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GuSH

gushGuSH (Auris), uzvi someai hayvonoti muhrador va odam. G.-i odam az se qism iborat ast: beruni, miyona va daruni. G.-i beruni az sufrai gush iborat buda, rohi berunii somea az on ibtido megirad. Sufrai gush lavhachai tagoyakiest, ki bo pust pushida shudaast. Tanho yak qismi khurdi sufra – narmii gush be tagoyak ast. Rohi berunii somea nisbatan vase boshad ham, taqriban dar miyonajo khele tang meshavad va shakli gardanaro megirad. Inro hangomi az gush barovardani yagon chizi begona boyad ba nazar girift. Rohi berunii somea bo pust pushida shudaast, ki muy va gadudhoi charb dorad. Tarashshuhi in gadudhoro chirki gush menomand. On dar har holat (khoh moe, khoh khushki karakhshbasta) gushro muhofizat mekunad va hangomi chizero khoidan yo gap zadan khud az khud va tadrijan berun mebaroyad. Dar natijai az had ziyod hosil shudani chirk puki chirki gush ba vujud omada, rohi somearo band mesozad. Devorai peshi rohi berunii somea bo bugumi jogi poyon hamhudud ast. Binobar on hangomi bemorihoi iltihobi dar asnoi kushodani dahon G. dard mekunad. Ba rohi berunii somea az poyon gadudi banogush payvast meshavad.
Badi rohi somea G.-i miyona ibtido meyobad. Devorai berunii on pardai gush buda, vay az lavhachai tunuk, ammo mustahkam iborat ast. Pas az pardai gush javf (kovoki)-i naqoracha – qismi asosii G.-i miyona joy giriftaast. Dar daruni on se ustukhonchai somea – bolgacha, sandonak va kubak voqeand. Javfi naqora sarbasta nest, on ba tavassuti nayi somea (nayi Evstakhiy) bo halqumu bini vasl gardidaast (dar asnoi furu burdani luqma kushoda shuda, havoro az halqumu bini ba gushi miyona meguzaronad). Devorahoi kovokii naqoracha bo mayna, raghoi kalon va asabi ruy hamshafatand.
Daruntari G.-i miyona tashkilahoi dokhilii halazunmonand (uzvi somea) va kanalhoi nimdoira, ki du khaltacha dorand (uzvi muvozanat), joy giriftaand; in uzvho dar ustukhoni gafsi ahromshakl (yak qismi ustukhoni chakka) voqeand. Dar halzun hujayrahoi hassosi somea mavjudand. Sufrai gush, rohi berunii somea, pardai gush va ustukhonchahoi somea lappishhoi sadoro to in hujayraho rasonda, onhoro meangezand. Sipas angezai sado tavassuti asabi somea, ki az shokhahoi hujayrahoi hassosi shunavoi tarkib yoftaast, ba qishri maynai sar meravad va dar on jo tahlili olii ovozho – ehsosi sado ba amal meoyad. Boyad qayd kard, ki G.-i odam faqat sadohoero dark mekunad, ki diapazoni onho az 16 to 20000 lappish dar yak soniya ast, harchand dar baze mavridho metavonad ultrasadoro niz dark namoyad (nig. Somea).
YAke az alomathoi baze amrozi gush ikhtiloli somea meboshad. Az in ru baroi muayyan namudani onho muoinai somea khele muhim ast. Dar asnoi muoina nafaqat quvvai somea va darajai zafi qobiliyati shunavoi, balki joi osebdidaro niz muayyan metavon kard. Somea bo usulhoi gunogun, beshtar bo yorii pichirroszanon yo ba zaboni guftugui gap zadan, inchunin bo yorii kamerton muoina karda meshavad. Kamerton asbobest, ki ovozi sofu toza (bo miqdori muayyani lappishho dar har soniya) khorij mekunad. Bo yorii asbobi makhsus – audiometriya kori uzvi somearo boz ham aniqtar muayyan kardan mumkin ast.
Az amrozi iltihobii gush makhsusan otit beshtar rukh medihad. Otit vobasta ba qismi osebyoftai gush beruni, miyona va daruni meshavad. Gazaki gushi bemorone, ki ba muolija sarivaqt shuru karda, tainoti dukhturro purra ijro menamoyand, aksaran shifo meyobad. Ba inobat nagiriftani tainoti dukhtur yo khudtabobat boisi inkishofi shaklhoi muzmini bemori, dar baze holatho boshad, boisi chunin oriza vaznin, monandi sarsom (gazaki pardai maynai sar), ufunat (az mikrobho siroyat yoftani khun), paydoishi dumbalho dar boftahoi mayna megardad.
Sari vaqt muolija nakardani gazaki gushi miyona, gushi daruni, asabi somea, inchunin otoskleroz ba zafi qobiliyati shunavoi yo kari ovarda merasonad. Aksaran bemorihoi siroyati (gripp, sarsom, surkhcha, khanozir), inchunin istemoli khudsaronai antibiotikho (asosan hangomi khudmuolija), kor dar joi sermagal va istifoda naburdani vasilahoi hifzi salomati sababi gushvaznini va kari meshavand. Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki gushvaznini metavonad tadrijan ba vujud oyad va der goh nomalum monad. In makhsusan dar sinni kudaki khavfnok ast. Volidayn boyad ba on ahamiyat dihand, ki kudak chi khel meshunavad va dar surati past budani qobiliyati shunavoii u darhol ba dukhtur murojiat kunand. SHunidani sadoro hatto dar shirkhoraho mushohida kardan mumkin ast: kudak sarashro bo tarafi ovoz megardonad. Bo vujudi in muoinai someai kudak dushvor buda, on dar muassisahoi makhsus guzaronda meshavad.
Bisyor vaqt ba G. (makhsusan ba G.-i kudakon) jismhoi begona (saqqocha, tugma va g.) va hasharoti mayda medaroyand (nig. Jismhoi begona). Bo kushishi khud az gush dur kardani hasharot khavfnok ast. Pesh az barovardan, onhoro avval boyad kusht. Baroi in ba surokhi gush chand qatra ravgan (vazelin, ravgani zaytun) yo spirti borat mechakonand. Jismi begonaro az G. boyad faqat dukhtur girad. CHunki hangomi barovardan, az betajribagi onro ba daruntari gush tela metavon dod, ki dar natija berun ovardanash khele dushvor megardad.
Az hodisahoi osebyobii gush makhsusan sarmo zadani sufrai on bisyor vomekhurad.
Narmii gushro faqat dar kabinethoi kosmetiki surokh kardan lozim ast, khudsarona ba in kor dast zadan metavonad boisi siroyati mikrobho va iltihobi sufrai gush gardad.
Baroi peshgirii amrozi G. va emin doshtani somea nafasgirii mutadil bo bini ahamiyati kalon dorad. Ba in munosibat muolija namudani adenoid, polip, gaymorit, bartaraf kardani kajii devorai bini va g. (alalkhusus dar ayyomi khurdsoli) zarur ast. Hatto chunin bemorii muqarrari, monandi zukomi shadid, metavonad dar natijai baland shudani fishori havo dar daruni bini va ba gushi miyona daromadani luobi bini (hangomi afshondani bini) boisi gushvaznini shavad. Binobar on har du nimai biniro barobar afshondan mumkin nest (avval yak parra va bad parrai digari biniro bo angusht ba devorai miyona pakhsh karda meafshonand).
KL
Gush. Uzvi dahlezivu halzuni. 1 – sufrai gush; 2 – rohi beruni somea (shunavoi); 3 – pardai gush (naqoraparda); 4 – javfi pardai gush; 5 – bolgacha; 6 – sandon; 7 – rikobcha; 8 – dahlez; 9 – halzun; 10 – asabi dahlezivu halzuni; 11 – nayi somea (shunavoi).

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