Home / Gunogun / GERMANIYA DAR OHIRI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

GERMANIYA DAR OHIRI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

Anjomyobii mutahidshavii Germaniya. Mohi yanvari soli 1871, vaqte ki sipohiyoni Germaniya shahri Parijro muhosira karda budand, shohoni davlathoi germaniyavy dar shahri Versali Faronsa jam omada, masalai muttahid kardani davlathoi khudro muhokima kardand. Nishasti shohhoi davlathoi germaniyavy dar shahri Versal shohi Prussiya Vilgelmi I-ro imperatorn tamomi Germaniya elon karda, bo hamin az Bahri istiqloliyat guzashtand.

Mohi apreli hamon sol Reykhstagi Muassison Konstitutsiyai umumigermannyaviro kabul kard. Muvofiki on imperiyam Germaniya davlati ittifoky gardid. Ba on 22 khokimi mutlaq bo shokhigary va khokimin khurd va 3 shahri ozod – Lyubek. Bremen va Gamburg dokhil shudand. Elzas va Lotaringiya ba khanati Germaniya hamchun “muzofothoi impern” hamroh gardidand. Onhoro noib az komi imperator “shgatgalter” idora mekard. Baze davlathon ba khanati imperiya dokhilgardnda konstitutsiya va muassisahoi namoyandagii davlathon khudro nigoh doshtand.

Sokhti siyosni Germaniya. Muvofiqi konstitutsiya hokimiyat dar imperiya dar dasti imperator va kansler bud. Maqomi olii namoyandagii imperiya SHuroi ittifoq va Reykhstag budand. Konstitutsiyai imperiya tavre tartib doda shuda bud, ki on hokimiyatro amalan ba dasti Prussiya medod. Tanho shohi Prussiya metavonist imperatori Germaniya boshad. Imperator ba quvvahoi musallahi imperiya sarfarmondeh bud, az nomi imperiya jang elon mekard, sulh mebast, dar arsai baynalkhalqi az nomi imperiya kamoyandagy mekard. U metavonist shuroi ittifoq va reykhstagro davat va yo parokanda kunad.

Ittifoq tanho yak vazir dosht – kansler. U faqat ba imperator itoat mekard. Imperator kanslerro tayin va az vazifaash sabukdush menamud. Kansler dar nazdi reykhstag masul nabud.

Kansleri avvalini imperiyam Germaniya Otto Bismark bud. Dar zarfi 20 sol az soli 1871 to soli 1890 – u mamlakatro idora mekard. Bismark siyosatmadori barjasta bud. Imperator Vilgelm, ki on qadar khavsala va kobiliyati idorakunin davlatro nadosht. hamesha fikru aqida va khulosahoi Bismark rozy meshud.

Ba reykhstag, ki on maqomi namoyandagii umumigermaniyavy bud, vakilon ba mukhlati 5 sol itikhob karda meshudand. Konstitutsiya huquqi intikhobotiro ba mardhoi az 25-sola bolo dod.

SHuroi itgifoq palatai boloii parlament ba hisob meraft Onro intikhob namekardand. In shuro az namoyandagoni sobiq shohigariyu hokimii tamomi Germaniya iborat bud. Az 58 vakolatnomai shuro 17-toyash az Prussiya bud. In holat imkoniyat medod, ki qonunu qarorhoe, ki ba tabi vakiloni Prussiya muvofiq nabudand, naguzorand, ki qabul shavand. Ransi shuron ittifoq kansler bud.

Imperiyam Germaniya davlati politsiyaviyu kommutlaqiyatu nimdemokraty bud. Hukumatdoroni prussiyavi rasmu oyinho va odathoi in muzofotro dar tamomi imperiya pahn mekardand. Mardum dar ruhiyai bar digar khalqho afzaliyat doshtani khalqi nemis va jangjuy tarbiya karda meshud.

Peshravnn sanoati Germaniya. Bad az muttahidshavy imperiyai Germaniya tez taraqqi mekard. Dar yak muddati kutoh on az Angliya va Faronsa pesh guzasht. Soli 1912 dar Germaniya istehsoli chuyan nisbat ba Faronsa 5 marotiba ziyod shud. Sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan az 21 47, kilomegri soli 1871 dar soli 1900 ba 49 878 kilometr rasid.

Zavodhoi khimiyavii Germaniya az se du hissai ranghoi jahoniro istehsol mekardand. Dar in davra qarib tamomi sanoati bofandagii jahony gazvorro bo ranghoi dar Germaniya istehsol karda rangubor mekard.

Dar natijai markazonidani sanoat molhoi sanoaty beshtar dar fabrikahoi kalon istehsol karda meshudand. Dar bayni onho zavodhoi pulodgudozy va aslihasozii Krupi mavqei namoyonro ishgol kardand. Soli 1875 dar korkhonahoi in sohibkori kalon hamagi 122 nafar korgaronu mutakhassison kor mekardand, lekin dar okhiri asr 45 hazor nafar va dar arafai Jangi yakumi jahoni boshad. ziyoda az 80 hazor nafar korgaronu mekhanikho va muhandison kor mekardand.

Solhoi 1871-1873 dar imperiyam Germaniya sistemam yagonai markam tilloy jory karda shud. Soli 1875 banki Prussiya ba banki Imperiya mubaddal gardid. On ba taraqqiyoti bosurati iqtisodii Germaniya kumak rasonid.

Az Faronsa kashida giriftani muzofothoi boyi Elzas va Lotaringiya va tovoni 5-milliard franki jangy az in davlat sitonidashuda niz ba nafi taraqqiyoti sanoati Germaniya kor farmuda shudand. Tabadduloti sanoatie, ki dar solhoi 90-um ba okhir rasid, Germaniyaro dar Evropa ba joi avval va dar jahon bad az IM A ba joi duyum barovard.

Ba vujud omadani inhisorho. Dar asosi markazonidani istekhsolot shumorai itgihodiyahoi inhisori muntazam ziyod meshud. Dar Germaniya shakli az hama mamuli inhisorho kartelho va sindikatho budand. In inhisorho ittifoqi korkhonahoe budand, ki sohiboni onho bo rohi sozishi yakjoya narkhi navoi molhoi istehsol kardan khudro dar darajai muayyan nigoh medoshtand, khajmi istehsoli molro muayyan menamudand, bozori molfurushiro dar baynn khud taqsim mekardand va gayra.

Bazei onho nihoyat kalon shuda budand. Masalan, sindikata angishtistehsolkunii Reyn-Vestfaliya dar soli 1910 ba 95,4 foizi istehsoli umumii angishti muzofot nazorat mekard. Dar sanoati madankorkuny sindikate ba vujud omad, ki hamai zavodhoi pulodgudoziro muttahid namud. Sanoati vaznini mamdakat dar dasti 30 inhisori purquvvat bud: konsernhoi Krupp, Tissen, Stinnes va digaron. Sanoati elektrotekhniki az tarafi du shirkagi kalontarin nazorat karda meshud: “Simmens- Galske” va “AZG”. Dar sanoati khimiyavy du gurukhi inhisor tashakkul yoftand. Dar kishtisozy du shirkat inhisor budand: “Lloydi Germaniyai SHimoly” va “Gamburg-Amerika”.

Kartelkho va sindikatkho bo bankho sakht alokamand budand. Soli 1899 nukh bank to 83 foizi sarmoyai bankii Germaniyaro dar ikhtiyori khud doshtand. Sohiboni korkhonahoi sanoaty mamulan azoi rayosati bankho budand. Bankchiyon boshand, dar idorzi korkhonaho vazifahoi mamuriro ba uhda doshtand. YAk banki Germaniya, ki 3 mlrd marka sarmoya dosht, dar 200 korkhonai sanoati sahmdor bud, yane bankhoi Germaniya dar sokhgani korkhonahoi sanoaty faolona ishtirok mekardand.

Dar okhiri asri XIX – a vvali asri XX ba khorija barovardani sarmoya baroi Germaniya ahamiyati kalon paydo kard. Sarmoyadoron mablaghoi khudro ba iqtisodiyoti Evropai Janubu Garby, SHarqi Nazdik va Amerikai Janubi mebarovardand. Sarmoyai ba khorija sodirkardai Germaniya dar soli 1912 6a 12,5 mlrd va dar soli 1914 boshad, ba 44 mlrd frank rasid. Sarmoyadoronn germaniyavy az sodiroti sarmoya daromadi buzurg ba dast medarovardand.

Vazi kishovarziya Germaniya. Dar Prussiyai SHarqi zaminhoi pomeshikho (zamindor) maydoni seyaki tamomi kishtzorhoro dar bar megiriftand, dar Pomeraniya boshad, qarib nisfi onro. Hojagii pomeshikii sarmoyadorin prussiyavy boqimondahoi ziyodi krepostnoyiro nigoh medosht. Pomeshikhoi Germaniya dar khojagihoi khud mehnati kiroyaro istifoda meburdand. Batrakho (korgaroni kiroya) az pomeshikho qitai zaminro ijora girifta, ba ivazi on vazifador budand, ki hangomi kishgukoru jamovarii galladona bo hamrohii akhli oilaashon dar zamini pomeshik kor kunand.

Dar garbtari daryoi Elba pomeshikon kamtar va khojagihoi maydayu miyonai dehqony ziyodtar budand. Dar dehoti in jo grossbauerho. yane pomeshikhoi kalon hukmrony mekardand.

Dar Germaniyai Janubi – Baden, Bavariya, Vyurtemberg ham khojagihoi dehqonii miyonayu khurd az khojagihoi kalon bisyortar budand.

In vaqt dar tamomi Germaniya to 3 million nafar dehqononi kamzamin budand, ki har kadomi onho to 2 ga zamni doshtand. Inguna khojagiho nisfi umumii khojagihoi dehkonii Germaniyai khamonvaqtaro tashkil mekardand. Sohiboni asosii zamni va hokimiyat yunkyorho va grossbauerho (dehqononi badavlat, ki dar zaminhoyashon batrakhoro kor mefarmudand) budand.

Siyosati tajovuzkoronai khorijii Germaniya. Imperializmi Navoni Germaniya ba arsai siyosati jajony baromad. Dar okhiri asri XIX – avvapi asri XX muboriza baron bozorho va tayyory baroi bo zuri az nav taqsim kardani jahon maqsadi asosii siyosati khorijii in imperiya gardid.

Bismark dar nazdi khud vazifa guzosht, ki mavqei baynalkhalqii Germaniyaro purzur kunad. Baroy hamin soli 1873 bo Rusiya va Avstro-Vengriya shartnoma bast. Dere naguzashta Faronsa lashkari khub musallahshuda tashkil namud. Bismark fikr kard, ki Faronsa baroi Elzas va Lotaringiya az Germaniya qasos giriftany ast. Kansler niyat dosht, ki Germaniya bar ziddi Faronsa jang cap kunad.

Vale ba in kor Angliya va Rusiya mone shudand. Onho az had ziyod purzurshavii Germaniyaro namekhostand. Germaniya ham ba Rusiya khalal merasond, vale az jangi ziddi vay metarsid. Bad az galaba bar Turkiya dar jangi solhoi 1877-1878 mahz Bismark naguzosht, ki Rusiya az samarai galabaash bar Turkiya istifoda barad. Konferensiyai baynalkhalqii soli 1878-i Berlin mahz bo “yorii” u ba muzaffariyatkhoi Rusiya bar Turkiya khati batlon kashid. Badi in munosibathoi bayni Germaniya va Rusiya boz ham tezu tundtar shudand.

Siyosati khorijii Germaniya sol to sol khususiyati tachovuzkorona megirift.

Taraqqiyoti sarmoyadorii inhisori Germaniyaro vodor mekard, ki ba az nav taqsim kardani chahon teztar shuru kunad. Ba vay dar in jang ittifoqchiyon darkor budand. Soli 1879 ba Germaniya muyassar shud, ki bo Avstro-Vengriya itgifoqi harby bandad. Soli 18-82 ba in ittifoq Italiya ham dokhil gardid (Dar khususi tashkilyobii in paymoni harby, ki on “Ittifoki Segona” nom dorad, dar paragrafhoi 1 va 2 mufassaltar sukhan ronda shudaast). Zabtkorikhon avvalnnn imperiyai Germaniya. To miyonahoi solhoi 80-um Germaniya dar Evropa siyosati kontnnentaliro pesh meburD. Mokhiyati on dar in qita mustakhkam kardani mavqei Germaniya bud. Soli 1884 Germaniya dar Afrika ba amaliyoti faolona shuru kard. Mohi apreli hamon sol tochiri bremeny YAyuderits dnmogai Angoa-Pekinro, ki dar sohilkhoi janubu garbii Afrika ast, ba zeri itoati Germaniya darovard. Hudi hamon sol Germaniya Togo. Kamerun, qismi shimolii Gvineya va chazirakhoi nazdi Gvineyaro zabt namud. Soli 1885 dar sharkii Afrika zaminero hamrohi jazirai Zanzibar ishgol kard, ki on badtar “Afrikai SHarkii Germaniya” nom shrift.

Badi zabti mustamlikahoi nomburda hukumati Germaniya qaror dod, ki floti purzuri tijoraty va kharby bunyod sozad. Baron in reykhstag mablash zarury ham judo kard. Germaniya ba janghoi navi istilogarona tayyory medid.

Dar solhoi 90-um sarmoyadoroni kalontarin va yunkyorho naqshai hukmroni jahon shudani Germaniyaro tartib dodand. Onho maqsad doshtand, ki imperiyai buzurgi mustamlikadorii Germaniyaro tashkil namoyand.. Kiyaz fon Byulov, ki bad az Otto Bismark kansler tayin shuda bud, bore ruyrost izhor kard: “Akiun on davrahoe, ki khalqhoi digar zaminu obro dar bayni khud taqsim mekardandu mo tanho ba osmoni kabud qanoat mekardem, guzashta raftand… Mo ham baroi khud dar zeri oftob joy talab mekunem”.

Germaniyai imperialisti in guftahoi kansler Byulovro tatbiq mekard. Dar okhiri solhoi 90-um nemisho nimjazirai SHanduni CHinro zabt karda, dar in jo baroi khud poygohi harby sokhtand. Dar Uqyonusi Orom gallachazirahoi Marshall, Korolin va Marnanro ba dast darovardand. Dar soli 1900 boshad, lashkari Germaniya bo hamrohii sipohiyoni davlathoi digari imperialista dar jazodihihoi vahshiyonai mardumi CHin ishtirok kardand.

Badi SHarqi Dur diqqati imperialistoni Germaniya boz ba Afrika jalb shud. Onho Marokash va Gibraltarro zabt karda, dar on joyho bar ziddi raqibi asosii khud – Angliya poygokhhhoi harby sokhtand.

Imperialistoni Germaniya ba SHarqi Nazdik ham bo chashmoni kharisona menigaristand. In choro ham ba dast Darovardany budand. Baroi in kor imperatori Germaniya Vilgelmi II soli 1898 bo bahonai ziyorati “tobuti khudo” ba Falastin safar kard. Dar roh u bo sultoni Turkiya vokhurda. dar borai sokhtani rohi okhache, ki boyad az Bosfor ogoz yofta, ba vositai Osiyoi Hurd ba Bagdod va to ba khaliji Fors merasid, guftushunid karda» rozigii uro girift. In rohi ohan Germaniyaro bo Osiyo mepayvast.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

Tijorat dar Amorati Bukhoro (asri 19)

Tijorat dar shahrho asosan dar bozorho surat megirift. Bozor masohati kalonero ishgol menamud. Bozorhoi Uroteppa …