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GURuHHOI HUN

guruhhoi-khunGURuHHOI HUN [Typi (gruppae) sanguinis], alomathoi irsii khun, ki bo majmui moddahoi makhsusi fardi muayyan gardida, antigen yo izoantigen nom giriftaand. Dar asosi in alomatho khuni tamomi odamon, sarfi nazar az najod, sinnu sol va jins ba guruhho judo karda meshavad. Mansubiyati odam ba in yo on G. kh. khususiyati fardii biologii u buda, tashakkuli on hanuz az davrai avvali inkishofi batni sar meshavad va dar tuli tamomi hayoti minbada betagyir memonad.
Alalkhusus izoantigenhoi eritrosit (hujayrahoi surkhi khun) – izoantigenhoi A va izoantigenhoi V, inchunin dar zardobi khuni baze odamon bar ziddi onho mavjud budani izoantijismho – izoantijismi α (alfa) va izoantijismi β (betta) ahamiyati amali dorand. Dar khuni odam yakjoyagii faqat izoantigenho va izoantijismhoi harkhela (mas., A + β va V + α) mumkin ast, chunki dar mavridi yakjoya budani izoantigen va izoantijismhoi yakkhela (mas., A va α) eritrositho ba hamdigar chaspida, lundachahoe hosil mekunand, ki dar natija odam memirad. Az rui dar tarkibi khun vujud doshtan yo nadoshtani izoantigenhoi A va V, inchunin izoantijismhoi α va β khunro ba 4 guruh judo va bo ramzhoi harfi va raqami ifoda menamoyand: Oαβ (I) – guruhi khune, ki faqat izoantijismhoi α, β dorad; Aβ (II) – guruhi khune, ki izoantigeni A va izoantijismhoi β dorad; Vα (III) – guruhi khune, ki izoantigeni V va izoantijismi α dorad; AVO (IV) – guruhi khune, ki faqat izoantigeni A va V dorad. Binobar in dar asnoi az yak shakhs ba shakhsi digar guzaronidani khun haminro ba nazar giriftan zarur ast, ki dar khuni donor bar ziddi izoantigenhoi khuni bemor izoantijism naboshad. Guzaronidani khuni yake ba digare dar surati yak khel budani guruhi khuni hardu ayni muddaost.
Talimot doir ba G. kh. okhiri a. 19 ba vujud omad. On yake az qismathoi muhimi immunologiyai umumi va asosi khunguzaroni barin usuli muhimi tabobatro tashkil medihad. Talimot oid ba G. kh. dar jarrohi, akusheri va ginekologiya, tibbi sudi, inchunin dar antropologiya va genetikai odam amalan tatbiq yoft. Donistani khususiyathoi izoantigenii organizmi odam hangomi payvandi uzvho va boftaho zarur ast.
Omuzishi G. kh. gunogunii izoantigeni A-ro oshkor namud. Az in ru, zerguruhi A1 (dar 88% odamon) va zerguruhi A2 (dar 12% odamon)-ro farq mekardagi shudand. Dar sharoiti imruza imkoniyati farq kardani navhoi bo dushvori zoharshavandai eritrosithoi A3, A4, A5, Az va g. ba vujud omad. Bo vujudi on ki izoantigeni V baraksi izoantigeni A khele yakrang ast, navhoi kam duchoroyandai in antigen niz malum karda shudaand (V3, Vw, Vkh va g.).
Gayr az izoantigenhoi A va V dar eritrosithoi baze odamon antigenhoi makhsusi N va O mavjudand. CHunonchi in antigenho dar eritrosithoi odamoni guruhi khunashon Oαβ (I) hamesha vujud dorand. Antigeni N chun izoantigenhoi A va V dar moehoi biologii shakhsone, ki bo tarashshuhot qobiliyati judo kardani izoantigenhoro dorand, duchor meoyad; antigeni O boshad, bo tarashshuhot judo nameshavad va masalai mavjudiyati judogonai on niz purra hal nagardidaast.
Izoantigenho dar eritrositho az mohi duyumi hayoti batni paydo meshavand. Miqdori izoantigenhoi eritrositho taqriban dar sinni 3-solagi ba darajai baland merasad va dar pironsoli kam khohad shud. Haminash jolibi diqqat ast, ki majmui izoantigenhoi khuni odam, ki fardiyati khosi uro muayyan mekunand, dar tuli tamomi hayot sarfi nazar az bemoriho va ba organizm tasir rasondani omilhoi fizikiyu khimiyavi tagyir nameyobad. Dar davomi hayoti odam metavonad faqat tarkibi miqdorii izoantijismho tagyir yobad, ammo sifatan onho betagyir memonand. Izoantijismho bar ziddi antigenhoi sistemai AVO dar mohhoi avvali badi tavlidi kudak paydo meshavand. Dar sinni 5 – 10-solagi miqdori onho ba darajai balandtarin merasad va solhoi ziyod hamin tavr boqi memonad; tanho dar davrai pironsoli izoantijismho tadrijan kam meshavand. Dar barobari izoantijismhoe, ki dar odamon muvofiqi meyor vujud dorand, dar khun izoantijismhoi digare niz vomekhurand, ki onho dar natijai ba organizm vorid gardidani antigenhoi az jihati guruh nomuvofiq hosil meshavand: mas., hangomi guzaronidani khuni guruhash nomuvofiq (khoh tarkiban purra boshad, khoh juzhoi alohidai on – eritrositho, leykositho, plazma) yo dar surati guzaronidani moddahoi az hayvonot hosilshuda, ki ba antigenhoi guruhi A va V-i odam mushobehand; dar davrai homilagi dar surate, ki khuni kudak ba guruhi khuni modarash muvofiq nest; dar mavridhoi bo maqsadi muolijayu peshgirii bemoriho istifoda burdani baze zardobu vaksinaho va g. Dar baze khelhoi bakteriyaho moddahoi mushobehi izoantigenho duchor meoyand, pas in qabil bakteriyahoi bemoriovar metavonand boisi hosil gardidani antijismhoi masuniyati bar ziddi eritrosithoi guruhi A va V shavand. Ba nazar giriftani mavjudiyati antijismhoi ziyodi masuniyati dar khuni odamoni guruhi Oαβ (I) ahamiyati kaloni amali dorad, zero guzaronidani khuni chunin donorho baroi bemor metavonad boisi orzai vaznin gardad. Huni chunin donorho boyad faqat ba bemoroni guruhi khunashon yakkhela guzaronda shavad.
Az rui ahamiyat dar tibbi amali badi izoantigenhoi sistemai AVO G. kh.-i sistemai Rh (Rhesus – rezus) dar joi duyum meistad. On yake az murakkabtarin sistemahoi khun buda, ziyoda az 20 izoantigenro darbar megirad. Izoantigenhoi sistemai Rh-ro s. 1940 K. Landshteyner va A. Viner bo yorii eritrosithoe, ki az maymunhoi makak-rezus girifta shudaand, kashf kardand. Muqarrar shudaast, ki dar 85%-i odamon eritrositho rezus-omil (Rh – omil) doshta, dar 15%-i digar onro nadorand. Muvofiqan, az rui budan yo nabudani Rh – omil odamonro ba du guruh judo mekunand: rezus-musbat va rezus-manfi. Dar organizmi modare, ki khuni u Rh – omil nadorad, zeri tasiri antigeni janin, ki az rezus-musbati padar guzashtaast, bar ziddi in antigen antijism hosil meshavad; on ba eritrosithoi janin tasir rasonda, boisi gemoliz (vayronshavi)-i onho megardad. Hamin tavr, rezus-ziddiyat ba vujud meoyad, ki ba sifati bemorii khun zohir doshta, oqibathoi margovar dorad. Agar ba shakhsi khunash rezus-manfi takroran khuni rezus-musbat guzaronida shavad, rezus-ziddiyat ba vujud meoyad.
Gayr az izoantigenhoe, ki dar eritrositho joy dorand, dar digar unsurhoi tarkibii khun niz izoantigenho vomekhurand va onho faqat ba hamin tarkibhoi khun khosand. Hamin tavr, mavjudiyati guruhi leykositari muqarrar karda shud, ki ziyoda az 40 antigeni leykosithoro darbar megirad.
Inchunin guruhi safedahoi zardob vujud dorad, ki onho ba immunoglobulin, albumin, postalbumin, α-, β-, γ-globulinho va lipoproteidho judo meshavand.
Izoantigenhoe, ki ba dig. sistemahoi khuni odam mansuband, nisbat ba sistemai AVO va Rh amalan ahamiyati kam dorand, ammo baroi tibbi sudi, genetika, antropologiya muhimand.
Alomathoi guruhii khun bo omilhoi irsi muayyan karda meshavand, yane khususiyati antigenii khuni kudakon qatiyan ba mansubiyati guruhii khuni volidon vobasta ast. In imkon medihad, ki dar amaliyai sudi masalahoi murakkabi bahsnok (mas., padari) hal karda shavand: 1) mard dar surate padar hisob karda nameshavad, ki agar dar khuni u va modari tifl antigenhoe, ki kudak dorad, mavjud naboshand, zero antigenhoi padaru modar nadoshtaro boyad kudak niz nadoshta boshad; 2) mard inchunin dar hamon surat padar donista nameshavad, ki agar kudak antigeni «padarash»-ro nadoshta boshad, mas., mardi guruhi khunash AV (IV) ba kudaki guruhi khunash O (I) padar shuda nametavonad.
G. kh.-ro tavassuti oshkor namudani izoantigenhoi tarkibi eritrositho bo yorii zardobhoi standarti (meyori) muayyan mekunand. Makhsusan oshkor namudani G. kh.-i sistemai AVO ahamiyati kaloni amali dorad, hol on ki nafaqat izoantigenhoi eritrositho, balki bo yorii eritrosithoi standarti izoantijismhoi zardob niz muqarrar karda meshavand. Muayyan namudani G. kh.-i sistemai AVO bo yorii reaksiyai agglyutinatsiya (payvastshavii eritrositho bo izoantijismhoi zardobii muvofiq) dar harorati khona dar lavhachai safedi boloyash tar guzaronida meshavad. Natijai nihoii reaksiya barobari paydo shudani donachahoi surkh, ki az eritrosithoi payvast iboratand (reaksiyai musbat), yo az rui betagyir mondani on (reaksiyai manfi) malum megardad. Baroi ba khato roh nadodan, reaksiyaro bo du namuna (az du seriyai gunogun)-i zardobi standartii har kadom guruh memonand.

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