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GIPOFIZ

gipofizGIPOFIZ (Glandula pituitaria), gadudi tarashshuhi dokhilii odam va hayvonoti muhrador. Gormonhoi G. ba sabzishu inkishof, mubolidai moddaho va faoliyati naslovari tasir merasonand. Bisyor gormonhoi G. (gormonhoi khostgor) faoliyati digar gadudhoi kanorii tarashshuhi dokhiliro tanzim mekunand. Hamin tavr, G. ba ravandhoi mukhtalifi faoliyati hayotii organizm tasir merasonad.
G. tashkilai nachandon kalon buda, dar asosi magzi sar joy giriftaast; massai on 0,5 – 0,6 g (dar zanho kame kalontar) meboshad. G. az du hissa tarkib yoftaast: hissai pesh yo adenogipofiz (lobus anterior, pars distalis, adenohupophysis) va hissai qafo yo neyrogipofiz (lobus posterior, neurohypophysis). Adenogipofiz, ki az se du hissai massai G.-ro tashkil medihad, ba pesh, dahana va vasati judo karda meshavad; neyrogipofiz az qism (hissa)-hoi okhir (intiho) va poyachai G. iborat ast. G. dar chuqurchai zini turkii ustukhoni fonashakli asosi kosakhonai sar joy giriftaast. Zini turki az bolo bo diafragma (qismi durushti maynaparda) faro girifta shudaast; az surokhi diafragma poyachai G. meguzarad, ki on G.-ro bo magzi sar payvast menamoyad.
Dar hujayrahoi adenogipofiz gormonhoi safedaviyu peptidi (gormonhoi khostgor) hosil meshavand. Onho faoliyati digar gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili, mas., gormoni adenokortikotropi, gormoni tireotropi va gormonhoi gonadotropiro tanzim menamoyand; gormonhoi mazkur hamchunin dar tanzimi faoliyati gormonhoe, ki bevosita ba tamomi organizm tasir merasonand, mas., gormoni sabzish (gormoni somatotropi), prolaktin (dar zanho shir hosil mekunad) va g. shirkat mevarzand. Dar adenogipofiz lipotropinho niz hosil meshavand. In guna gormonho ba charbu tasiri angezishpazir rasonda, baroi dar jarayoni mubodilai energiya ishtirok kardani on musoidat menamoyand.
Hosil va ikhroj shudani gormonhoi G.-ro gipotalamus nazorat mekunad. Barziyod hosil shudani gormonhoi G. boisi paydoishi bemorihoi gunogun, mas., akromegaliya, amenoreya, bemorii Itsenko-Kushing va g. meshavad.
Dar neyrogipofiz asosan vazopressin va oksitotsin (gormone, ki judo shudani shir va kashish khurdani bachadonro hangomi tavallud tanzim menamoyad) mavjud meboshand. Norasoii gormoni ziddi diurez binobar illati gipotalamus yo G. boisi rukh namudani diabeti beqand meshavad.
KL
Gipofiz: 1 – medachai III; 2 – «poya»-chai gipofiz; 3 – hissai peshi gipofiz (adenogipofiz); 4 – hissai vasati (mobayni)-i gipofiz; 5 – hissai qafo (asabi)-i gipofiz.

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