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GIDROSFERA

Gidrosfera chist? Dar sathi Zamin ob moddaest, ki dar sathi Zamin vase pahn gardidaast. Vay dar se holat duchor meshavad: sakht, moe va bukhor. Az hamin sabab ob na faqat dar uqyopusho, bahrho, inchunin dar khushki (daryoho, kulho, obanborho, botloqkho, piryakhho, obhoi zerizamini) va qabati poyonii atmosfera (hamchun bugi noayon) dida meshavad.

Hamai onho  yakjoya qabati obii Zaminro tashkil medihand, ki onro gidrosfera menomand. Qarib 94 foizi tarkibi onro obi uqyonusho va bahrho tashkil medihand, 4 foizi boqimonda ba obhoi zerizamini 1.6 foiz ba piryakhhoi Arktika va Antartika va 0,4 foiz ba obhoi sathi khushki, rutubatn qabati atmosfera va khok rost meoyad . Obhoi sathi Zamin na faqat bo holat (sakht, moe, bug), inchuiin bo tamu rang khud farq mekunand. Obi uqyonus va bakhrkho, ki 71 foizi Zaminro ishgol menamoyand, shurand. Taqriban 2,5 foizi obi sathi Zamin shirii meboshad. Onro insoniyat ba maqsadhon gunogun istifoda mebarad, chunki yagon amaliyoti khojagidorii insoi be ishtiroki ob ba somon namerasad. Be ob bisyor chizhoi zindai tabiat ham ba miyon nameoyand va zohir namegardand.

uqyonus

Gayr az in, mavjud budani pardai obii sathi Zamin nameguzorad, ki havoi on az had ziyod garm va yo sard shavad. In tabiat va hayoti rui Zamin ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Gardishi ob dar tabiat. Dar sathi Zamin joe nest, ki dar on ob naboshad. Dar ob qarib hamai moddaho hal meshavand. Binobar in qabati obii Zamin az moddaqoi halshuda boy ast. Halshavii onho ba gardishi ob dar tabiat vobasta meboshad. Kumai harakatdihanda va asosii gardishi ob garmii nuri Oftob meboshad. Tahti tasiri on dar sathi Zamin gardishi  va kaloni ob ba amal meoyad.

Hangomi ba rui Zamin rasidani nuri Oftob sathi khushki va uqyonusi Olam garm meshavad. Dar natija az sathi onho  muntazam ob bukhor megardad. Bukhorshavi dar sathi uqyonusho nisbat ba sathi khushki 6,6 marotiba ziyod meboshad. Obi az sathi uqyonusho va khushki bukhorshuda ba bolo harakat mekunad. Dar balandihoi on vobasta ba tagyir yoftani harorati havo az on abr hosil meshavad, ki dar khud miqdori muayyani rutubat dorad. Hangomi harakati abrho zarrahoi nami bo hamdigar barkhurda, ba zarrahoi kaloni ob va yo yakhcha tabdil meyoband va dar shakli boronu barf ba sathi uqyonuskho va khushki merezand. In hodisaro gardish khurdi ob dar tabiat menomaid. Ammo obi az sathi uqyonusho bukhorshuda yak qismash hamchun borishot ba on barmegardad, qismi  digari on hamchun abr ba vositai jarayoni havo ba khushki  meguzarad.

Dar in surat gardishi ob khususiyati digar megirad, YAne on rutubate, ki hamchun borishot az abrho ba sath khushki  merezad, qisman bukhor shuda, ba atmosfera bozmegardad. Boqimondai on ba daryoho, kulho, botloqzorho jori megardad. ba qabati Zamin zahida meravad, khokro nam va obhoi zerizaminiro purra mekunad, dar sathi piryakhho hamchun barf boqi memonad. Dar okhir on rutubate, ki az uqyonusho bo jarayoni havo ba sathi khushki guzashtaast, ba vositai obshavii piryakhho barfhoi doimi yakhporahoi shinokunanda, daryoho va obhoi zerizamini boz ba uqyonus barmegardad. Inro gardishi buzurgi ob dar tabiat meguyand. Onro chunin ifoda kardan mumkin ast.

Ahamnyati Gardnshi ob dar tabiat. Gardishi ob bo ham aloqamandii qismhoi tarkibii gidrosfera (qabati obin Zamin), Uqyonusi Olam, obi khushki va rutubati atmosferaro tamin menamoyad. In alokamandy baroi dar uqyonusho, bahrho, khushki va atmosfera pahn gardidani hayot musoidat menamoyad. Ba tufayli on hayot na faqat dar sathi khushki va dar uqyonus, inchunin dar qabati atmosfera va khok vujud dorad.

Mubodilai garmy va nami bayni khushkiyu uqyonus va khushkiyu uqyonusu atmosfera ham ba gardishi ob vobasta ast, chunki baroi yak daraja garm kardani yak litr ob nisbat ba garm namudani hamin miqdor havo hazorho marotiba beshtar garmy sarf meshavad. Az in ru, obe, ki az sathi uqyonus bug meshavad, doroi garmii ziyodi nihoni meboshad. Hangomi bo jarayoni havo ba khushki harakat kardan az bug abr hosil shuda, borish meshavad. Garmin nihony ozod shuda, havoro garm mekunad. Az hamin sabab havo hangomi boridani borishot nisbat ba havoi beborish garmtar ast. Az se du hissai garmii az Oftob ba Zamin voridshavandaro uqyonus ba khud megirad. Pas malum meshavad, ki on garmi na hamaash baroi bug kardani ob sarf meshavad, balki yak qismi on bo jarayoni ob ba qabathoi poyoni uqyonus faromada, zakhira megardad. In garmiro uqyonus okhhista- ohista az khud khorij namuda, dar zimiston havoi sathi Zaminro garm nigokh medorad.

Hamin tavr, dar rafti gardishn nihoyat murakkabi ob dar sathi Zamin taqsimoti vasei rutubatu garmi ba amal meoyad, ki dar on ba ham aloqamandii kismhoi gidrosfera mavqei asosi dorad. Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki in aloqamandi na faqat dar pahnshavii hayot, mubodilai rutubatu garmi, balki dar mubodilai moddahoi minerali zohir megardad. YAne obe, ki az atmosfera ba sathi khushki ba shakli borishot merezad, dar tarkibi khud gayr az obi sof digar omekhta nadorad. Hangomi az qabati jinshoi kuhii tahshini zakhida guzashtani ob tarkibi on tagyir meyobad. Ob hama guna moddahoro shusta, hal namuda, ba khud hamroh menamoyad. Az obhoi zerizamini daryoho, kulho, botloqho ob megirand. In ob ba vositai daryoho ba uqyonus barmegardad va bo khud Jinshoi takhshini va moddakhoi halshudai mineraliro burda, Dar uqyonus tahshin mekunad. Az onho  ohista-okhista qabati gafsi jinshoi tahshin tashakkul meyobad. Bad in takhshinkho dar natijai hodisai kuhpaydoshavi bardoshga va chin shuda, ba khushki tabdil meyoband.

Obi az khushki ba uqyonus dokhilgardida holati ibtidoii khudro tagyir medihad. Hosiyati navi khimiyavi va fiziki paydo mekunad. Hangomi bukhor shudani obi uqyonus moddahoi dar on khalgardida tahshin meshavand. Obi bukhorshuda az sari nav holati avvalai khudro megirad. In gardishi beintiho buda, muntazam davom mekunad.

Savol va suporish

  1. Gidrosfera chist?
  2. Qismhoi tarkibii gidrosferaro nombar kuned.
  3. Dar tabiat ob chi tavr gardish mekunad?
  4. Gardishi khurdi ob az gardishi buzurgi ob chi tafovut dorad?
  5. Gardishi ob dar tabiat chi ahamiyat dorad?
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