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GORMONHO

gormonhoGORMONHO (yun. hormaino – ba harakat meoram, meangezam), moddahoi khimiyavii az jihati fiziologi nihoyat faol, ki gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili (gadudhoi endokrini) va yo hujayrahoi judogona hosil mekunand. G. mubodilai moddaho, faoliyati hujayraho, nifozati gishohoi hujayravi, inchunin kori organizmro tanzim menamoyand. G. sokhti khimiyavii gunogun dorand. Hatto miqdori kamtarini G. metavonad kori uzvro tagyir dihad, mas., 1 g insulin qodir ast miqdori qandero, ki dar khuni 125 haz. khargush joy dorad, khele kam kunad.
G. dar boftaho nisbatan tez tajziya meshavand. Binobar in baroi dar khun ba miqdori kofi mahfuz mondan, G. boyad dar in yo on gadud muntazam hosil shavand.
Bisyor G.-i odamu hayvonot monand meboshand. Az in ru, baroi muolijai odamoni bemor gormoni az gadudhoi endokrinii hayvonot giriftaro chun doru ba kor mebarand. Vale G.-i safedavi yo polipetidii inson va hayvon az hamdigar farq dorand. Aksari G. va moddahoi mushobehi onho dar laboratoriya bo rohi suni ba dast ovarda shudaand (in baroi amaliyai tib nihoyat muhim ast).
Dar organizm hosil shudani G. ba tariqi irtiboti chappa tanzim meshavad: agar qandi khun az etidol kam boshad, tahvili insulin (gormone, ki az tasiri on miqdori qandi khun kam megardad) kam meshavad, vale tarashshuhi glyukagon (gormone, ki gilzati qandro dar khun ziyod mesozad) meafzoyad. Hamin tariq, nafaqat gormon ba rafti tanzim tasir meguzorad, balki vazi khudi hamin jarayon niz ba surati hosil shudani gormon tasir merasonad. Tufayli chunin tasiri mutaqobila G. hamesha dar yak vazi muayyan qaror doshtani muhiti dokhili badanro tamin menamoyand. Mas., onho «nozir»-i miqdori ob, qand va elektrolithoi khun meboshand.
Tarzi hosil shudan va tasiri G., inchunin ikhtiloli vazi organizmro dar asnoi az had ziyod yo nihoyat sust shudani faoliyati gadudhoi usorai dokhili endokrinologiya meomuzad.
Gormonhoi gadudi siparshakl. Gadudi siparshakl gormoni tireoidiro hosil mekunad. Hujayrahoi in gadud mahz yodro dar khud zakhira menamoyand. Agar miqdori yod (baroi hosil shudani gormonhoi gadudi siparshakl zarur ast) kam shavad, boftai gadud meafzoyad, dar natija bemorii jogar ba vujud meoyad. Yod dar hujayrahoi gadud baroi hosil shudani monoyodtirozin va diyodtirozin (onho dar hujayrahoi gadud bo safeda payvast shuda, tireoglobulin hosil mekunand) istifoda meshavad. Tireoglobulin tahti tasiri fermenti makhsus – proteinaza tajziya shuda, gormonhoi faoli gadudi siparshakl – triyodtironin yo tiroksin hosil megardad. Gormonhoi nomburda ba khun guzashta, bo safedahoi zardobi khun (bo alfa-globulinho) payvast meshavand. In tarkibot (kompleksho) ba juzho taqsim shuda, az khud tiroksin va triyodtironin judo mekunand. Triyodtironin az jihati fiziologi nisbat ba tiroksin faoltar ast, vale miqdori on dar zardobi khun 20 marotiba kam meboshad.
Gormonhoi gadudi siparshakl surati mubodilai energiyaro meafzoyand. Hangomi ba organizm guzaronidani tiroksin, mubodilai energiya badi 24 soat surat megirad (badi 10 – 12 ruz ba darajai oli merasad). Dar mavridi ba organizm guzaronidani triyodtironin, tabdili energiya barvaqttar (bad 6 – 12 soat) surat khohad girift. Az tasiri hamagi 1 mg tiroksin sarfi shaboruzii energiya takhminan 1000 kkal meafzoyad. Tiroksin ba bisyor sarf shudani moddahoi gizoi – angishtob, charb va safeda musoidat mekunad. G.-i gadudi siparshakl ba ravandi plastikii organizm niz tasir merasonand (dar natija sabzishi organizm vusat meyobad). Gayr az in, onho asabiyai markaziro meangezand, refleksho (mas., refleksi payho)-ro neru mebakhshand; zeri tasiri miqdori ziyodi tiroksin angushtoni dast melarzand.
Dar gadudi siparshakl gormoni tirokaltsitonin niz hosil meshavad (mubodilai kaltsiyro tanzim menamoyad). Az tasiri gormoni nomburda hujayrahoi mahvsozandai ustukhon (osteoklastho) (nobudkunandai ustukhon) taboh shuda, faoliyati hujayrahoi ustukhonofar (osteoblastho) taqviyat meyobad. Tirokaltsitoninro gormoni sarfai kaltsiy menomand. On az jihati fiziologi bagoyat faol ast. Ba odamoni solim tasiri on chandon ziyod nest. Vale agar onro bemore, ki dar tarkibi khuni u kaltsiy az meyor ziyod astu az ustukhonho khorij meshavad, istemol namoyad, gilzati kaltsiy dar khun khele kam megardad.
Gormoni gadudhoi nazdsiparshakl. In gadudho paratgormon hosil mekunand, ki az tasiri on miqdori kaltsiy dar khun meafzoyad. Dar mavridi kam hosil shudani on, miqdori kaltsiy va fosfathoi khun kam, vale ikhroji fosfatho bo peshob ziyod megardad. Paratgormon faoliyati osteoklasthoro purzur mekunad, dar natija kalsiy az boftai ustukhon khorij shuda, ba khun meguzarad va mizoni on dar khun khele meafzoyad. Umuman, gormoni mazkur hamai on amaliyotero, ki boisi dar khun ziyod shudani gilzati kaltsiy megardad, metezonad. On ba surati az ruda jabbish yoftan va az naychahoi gurda bargashta jabbida shudani kaltsiy taqviyat mebakhshad.
Gormonhoi gadudi zeri meda. Az omuzishi sokhti boftahoi gadudi zeri meda malum gardid, ki dar on chand guruh hujayraho vujud dorand (ba nom jazirachahoi Langergans). Onho usorai khudro ba khun jori menamoyand, az in ru gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili nom giriftaand. Jazirachahoi Langergans az se namud hujayraho (alfa-, beta- va gamma-) tarkib yoftaand. Beta-hujayraho gormoni insulin, alfa-hujayraho gormoni glyukagon khorij mekunand.
Insulin aslan gormoni polipeptidi ast. Nakhustin gormone meboshad, ki bo rohi suni hosil karda meshavad. Insulin az devorai hujayrahoi mushak va charb guzashtani glyukozaro oson megardonad. Azbaski hazmi glyukoza andaruni hujayraho surat megirad, insulin ba intiqoli glyukoza madad rasonida, az glyukoza bahra burdani organizm, sintezi glikogen (angishtobi zakhirashuda) va dar mushakho gird omadani onro tamin mesozad. Insulin jarayoni hosil shudani ravganu safedaro dar hujayra purzur menamoyad.
Pas az tazriqi voyai kaloni insulin miqdori ziyodi glyukozai khun ba hujayrahoi mushakhoi skelet, mushaki dil, inchunin ba hujayrahoi gadudi shir va dig. uzvho meguzarad. Dar natija gilzati glyukozai khun past shuda, tamini hujayrahoi asab bo glyukoza khalal meyobad. Binobar in faoliyati magzi sar va harommagz nojur gashta, sadama (shok)-i insulini yo gipoglikemiyavi rukh medihad. Agar miqdori glyukoza dar khun to 50 – 45 mg% (meyorash 80 – 120 mg%) kohish yobad, sadama ba vuqu mepayvandad. Dar mavridi gurusna budan, hatto az miqdori kamtarini insulini ba organizm tazriqshuda niz shoki gipoglikemiyavi ba amal meoyad; agar ba siyohrag andak mahluli glyukoza guzaronand, shoki insulini zud bartaraf meshavad. Dar surati dar organizm narasidani insulin kasalii qand sar mezanad (nig. Diabeti qandi).
Glyukagon gormoni duyumi gadudi zeri meda ast. On dar dokhili hujayraho to ba darajai glyukoza tajziya shudani glikogenro tanzim va miqdori qandro dar khun ziyod mekunad. Glyukagon inchunin tajziyai charbro dar boftahoi charbi metezonad. Hullas, glyukagon baraksi insulin tasir merasonad.
Gormonhoi gadudi boloi gurda. Gadudhoi boloi gurda az magz va qishr iborat meboshand; sokhtu vazifai onho (chun gadudhoi usorai dokhili) gunogun ast. Gormoni magzi in gadudho (adrenalin) va moqabli on (noradrenalin) ba faoliyati organizm, az jumla ba mubodilai moddahoi dokhilihujayravi, tasir merasonand. Onho tajziyai klikogenro afzun va zakhirai onro dar mushakhoyu jigar kam menamoyand. Az in ru adrenalinu noradrenalin moddahoi zidkori insulin meboshand. Az tasiri adrenalin glyukozai badi tajziyai glikogen ozodshuda ba khun meguzarad va giperglikemiyai ba nom adrenalini (serqandi az adrenalin) ba miyon meoyad. Adrenalin intiqoli junbai asabhoi dilro afzuda, kori dilro tez va qavitar megardonad; az tasiri on tonusi mushakhoi suftai meda va rudaho, harakati mavjvori onho sust meshavad. Ammo baze mushakhoi sufta az tasiri adrenalin ba kashish meoyand, mas., mushakhoi pardai ranginkamoni chashm ba kashish omada, gavharak vase meshavad; mushakhoi suftai muykhezoni pust kashish khurda, muyho sikh meshavand, bar pust murgak medamad. Hanomi istemoli adrenalin faoliyati mushakhoi skelet va darrokhoi binoiyu shunavoi afzun megardad. Dar holathoe, ki faoliyati organizm va mubodilai moddaho purzur boshad (mas., hangomi hayajoni ruhi, kori jismoni, khunuk khurdan va g.), adrenalin ziyod hosil meshavad.
Gormonhoi qishri gadudhoi boloi gurda: mineralokortikoidho – aldosteron, kortikosteron, dezoksikortikosteron (mubodilai moddahoi mineraliro tanzim mekunand); glyukokortikoidho – gidrokortizon, kortizon va kortikosteron (beshtar ba mubodilai angishtobho, safedaho va charbho tasir merasonand); gormonhoi jinsi – androgenho, estrogenho, progesteron. Aldosteron mizoni natriy va kaliyro dar khun tanzim menamoyad. Tahti tasiri aldosteron dar khun va moei boftaho gilzati khloridi natriy baland megardad. Dar natija dar organizm obi bisyor jam shuda, fishori sharayon baland mebaroyad. Norasoii mineralokortikoidho aksi hol – talafoti ob, yane tagyirotero ba amal meorand, ki zistan imkonnopazir ast. Binobar in mineralokortikoidhoro «gormonhoi muhofizi hayot» menomand.
Glyukokortikoidho va gormoni nisbatan faoli onho –gidrokortizon dar jigar hosil shudani glyukozaro tezonida, bo in roh miqdori qandro dar khun ziyod megardonad. Dar natija miqdori glikogen dar jigar meafzoyad (hamin ast farqi tasiri glyukokortikoidho va adrenalin). Hangomi tazriq namudani glyukokortikoidho, hatto dar surati ba miqdori kofi bo khurok istemol shudani safedaho niz, muvozinai nitrogen vayron megardad. In dalel ba on ast, ki dar organizm tajziyai safedaho nazar ba sintezi onho afzun meboshad, vale dar jigar surati hosil shudani safedaho, makhsusan fermentho, afzudaast. Glyukokortikoidho az zakhiragoh baromadan va dar jarayoni mubodilai energiya sarf shudani charbro taqviyat medihand. Dar mavridi kam hosil shudani onho muqovimati organizm sust gashta, bemoriho vaznin jarayon megirand. Glyukokortikoidho muqovimati organizmro bar ziddi tarbod, iltihob va baze bemorihoi dig. sust menamoyand. Azbaski gormonhoi nomburda jarayoni iltihobro furu menishonand, onhoro «gormonhoi ziddi iltihob» nomidaand. Dar mavridi dard, zarbulat, talafi khun, garmozani, sarmozani, zahroludi, bemorihoi siroyati va holathoi vaznini ruhi glyukokortikoidho ziyod hosil meshavand.
Gormonhoi jinsii qishri gadudhoi boloi gurda (androgenho va estrogenho) dar inkishofi uzvhoi jinsii davrai bachagi, vaqte ki gadudhoi jinsi ba tarashshuhi gormonho hanuz shuru nakardaand, mavqei bagoyat kalon dorand. Badi ba balogat rasidan (vaqti ba kor daromadani gadudhoi jinsi), mohiyati gormonhoi nomburda kam megardad.
Gormonhoi gadudhoi jinsi. Gormonhoi jinsi – androgenho (gormonhoi jinsii mardona) va estrogenho (gormonhoi jinsii zanona) faoliyati jinsii organizmro tamin mekunand. Ba tufayli in gormonho alomathoi jinsii duyumin inkishof meyoband. Gormonhoi jinsii zanona baroi mutadil guzashtani homilagi va omoda shudani organizmi zan ba makondani navzod ahamiyati kalon dorand.
Gormonhoi gipofiz az rui mohiyati fiziologi du nav meshavand. YAke az onho gadudhoi digari endokriniro bedor karda, ba kor meandozad. CHunonchi, gormonhoi adrenokortikotropi (ba gadudhoi boloi gurda tasir mekunad), tireotropi (ba gadudi siparshakl tasir merasonad), follikulangez (yane angezandai pufakchai tukhmdonhoi zan), gormoni laktotropi (angezandai gadudi shir) va g. Digar gormonhoi gipofiz ba organizm tasiri umumi merasonand, mas., gormoni somatotropi (ba sabzishi organizm kumak mekunad).
Oqibati nazarrasi dur sokhtan, mahv kardan yo rushdi nokifoyai gipofiz inkishofi susti organizm meboshad. Baraks, faoliyati tezi gipofiz (mas., dar natijai paydo shudani omos) boisi sabzishi barziyodi barobar va yo nobarobari baze uzvho megardad (nig. Gigantizm, Akromegaliya).
Gormoni intermedin dar jarayoni rang giriftani pust va pardai luobi ishtirok mekunad. Dar khun ziyod gashtani gormoni mazkur dar mavridhoi homilagi, bemorii birinji (nig. Bemorii Addison) va g. mushohida meshavad.
Gormoni ziddi peshob (vazopressin) judoshavii peshob va ikhroji obro ba tartib medarorad.
Gormoni oksitotsin kashish khurdani mushaki bachadon va jarayoni tavalludro tanzim namuda, shiri modarro ziyod mekunad.
Gormonhoi tasirashon juzi (gormonhoi boftaho) az hujayrahoi makhsus, ki dar uzvhoi mukhtalif mavjudand, hosil meshavand. Onho kori uzvhoero, ki khud dar on jo hosil gardidaand, tanzim mekunand. Mas., gastrin az hujayrahoi meda hosil shuda, tarashshuhi shirai medaro metezonad; gistamin az yagon qitai pust judo shuda, raghoi hamon joro vase mesozad, khorish va dardro ba vujud meorad; parotin az gadudi obi dahon (banogush) hosil gashta, ba sabzishi dandonho, boftai tagoyaki, ustukhon va g. asar mekunad.
G. dar muolijai bemoriho farovon istifoda meshavand. Ikhtiloli tanzimi G. boisi paydoishi bisyor bemorihoi asab, uzvhoi daruni, dastgohi harakat va g. megardad. Az in lihoz muolija bo G. omili muhimi tabobati nafaqat illati gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili, balki bisyor bemorihoi dig. niz meboshad.
Hudtabobat bo G. mumkin nest, zero on metavonad oqibati khele vaznin ba bor orad.

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