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Gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili

Sistemai endokrini. Mafhum dar borai gadudhoi tarashshuhi (sekretsiyai) beruni, dokhili va omekhta. Gadud gufta boftahoero menomand, ki qobiliyati az khud judo namudani in yo on moddaro dorand. Az jikhati ikhroji mahsuli khud gadudho se khel meshavand: 

  1. Gadudhoi tarashshuhi beruni (ekzokrini), ki mahsuli khudro ba kovokii badan va ba muhiti atrof ikhroj mekunand. Ba in gadudhoi luobi dahon, gadudhoi judokunii shirai meda va ruda, talkha, araqjudokuni, charbi, shirjudokuni va gayraho dokhil meshavand.
  1. Gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili (endokrini) majroi mahsuli onho faqat ba sistemai sarbasta khun kushoda meshavad, yane rohi muayyani khudro nadorad. Ba in gadudho hipofiz, epifiz, gadudi siparshakl, nazdi siparshakl dushokha, boloi gurda dokhil meshavand. Gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili az khud moddahoi makhsusi biologi judo mekunand, ki onhoro «hormon» (az kalimai lotini «hormo» ba hayajonoranda) meboshad. Hormon bo khun ba tamomi organizm rafta ba kori bisyor sistemai uzvho va umuman ba faoliyati hayotii organizm tasir merasonad. Onho jarayoni mubodilai moddaho, sabzish va inkishofi organizmro tanzim menamoyand.
  1. Gadudhoi omekhta khosiyati ekzokrini va endokrini dorand. Majroi in gadudho ba khun va ba kovokii badan jori meshavand. Ba in asosan — gadudi zeri meda va gadudhoi jinsi dokhil meshavand.

Ba sistemai dodashuda faqat gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili va omekhta mansuband. Naqshi gormonho dar mubodilai moddaho, afzoish va inkishofi organizm. Afzoish va inkishofi organizmro yakchand gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili tamin mekunad. Masalan, gipofiz gormoni sabzishro hosil mekunad. In gadud bo magzi cap aloqamand buda, dar qismi poyonii zerteppa (gipotalamus) tarkibi magzi mobayni joygir shudaast. Gormoni somatotropini vay ba ribosomai hujayra tasir namuda.

gadudho

Taqsimshavii onro tamin mekunad, ki inkishofi mutadili organizm ba roh monda meshavad. Muayyan karda shudaast, ki az davrai kudaki agar miqdori gormoni sabzish kam hosil shavad organizm az inkishof boz monda qadi kudak past meshavad.

Gadudi siparshakl va nazdi siparshakl. Digar gadude, ki gormoni vay metavonad ba mubodilai moddaho tasir rasonad in gadudi siparshakl meboshad, ki dar qismi peshi noyi nafasi qismi gardan joygir shudaast, ki hangomi nofaol shudani in gadud gormon kam hosil meshavad, dar natija kori dil sust gashta, harorati badan past meshavad. In imkoniyati purra bo harakat darovardani khunro qat gardonida, khun dar muyragho va raghoi varid jam meshavad, ki in ba varami gulu ovarda merasonad, onro bemorii jogar (zob) menomand. Dar kudakon boshad, narasidani in gormon ba sust inkishofyobii skelet khususan sabzishi ustukhonho va kamaqli ovarda merasonad. In bemoriro «kretenizm» menomand.

Hangomi az meyor ziyod hosilshavii gormonhoi in gadud nerui ziyod ikhroj meshavad, ki organizmro kharobu logar megardonad, asabho sust gashta sebaki chashm az kosaash mebaroyad, ki in bemoriro chashmkaloni yo bemorii, «bazed» menomand. Gadudhoi nazdi siparshakl uzvi juft buda dar qismi aqibi qabati boloi va poyonii gadudi siparshakl joygir shudaand.

Hujayrahoi in gadud az khud paratgormon, paratin yo, ki paratiroidi judo mekunand. In gormonho dar jarayoni mubodilai kalsiy ishtirok mekunad. Bo tasiri paratgormon faolgardii vitamini dar gurda va jigar mushohida megardad. Hangomi kam shudani in gormon kashishkhurii mushakhoi skeleti, khususan mushakhoi ruy va aqibi sar mushohida karda meshavad. Ziyodshavii in gormon ba kamshavii moddahoi mineralii ustukhonho ovarda merasonad, ki in bemoriro osteoporoz menomand. Inchunin miqdori namaki kalsiy afzuda, paydoshavii sangro dar gurdaho va talkhadon tamin mekunad.

Gadudi zeri meda. Az khud gormoni insulin ikhroj mekunad, ki dar jarayoni mubodilai moddaho khususan karbogidratho naqshi markaziro mebozad. Insulin az b-hujayrahoi in gadud hosil meshavad, dar barobarkunii miqdori qand dar khun faolona ishtirok mekunad, ki dar vaqti oksidshavii on organizm nerui darkoriro megirad. Hangomi kam hosil shudani insulin ba joyi insulin (qand) digar moddaho oksid shuda, mubodilai karbogidrathoro vayron mekunad, ki dar natija paydoshavii bemorii diabeti qand ba vujud meoyad.

Gadudi boloi gurda dar navbati khud az qabati qishri va magzi iborat buda har yaki on makhsus gormonhoro judo mekunand. Masalan, qabati qishri gormonhoi kortizon, gidrokortizon hosil mekunand, ki dar mubodilai moddaho ishtirok namoyad.

Az qabati magzi boshad gormonhoi adrenalin va noradrenalin hosil meshavand, ki dar faolgardonii kori dilu ragho baroi ijrokunii in yo on kor ishtirok mekunand. Inchunin gormonhoi gadudi boloi gurda rasishi uzvhoi jinsiro tamin mekunand.

Savolho

  1. Baroi chi gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili meguyand?
  2. CHand gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhiliro medoned?
  3. Gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili az beruni chi farq dorand?
  4. Kadom gadudhoro omekhta menomand?
  5. Kadom gormonho dar rasishi qadi odam ishtirok mekunand?
  6. Gormoni gadudi siparshakl ba kadom organoidhoi hujayra tasir merasonad?
  7. Sababhoi paydoshavii bemorii diabeti qand chist?
  8. Kadom gadudho rasishi uzvhoi jinsiro tamin mekunand?
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