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GEOSFERA CHIST

Zamin az yakchand qabat iborat ast. Onhoro geosfera menomand. Geosfera kalimai yunoni buda, “geo” – zamin va “sfera” kura ast. Az in jo manii kalimai “geosfsera” nomi umumii tabaqahoi kurai Zamin meboshad.

Geosfera az chunin tabaqaho iborat ast: atmosfera. biosfera, gidrosfsra. litosfera, mantiya va yadro (magz). Hamai in qabatho ba du guruh judo meshavand: qabathoi beruni va dokhili. Onho bo tarkib, holat (gaz. moe, sakht…). farogiri (muttasil yo nomuttasil) va gafsii khud az yakdigar farq mekunand.

YAke az qabathoi Zamin atmosfera meboshad, ki onro purra pechonida giriftaast. Ba sathi Zamin bevosita aloqamand ast. In aloqamandi ba quvvai kashishi Zamin vobasta ast. Vay imkoniyat namedihad, ki havo dar koinot (falak) parokanda shavad.

geosferaQabati digari berunii Zaminro gidrosfera tashkil medihad. In kabati nomuttasili Zamin buda, dar sathi on ba monandi atmosfera pardai yaklukhtro hosil namekunad. Vay dar bayni qabati atmosfera va qishri Zamin voqe gardida, tamomi ukyonusho» bahrho, obhoi sathi khushki va zerizaminiro dar bar megirad. Biosfera (bio – kalimai yunony buda, manoyash “hayot”ast) ham ba qabati berunii Zamin dokhil meshavad. Ammo in qabatro bo qabati atmosfera, gidrosfera va litosfera (qishri Zamin) monand donistan durust nest. Baroi on ki mavjudoti zinda ham dar havo (to balandikhoi 10-12 km), ham dar ob (dar tamomi obho) va ham dar khoku jinshoi kuhy (mikroorganizmkho to chuqurii 3 km) pahn gardidaaid.

YAne biosfera yak kismi atmosfera. litosfera (kishri Zamin) va tamomi gidrosfsraro dar bar megirad.

Qabati sakhti az hama boloii litosferaro qishri Zamin meguyand. In qabat nisbatan tunuku sakht buda, az jinshoi kuhii gunogun tashkil yoftaast. Onho qabat-qabat khobidaand. Ammo miqdori qabatho dar khushki va uqyonusho yak khel nest. Zeri qishri Zamin az se qabat iborat ast: jinshoi kuhii takhshini, khorosangi va bazalti. Zeri ukyonushoro hamagy du qabat faro giriftaast: jinshoi kuhii tahshini va bazalti.

Dar ayni zamon kabathoi berunii Zamin – atmosfera, gidrosfera va biosfera nisbatan behtar omukhta shudaand. Vale dar borai kabathoi dokhilii Zamin (mantiya va yadroi Zamin) malumot khele kam ast. Sarfi nazar az on olimon dar asosi malumothoi mavjuda muqarrar namudaand, ki dar zeri kishri Zamin qabati mantiya va dar tagi on yadroi Zamin voqe gardidaast. Mantiya kalimai lotiny buda manoyash “rupush” meboshad. YAdro dar markazi Zamin joygir shudaast. Radiusi on 3471 kilometr ast. Qismi berunii yadro (1200 km) dar kholati gudokhtai tunuk. dokhili on sakht meboshad.

Sathi yadroro qabati mantiya ihota kardaast, ki gafsii on to 2900 km merasad. Moddas, ki mantiyaro tashkil medihad, sahti chandir buda, doroi harorati baland ast. Harorat dar chuquri meafzoyad. Binobar in moddai mantiya dar qismi poyonii on ba khud kholati chandiru chaspandaro megirad, In moddai chaspanda takhti fishori baland metavonad jory shavad va az yak taraf ba tarafi digar harakat kunad. Dar natija az ham judoshavii moddakhoi vaznin va sabuk ba amal meoyad. Moddahoi vaznin ba poyon va moddahoi sabuk ba bolo harakat mekunand. In hodisa dar chukurii 100 150 km qabati mantiya bosurat meguzarad va boisi otashfishonii vulkonho. hosilshavii chashmahoi obi garm, kharakat va ba kafidakhoi qishri Zamin dokhil shudani magma (yunoni-aynan markhami galiz) va zilzila megardad. CHindorshavii qabati kishri Zamin va kuhpaydoshavy ham ba on vobasta ast.

Savol va supornsh

  1. Zamin az kadom kabatho iborat ast?
  2. Qabathoi Zamin ba kadom guruhho judo meshavand?
  3. Qabathoi berunii Zamin bo kadom khususiyatkhoyashon az yakdigar farq mekunand?
  4. Ba qabathoi dokhilii Zamin kadom qabatkho dokhil meshavand?
  5. Hususiyati onhoro naql namoed.
  6. Kadom qabathoi Zamin nagz omukhta shudaand?
  7. Sababash dar chist?
  8. Dar kadom qabati Zamin vulqon zilzila va chindorshavii qabatho rukh medihad?
  9. Ruhdihii in hodisaho ba chi vobasta ast.
  10. Moddai yadroi Zamin dar kadom holat ast?
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