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Geografiya: Kitobi darsi baroi sinfi 6 (Elektroni)

Geotrafiya ilmest, ki sathi Zaminro meomuzad. Bo madadi geografiya metavonem, ki dar borai sathi Zamin, kuhho, daryoho, mamlakatho va qitakho malumot bigirem. Bunyodi iqtisodi, garkibu guruhhoi aholii jahon, dinu mazhab va hatto jismhoi osmoniro ba vositai in fan fahmida megirem. Holo dar marhalai avval diqqati shumoro ba kurai Zamin jalb menamoem.

Zamin az jumlai sayyorahoi nizomi shamsi ast, ki dar girdi Oftob davr mezanad. Vaqti girdi Oftobro davr zada baromadani Zamin 365 ruzu 6 soat, yo ki yak solro tashkil medihad. YAk solro ba chahor fasl taqsim menamoyand: bahor, tobiston, tiramoh va zimiston.

Geografiya sinfi 6 kitobZamin dar girdi mehvari khud niz har shabonaruz yak marotiba davr mezanad. Dar natijai in harakat tulu va gurubi Oftobro mushohida mekunem va shabu ruz az on rukh medihad.

Zamin nur va ravshaniro az Oftob megirad. Binobar in on samti Zamin, ki ba on shuoi Oftob merasad, ruz va tarafi mukobili oi shab meboshad.

Asosguzori ilmi geografiya olimi YUnoni Qadim Eratosfen (solhoi 276 196-i pesh az solshumorii mo) ast. Geografiya kalimai yunoni (“geo” – zamin, “grafo” – menavisam) buda, manoyash “tavsifi Zamin” meboshad. Ammo in mano ba mohiyat va vazifai imruzai ilmi geografiya muvofiqat namekunad, chunki tavsifu nombar va hikoya kardani hodisaho, voqeahoi alohidai olam asos yoftaast. Sayyohon va bahrnavardone, ki az safarbar, megashtand, dar borai chizhoi dida va shunidai khud hikoya mekardand. Dar in zamina va mushohidahoi olimoni qadim ilmi geografiya paydo shud. Onro geografiyai tasviri meguyand, ki ba tasviri tabiat, aholi va khojagii qismhoi judogonai sathi Zamin mashgul bud.

Geografiyai muosir boshad, na faqat tabiat, aholy va khojagii rui Zamin, inchunin qonuniyati tashakkulyobi, inkishof, ba ham aloqamandi va hifzi muhiti zistro meomuzad. Hamai on hodisa va jismhoe, ki geografiya meomuzad, nihoyat gunogunand. Onho dar sathi Zamin hamchun chizu khodisahoi tabii va jamiyati (aholi va faoliyati khojagidorii on) zohir megardand, ki doroi sifat va khosiyathoi doimi meboshand, Az hamin sabab onhoro shokhahoi gunoguni ilmi geografiya tahqiq menamoyand. Hamai on shokhahoro az rui mansubiyat (ilmi tabii yo jamiyati) ba du qismi kalon judo mekunand: geografiyai tabii va geografiyai iqtisodiyu ijtimoi.

Geografiyai tabii tabiati sathi Zamin, qismhoi judogonai on va mamlakathoi alohidaro meomuzad.

Geografiyai iqtisodiyu ijtimoi aholi, khojagi va qonuniyathoi joygirshavii onhoro meomuzad. Har du qismi geografiya (geografiyai tabii va geografiyai iqtisodiyu ijtimoi) dar zaminai qonuniyathoi gunogun (tabii va iqtisodi) inkishof yoband ham, vale bo yakdigar aloqai zich dorand, zero be donishi joygirshavii sarvathoi tabii khojagiro inkishof dodan mumkin nest. Baroi on ki sarvathoi tabiiro istifoda barem, boyad dar borai sharoit va imkoniyathoi iqtisodi istifoda burdani onho va tasiri onho ba tabiat va inson tasavvurot doshta boshem. In donishi geografiyai iqtisodiyu ijtimoiro talab menamoyad.

Ahamnyati geografnyai tabii dar faoliyagi khojagin nnsoi. Tabiat baroi insonnyat sarvati bebaho meboshad. Pesh az hama tabiat baroi inson muhiti zist ast. Inson az havo nafas mekashad, obu zamin va jangalro ba maqsadhoi gunogun istifoda mebarad. Mevahoi tabiiro istemol menamoyad. Darakhtoni gunogunro hamchun masolehi binokori va suzishvori, baroi sokhtani asbobhoi musiqi, ruzgor ba kor mebarad. Hayvonoti vahshiro bo maqsadi giriftani gusht, muina, pust va gayra shikor mekunad. Az zeri Zamin madan va suzishvori istehsol menamoyad. Obhoi garm va madaniro baroi muolija va hamchun nushoki istifoda mebarad. Az garmii Oftob istifoda burda, dar zaminhoi serhosil znroat va darakhtoni meva parvarish mekunad. Quvvai obro baroi istehsoli barq istifoda mebarad.

Hamin tavr, hamai on chizhoero, ki inson bevosita va bavosita az tabiat megirad, sarvati tabii menomand. Ammo sarvathoi tabii vobasta ba sharoiti tabii dar sathi Zamin nobarobar pahn gardidaand. Az in jost, ki geografiyai tabiii muosir barobari tasviri tabiati sathi Zamin, inchunin sababhoi gunogunii sharoit va sarvathoi tabiiro dar qismathoi alohidai Zamin sharh doda, rohu usuli istifodai oqilonai onhoro muayyan mskunad. Rohhoi nigoh doshtani osilnokii zamin barqaror kardani zaminhoi az istifoda baromada (shurzada, botloq, sanglokh, ba farsoish, bodlesi duchorshuda), barqaror kardani jangalzorho, afzun kardaii miqdori namudhoi nabotot va hayvonoti ba nestu nobudshavi duchorshuda, khushkondani botloqho, obyori kardani zaminhoi biyobonu nimbiyoboi, sarfa kardani ob va gayraro nishon medihad.

Zimni mushohida va tadqiqothoi ilmi natijai dakholati nomatlubi insonro ba tabiat peshgui menamoyad. Hamin tavr, donishe, ki dar rafti omukhtani geografiyai tabii azkhud menamoed, dar zindagii shumo ba kor meoyad.

Geografiyai tabii chiro meomuzal? Geografiyai tabii ham ba du qism taqsim meshavad: geografiyai tabiii umumi va nohiyavi (mamlakatshinosi). Mo dar sinfi 6-um geografiyai tabiii umumiro meomuzem. On qonuniyati inkishof va khususiyatkhoi khosu umumitarini tabaqai sathi Zaminro tadqiq menamoyad. Pesh az omukhtani qonuniyatho va khususiyathoi khosi tabaqai Zamin boyad avval oid ba tarikhi “Inkishofi donishhoi geografi dar borai Zamin”, “Naqsha va kharita” donish va malakai amiq hosil namoem. Binobar in dar geografiyai tabii in bobho va masalahoi dar onho shomilbudaro pesh az bobi “Qabathoi Zamin” mutolia menamoem. In imkoniyat medihad, ki dar borai davrahoi “Inkishofi donishhoi geografi dar borai Zamin” malumot va tasavvurot paydo kunem.

Donish va malakae, ki hangomi omukhtani bobi “Naqsha va kharita” azbar menamoem, na faqat baroi omuzishi “Geografiyai tabii”, inchunin ba omuzishi amiqi “Geografiyai Tojikiston”, Geografiyai iqtisodi va ijtimoiya jahon” hamatarafa madad merasonad. In baroi hosil kardani donishhoi navi geografi niz hidoyat Menamoyad, chunki naqsha, kharita va globus dar talimi geografiya du vazifaro ijro mekunand: vasoiti ayoni va manbai donish. Hangomi mutoliai bobhoi “Organizmho dar rui Zamin” va “Aholii kurai Zamin” ba gunogunii organizmho, ba ham aloqamandi, dar sathi Zamin nobarobar pahn gardidann onho, tasiri inson ba tabiat, shumorai aholi, najodho, mahalhoi aholinishin, khalqho, davlatho va tasviri onho dar kharita malumoti kofi hosil mekunem.

In malumotho dar omuzishi kurshoi digari geografiya, ki dar bolo nombar kardem. hamchun donishi zaminavi khidmat mekunand. Doirai fahmishi khonandagon vase va amiq megardad. Malakae, ki az mutoliai “Geografiyai tabii” hosil namudem, dar jarayoni omuzishi mahali khud mushakhkhas va mustakhkam karda meshavad. Azkhud namudani on donishkho ba mo imkoniyat medihad, ki na faqat zohirshavii qonuniyathoi tabiiro dar mahali khud fahmem, balki dakholati nomatlubi insonro ba tabiati atrof dark namuda, baroi muhofizati on choraho andeshem.

Savol va suporish

  1. Geografiya chiro meomuzad?
  2. Geografiya az kadom sohaho iborat ast?
  3. Mavzui tadkiqoti geografiyai tabii chist?
  4. Dar faoliyati khochagii inson tabiat chi ahamiyat dorad?
  5. Donishi geografiyai tabii baroi chi lozim ast?
  6. Ba dars tamomi vositahoi talimii baroi omuzishi geografiya zaruriro ored.
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