatta, dar in mavzu Ibni Sino, SHaykh SHohubiddin Suhravardi («Risolata fi haqiqat-al-Ishq») vale chun asari adabi-badei Fattohii Nishopuri («Husnu Dil»), Kotibi («Husnu Dil») navishtaand. Mushfiqi beshtar takya dar Fattohi kardaast:

Avval, ki munshii ustod,

Daftari «Husni Dil» ba dastam dod.

Vale ba qavli Mushfiqi, Fattohi dar ejodi asar ba nuqsonho beshtar roh doda ast. Az in ru, asari uro «qolabi be ruh» va «chamani be ob» meguyad:

Mujmale qissa on ki dosht zuhur,

Nuskhae az fasehi Nishopur.

Goire az nazm nochashida futuh,

Dar nazar hamchu qolabi beruh…

In ast, ki dostoni Mushfiqi beshtar dar tarikhi adabiyot mahbubiyat paydo kardaast. SHoiri asri XVII Nishoni avvalin kasest, ki navishtaast. CHandin shoironi digar niz bo in nom va yo dar hamin mavzu asarho navishtaast.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba jarayoni zindagii Mushfiqi chi medoned?
  2. Mushfiqi kay ba sheru shoiri ru ovardaast?
  3. Sababi ba Samarqand safar kardani Mushfiqiro sharh dihed.
  4. Munosibati shoir bo amironi davr chi guna bud?
  5. Sababi ba Hinduston ru ovardani Mushfiqi dar chist?
  6. Mushfiqi kay va dar darbori ki sohibi unvoni «Malik-ush-shuaro» gardid?
  7. Poyoni umri shoir dar kujo sipari shudaast?
  8. Az merosi adabii Mushfiqi to kunun chi boqi mondaast?
  9. Mavzu va mundarijai gazaliyoti Mushfiqiro bayon kuned.
  10. Arzishi adabii qasidahoi shoir dar chist?
  11. Kadom khususiyathoi kharaktenoki hajvu mutoibahoi shoirro medoned?
  12. Gazali Mushfiqi «Har shabe az ohi dil koshonaro otash zanam»-ro azyod kuned.
  13. Kadom masnavihoi Mushfiqiro medoned?
  14. Mazmuni mukhtasari masnavii «Gulzori Iram»-ro naql kuned.
  15. Obrazhoi asoi va lahzavii mavnavii «Gulzori Iram»- ro sharh dihed.
  16. Hususiyati farqkunandai masnavii «Gulzori Iram»-ro gued.
  17. Nufuzi ejodiyoti Mushfiqi ba adabiyot davr va shuaroi mutaakhkhirin chi guna ast?
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