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GUSLI MURDA: SHustani mait

Gusli paygambaron (a) ba jihati tazimi eshon ast. Va gusli digar mardum az jihati najosat ast va yo az jihati hadas[1] ast.

Vaqte ki hamai asbobi gusl va kafanu qabr shudand, avval haft marotiba takhtae, ki mayit bar boloi on baroi gusl dodan guzoshta meshavad bo khushbui bishuyand va badan mayitro bar boloi on guzoshta, libosi mayitro az badanash barovarand va az nof to zonuhoro, ki avrat ast, bo porchae bipushonand. Va agar dar andomi u oludagie boshad onro bishuyand.

Niyati gusli mayit chunin ast va boyad ki past khonda shavad:

Navaytu ani-gtasala guslan lil mayiti tathiran, av nafsim-min nafsin, kanafsiv-va-khruji ayoli min amoli dunyo va afoli dunyo va ashgoli dunyo va firoqi dunyo taqarruban ilallohi taolo.

shustani-murda

Tariqi gusl dodan in ast, ki avval mayitro istinjo dihand, ba in tartib, ki gassol[2] ba dasti khud lattaero pechonida va dastro az zeri lingi mayit dokhil karda, istinjo dihad. Va sipas tahorat dihad biduni mazmazavu istinshoq.[3] YAk kas az boloi chodar obi garm merezad, murdashuy bad az istinjo dastashro ba lattai toza ivaz mekunad va avval ruyi murdaro meshuyad, bad az on dasthoi uro to orinj shusta, sari mayitro mash karda, poyhoyashro meshuyad. Bad uro bar pahlui chap khobonida, pahlui rostashro se marotiba bishuyad. Va chunon obro birezad, ki ob az zerash jori gardad. Bad az on mayitro bar pahlui rost khobonida, pahlui chapashro ba misoli pahlui rost bishuyad. Ob boyad bo ushon va sobun garm karda shavad. Va agar in du mavjud naboshad, obi tanho kofist.

Bad az tamom shudani gusl gassol mayitro binishonad va ba khud takya dihad va ohista shikami uro dast kashad va agar chize berun oyad, onro shuyad va guslro dubora takror nakunad. Va bad az on badani mayitro bo lungii pok khushk karda, bar boloi kafan biguzorad. Va agar yak marotiba tamomi badani mayit shusta shavad, farz ado meshavad. Dar vaqti gusl dodan gushhovu biniro bo punba band kunad, to ob dokhil nashavad.

Agar mayit junub murda bud va yo zan hoiz, yo nifos bud, dokhil kardani ob dar dahonu binii u lozim ast. Va ba vasilai punba va yo porcha obro az dahonash berun kunad.

Vaqte ki mayitro bar boloi kafan guzoshtand, bar sari u atr biposhand. Va agar mard boshad, rishi uro niz muattar gardonand. Sipas on haft andome, ki bad-on Hudoi taoloro sajda mekard, yane peshonivu bini va kafi du dast va har du zonu va kafi har du poi mayitro kofur va yo khushbuii digar bizanand. Nazdi murda Quron khondan joiz ast, pas az gusl va ham pesh az gusl. Vale dar vaqti gusl dodan Quron khonda nashavad.

Muyhoi mayit va nokhunhoi uro kutoh karda nashavad, balki bar holi khud boqi guzoshta shavad.

Agar kudak zinda tavallud shavad, bad bimirad, tariqai guslash ba misli odami kalonsol ast, faqat guslash betahorat ijro karda meshavad. Zero tahorat ba kase lozim ast, ki dar hayotash namoz ba u farz ast. Va baroi in tifl nomi khube guzorida shavad. Va agar tifle murda ba dunyo omad, uro shusta bo porchae pechonida, nom guzoshta biduni janoza gur karda shavad.

Agar marde vafot kard va dar miyoni mardon kase paydo nashud, ki uro gusl dihad, zane ki mahrami u boshad, uro gusl dihad. Va agar zani mahram naboshad, pas on mayitro tayammum dihand. Va agar marde dar safar bimurd va marde, bo u boshad, boyad ki on mard on murdaro bishuyad va agar mard naboshad va zanon boshand, pas, agar dar baynashon zani on mardi murda boshad, uro bishuyad va kafan kunad va zanon bar vay namoz guzorand, ravo boshad, ammo on zan, ki imomat kunad dar pesh naravad va dar miyoni saf biistad. Va agar zan zani on murda naboshad, ammo marde kofir boshad va hamchunin zanon boshand, on goh on zanon on mardi kofirro biyomuzand, to on kofir on murdaro tavonad bishuyad va kafan kunad va on zanon bar vay namoz kunand. Va agar kofir ham naboshad, agar az in zanon yake mahrami u boshad, on murdaro bishuyad. Va agar mahram naboshad, pas tayammum dihand. Va agar tayammumdihanda nomahram boshad, dasti khudro bo lattae pechida tayammum dihad.

Tayammumi murda chunin ast, ki du dastro bar zamin zanad va angushton biyafshonad va bad-on har du dast ruyi on murdaro mash kashad, pas har du dastro bar zamin zanad va angushtonro biyafshonad, pas har du dasti on murdaro mash kashad, to orinj va orinj niz mash kunad.

Agar ba vositai nabudani ob mayitro tayammum dodand va bad az on ob paydo shud, boyad u gusl doda shavad. Agar zane vafot kard va digar zanho naboshand, ki uro gusl dihand, pas mahrame uro tayammum dihad, be chashmband va biduni libos. Ammo shavharash uro tayammum dihad be chashmband bo hamrohii libos. Va shakhsi ajnabi (nomahram) uro tayammum dihad bo hamrohii chashmband va libos.

Agar shavhari zan vafot kunad, zan metavonad, ki uro gusl dihad va kafan kunad. Va agar zan bimirad, shavharash nametavonad uro misos kunad, albatta, nazar kardan va az boloi kafan giriftani jasadash joiz ast.

Zan dar holati hayzu nifos nametavonad mayitro gusl dihad.

Baroi shustani zan zane, ki az kheshovandoni nazdikash boshad, behtar ast. Va agar kheshovandoni nazdik naboshand, har zani dindoru parhezgor boshad, joiz ast.

Gassol agar dar vaqti shustani mayit aybero mushohida kard, yo surati uro digargunshuda did, bar kase izhor nakunad.

Agar kase dar daryo garq shuda, vafot kard va har vaqt ki u az ob berun ovarda shavad, gusl dodani u lozim ast. Va garq, shudani dar ob joyi guslro namegirad, albatta, agar vaqti berun ovardan ba niyati gusl uro dar ob harakat doda boshand, gusl ado meshavad. Va boridani boron bar mayit hamin hukmro dorad.

Agar tanho sari kase paydo shud, u gusl doda nashavad, balki hamon tavr dafn karda shavad. Va agar nisfi ziyodi badan paydo shud, khoh bo cap boshad, khoh besar gusl dodani on vojib ast. Va agar az nisf kamtar boshad, khoh bo cap boshad, khoh besar, gusl doda nameshavad.

Agar mayite yoft shud, ammo malum nashud, ki u musalmon ast va yo kofir, vale mardumi nohiyae, ki on mayitro az on jo yoftaand, az ahli islom hastand, pas uro gusl doda kafan kunand va janoza bikhonand.

Agar jasadi musalmonon va kofiron bo ham omekhta shuda boshand va malum nagardad, ki kadome az onho musalmon astu kadome gayri musalmon, pas hamaro gusl dihand. Va agar shinokhta shavad, pas tanho jasadi musalmonon gusl doda meshavad.

Agar yake az kheshovandi musalmonon kofir bud va u vafot kard, musalmonon jasadi uro ba hammaslakoni u bidihand. Va agar hammaslakoni uro nayoftand va yo onho uro qabul nakardand, pas on guruhi muslimin on mayitro gusl dihand, vale na ba tariqi sunnat, balki ba misoli yak chizi najas uro bishuyand, agarchi kofir ba shustan pok namegardad.

Baroi shakhsoni bogi va duzdon, ki hangomi zadukhurd bo sarbozoni islom kushta meshavand, gusl joiz nest.

Murtad[4] agar bimirad, gusl doda nashavad va murdaashro ba hammazhabonash niz doda nashavad.

Baroi gassol behtar ast, ki ba poki gusl bidihad va khudash niz bad az gusli mayit gusl bikunad. (Durru-l-mukhtor).

[1] Hadas – betahorati, nopoki.

[2] Gassol – murdashuy

[3] Mazmazavu istinshoq – obro dar dahonu dar bini kardan

[4] Murtad – kase, ki az dini mubini islom ruy gardonida, dini digarro qabul mekunad.

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