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GIZOGIRI VA SATHI DARYOHO

Ob ba daryoho bo rohhoi gunogun dokhil meshavad. Manbai asosii on obi-boron, barf, piryakh va obhoi zerizamini meboshad. Obhoi bo nishebii sathi khushki jorishavanda va bo qabati Zamin harakatkunanda yakbora daryohoi kalonro hosil namekunand. Az onho avval chashmakho, juychaho, bad daryochaho va dar okhir daryohoi kalon hosil meshavand. Dar hosilshavii onho naqshi asosiro obi boron va barfu yakh mebozad.
Obhoi zerizamini va kulu botloqho, ki dar hosilshavii daryoho ishtirok menamoyand, yak hissai obi boron va barfu yakh meboshand.

Gizogirii daryoho asosan se khel meshavad: borony, barfy va piryakhi. Agar daryo az boronu barf, piryakhho, obhoi zsrizamnnn va yo barfu piryakh ob girad, onro gizogirii omekhta menomand. In namudi gizogiry ba Amudaryo va bisyor shokhobhoi on khos meboshad. Daryohoi Amu, Panj, Vakhsh, Zarafshon ba gizogirii barfu piryakhi mansuband. Onho dar yak sol du marotiba serob megardand: bahoron hangomi boridani boron va tobiston dar natijai tez ob shudani barfu piryakhhoi balandkuh.

daryo-qaratoq

Hangomi serobshavy majroi onho in miqdor obro gunjonda nametavonad. Sathi ob baland shuda, obdog (joe, ki hangomi serob shudan obi daryo onro pakhsh mekunad va dar vaqti kam shudani on az ob ozod meshavad) va joyhoi pasti nazdi sohilro ishgol mekunad. Az jumla daryoi Amu dar vaqti serob shudan sohili khudro ba masofai to sad metr vayron mekunad. Dar yake az Solhoi purtugyoniash daryoi Amu sohilashro chunoi kofta bud, ki ob ba shahri Turtkul nazdik omada, khonahoi yakchand kuchahoro vayron namud. Baze shokhobhoi daryoi Amu ba monandi Kofarnikhon, Qizilsu, Surkhondaryo va Qashqadaryo gizogirin barfu liryakhYA dorand. Onho ham dar yak sol du marotiba serob meshavand. Ammo miqdori ob beshtar dar fasli tobiston meafzoyad.

Baroi daryohoi Pomir boshad gizogirii barfu piryakhi va piryakhy-barfi khos ast. Onho tobiston (iyun. avgust) serob, zimiston kamob meshavand. Daryohoe, ki az qatorkuhi Pasi Oloy cap meshavand, dar tobiston sathi obi onho dar davomi ruz tagyir meyobad. Pagohi obi onho kam, begohi boshad, dar natijai bosurat ob shudani barf va piryakhho serob meshavand. Obi daryohoi Volga, Don. Ob. Irtish bahoron az hisobi obshavii barfho, tobistonu tiramoh, az hisobi boron va obhoi zerizaminy, zimiston faqat az obhoi zerizamini gizo megirand.

Beshtari onho dar fasli bahor serob meshavand. Daryoi Amur okhiri tobiston, hangomi borndani boroni sel purob megardad. Dar rui Zamin bisyor daryohoe ham khastand, ki faqat az obi boron gizo megirand. CHunin gizogiryi beiyaar ba daryohoi nazdi khati istivo khos ast. Az jumla daryoi Amazonka va Kongo tamomi sol az obi boron gizo megirand. Dar havzai onho dar tamomi faslhoi sol boroni ziyod meborad. Binobar in doimo serob meboshad va sathi ob karib tagyir nameyobad. Hamin tavr, daryohoi rui Zamin bazan dar natijai bosurat obshavii barf yo boroni sel dar davomi sol serob meshavakd, ki onro obkhez menomand. Joyhoero, ki hangomi past shudani sathi obi daryo az ob ozod meshavand, obdog s darebod meguyand. Daryoho hangomi dar sathi khushki jory shudan kari majro va sohilro meshuyand.

Surati obi daryoho har qadar tez boshad, faoliyati shuyaidagi va vayronkorii onho khamon kadar meafzoyad. Dar naticha darakhoi tang. vodiho va jarikho hosil meshavand. Ammo jinshoi kuhii mayda va porashudaro, ki hangomi shustan va vayronkorii jarayoni obi daryo hosil meshavand (gil, peg, sangporakho va gayra), daryo bo khud mebarad.

Barobari az sarob to rezishgoh ohista-ohista sust shudani surati jarayon daryo jinshoi kukhii kalonro dar sargah maydatarashro dar qismi miyona va az hama khurdashryo dar rezishgokh boqi meguzorad. Dar rezishgoh az jinshoi kuhii obovard dar muddati solhoi ziyod avval jazirahoi alohida paydo meshavaid, bad onho tadrijan bo ham payvast gardida, hamvoriro ba vujud meorand, ki onro delta menomand. Bisyor daryoho ba monandi Missisipi, Nil, Volga, Amu, Sir delta dorand, Deltaho doroi olami nabotot va hayvonoti ba khud khos meboshasd. Dar bazei onho mamnugohho tashkil yoftaand. Qisman deltaho az khud karda shudaand. Dar onho odamon zindagi mekunand.

Daryoho dar hayoti inson ahamiyati kalon dorand. Inson obi daryohoro baroi nushidan (agar toza boshad), korhoi ruzgor, obyori namudani zaminho va dar korkhonakhoi sanoati istifoda mebarad. Daryoho naqliyoti arzoni obi meboshand. Ba vositai onho kishtiho bor va odam mekashonand. Dar majroi onho obanborkho va stansiyahoi elektrikii obi mesozand.

Kanalho bo dasti inson buiyod karda meshavand. Onho asosan az daryoho ibtido megirand, vale baze bahrhoro niz ba ham payvasgaand. Masalan, Kanali Suets, ki Bahri Miyonazaminro bo Bakhri Surkh payvast mekunad, Kanali Panama, ki dar kalamravi A.merikai Markazi voqe gardidaast, Uqyonusi Atlantikaro bo Uqyonusi Orom mepayvandad. Kanali kishtigardi Volga – Don daryohoi Volga va Donro ba hamdigar payvastaast. Kanali Bahri Safed – Baltika Bahri Safedro bo kuli Onega payvastaast. Dar Jumkhurii Tojikiston yakchand kanal sokhta shudaast: Kanali Kaloni Hisor. Kanali magistralii Vakhsh, qismi Tojikistoni Kanali Kaloni Fargona»- kanalhoi Margedar, SHurobod va gayra.

Savol va suporish

  1. Daryoho az chi gizo megirand?
  2. Gizogirii daryoho chand khel meshavad?
  3. Daryoho chi amaliyotro ijro mekunand?
  4. Daryoho dar hayoti inson chy ahamiyat dorand?
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