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GURUSNAGi

gurusnagiGURUSNAGi chun hodisai ijtimoi az sababi muddati duru daroz narasidani gizo ba miyon meoyad. G. oshkoro va nihoni (nimgurusnagi yo narasidani moddahoi hayotan zarur dar tarkibi khurok) meshavad.
G.-i oshkoro hamqadami sadamahoi tabii va ijtimoist (khushksoli, jang, zaminjunbi, obkhezi va g.), ki boisi yakbora kam shudani miqdori khurokvori (asosan galla), emu khoshoki chorvo, gusht, ravgani hayvonot va g. megardad. Sababi G.-i nihoni asosan taqsimi nobarobari nemathoi moddi ast. Az in ru dar olam guruhhoi odamie hastand, ki jang va ofathoi tabii ruy nadoda boshand ham, az khuroki khushsifat mahrumand.
G. oqibati vaznini ijtimoi doshta, ba afzoishi jinoyatkori, fohishagi, beparastori va benazoratii bachagon, bemorihoi siroyati, sil, vitaminkohi, narasidani safedaho, afzudani favt, kam shudani zoish va shumorai aholi musoidat mekunad. Oqibati G. chun sababhoi paydoishi on, asosan ba darajai taraqqiyoti iqtisodi va madanii mamlakat vobasta ast. CHunonchi, dar mamlakathoi agrari va sanoatashon sust ofati tabii – khushksoli, borongari, sarmoi sakht va g. boisi paydoishi G. megardad. Dar mamlakate, ki az jihati iqtisodi taraqqi kardaast, in guna omilho chandon khatarnok nestand. Bad gashtani vaziyati baynalkhalqi va buhroni iqtisodii dokhili niz sababgori G. shuda metavonand.
G. chun zuhuroti fiziologi. G. hissi makhsuse ast, ki ehtiyojoti fiziologii organizmro ba gizo ifoda menamoyad; ba hamai hayvonot va odam khos ast. Ahamiyati biologii G. dar on meboshad, ki odam va hayvonotro ba justujui khurok va istemoli on vodor mesozad. Dar magzi sar ham markazi G. va ham markazi seri vujud dorad. Bo jarayoni barq angekhtani markazi G. jonvaroni serro majbur kard, ki gizo juyand; angezishi markazi serii hayvonoti gurusna boshad, hissi seriro ba vujud ovard. Hissi seri hangomi ikhtiloli faoliyati markazi G. niz paydo meshavad. Dar in surat hayvon, qati nazar az on ki dar nazdash khurok hast, az G. metavonad ba halokat rasad. Hissi G. bo suzish, tazyiq, hatto dardi sari dil, bazan dilbehuzuri, charkh zadan va dard kardani sar zohir megardad.
Dar asnoi G. tonusi mushakhoi medayu ruda afzuda, peristaltikai G. (badi har 1,5 – 2 soat 15 – 20 daq. kashish khurdani medayu ruda) ruy medihad. Hangomi G. miqdori moddahoi gizoii khun kohish meyobad, ki onro «khuni gurusna» ham meguyand.
G. chun holati fiziologi bo seri aloqamand ast. Odatan, qone gardondani hissi G. dar marhilai avvali ser gashtan ba vuqu meoyad, yane hamon vaqte ki gizo ba qismi avvali rohi hozima tasir rasonida, retseptorhoi onro meangezad va markazi seri «bokhabar» meshavad. Badi 1,5 – 2 soati istemoli khurok, moddahoi gizoi jabbish yofta, hissi serii haqiqi ba vujud meoyad. Zero khun baroi tamini faoliyati hayotii organizm miqdori kofii moddahoi gizoi megirad.
Dar tanzimi holati G. va minbad ser shudan depo (zakhira)-i moddahoi gizoii organizm ahamiyati kalon dorad. Depo dar sharoiti mutadil qabl az sarf gashtani hamai zakhirai moddahoi gizoi «basta» meshavad. Depo yake az vasilahoi muhofizat va mutobiqati organizm buda, odam va hayvonotro az logari emin medorad, onhoro vodor mesozad, ki pesh az itmomi zakhira ba justujui gizo shuru namoyand.
Ikhtiloli tanosubi G. va seri boisi farbehi yo logarii organizm megardad. Agar depoi moddahoi gizoi «basta» va «kushoda» nashavad, logari faro merasad; agar on barmahal (yane hangomi bisyor budani zakhira) «basta» shavad, miqdori moddahoi gizoii organizm ziyod shuda, farbehi inkishof meyobad. Az depo ba khun guzashtani moddahoi gizoiro silsilai asabi markazi va gadudhoi usorai dokhili tanzim mekunand. Agar tasakkuni markazi G. sust shavad yo tamoman bozdoshta nashavad, kas seriro his namekunad va az meyor ziyod khurok mekhurad. Baraks, agar istemoli khurok G.-ro tez bartaraf sozad, miqdori khuroki istemolkarda ehtiyojoti fiziologii organizmro qone namegardonad.
Rioyai rejimi tagziya va istirohat (ehsosi G. beshtar hangomi khastagi, asaboniyat va g. bartaraf meshavad) sharti asosii peshgiri kardani ikhtiloli tanzimi G. va seri ast. In, khususan, ba kudakon dakhl dorad, chunki tarzi tanzimi faoliyati asabi onho nomukammal meboshad.
Dar surati beishtihoi yo baraks, az had ziyod budani on ba dukhtur murojiat kardan lozim ast. Dar mavridi zarurat dukhtur rejimi muvofiqi tanovul va bazan doru tain mekunad.
Mahdudiyati tagziyaro chun usuli parhezshifoi mutobiqi nishondodi qatii tibbi badi tashkhisi hamatarafa istifoda mebarand va zeri nazorati dukhtur ba amal meorand.

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