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GAZHOI IHROJSHUDA

vyhlopnye-gazyGAZHOI IHROJSHUDA, omekhtai moddahoe, ki hangomi sukhtani suzishvori dar muharraki darunsuz ba vujud meoyad. Bo G. i. iflos gashtani atmosferai havo binobar afzoishi bosurati vositahoi naqliyot (avtomobil, samolyot va g.), makhsusan dar shahrhoe, ki adadi avtomobilho tadrijan meafzoyad, masalai favquloda muhim gardidaast. Tarkibi G. i. ba navi suzishvori, tartibi kori muharrik, khel va holati on vobasta ast. Dar tarkibi G. i. gazi karbon (moshini sabukrav dar yak soat az 0,5 to 1,7 kg, moshini borkash 1,5 – 2,8 kg gazi karbon mebarorad), karbogidridho, oksidi nitrogen va aldegid, mas., formaldegid, surb (hangomi istifodai benzini omekhta bo etil) mavjudand. Dar tarkibi G. i.-i muharrikhoi dizeli duda niz vujud dorad. Az karbogidridho, aldegidho, oksidi nitrogen va g. dar natijai amaliyoti murakkabi fotooksidi, ki ba onho radiatsiyai ultrabunafshi oftob musoidat mekunad, fotooksidantho hosil meshavand. Miqdori fotooksidantho ba fasli sol, vaqti shaboruz va dig. omilho vobasta ast. Istilohi «oksidantho» majmui dar havo gun shudani moddahoi oksidkunanda (ozon, oksidhoi nitrogen, peroksiatsilnitrat, formaldegid va g.)-ro ifoda mekunad. Hatto miqdori kami oksidantho boisi surkh shudani luobpardai chashm va avj giriftani illati rohhoi nafas megardad.
Az G. i. iflos gashtani havo beshtar dar shahrhoe, ki kuchahoi tangi shamolnoguzar doshta, harakati naqliyot bisyor ast, inchunin dar garajho, muassisahoi khizmati tekhniki, istgohho va qarorgohho mushohida meshavad. G. i. dar atmosfera muddati daroz boqi monda, onro zahrolud mesozand.
Dar muboriza bar ziddi iflosii atmosfera andeshidani chunin tadbirho samarabakhsh meboshand: nazorati qati (avtomati) az holati tekhnikii muharrikho hangomi ba roh baromadani moshin (sari vaqt tamir kardani motor, tanzimi durusti karbyurator va g.); dar garaj az 1 – 1,5 daq. ziyod roh nadodan ba kori muharrikho; ba roh mondani nazorati qati az boloi ventilyatsiya dar binohoe, ki muharrikhoi darunsuz kor mekunand. Sokhtani kuchahoi vase, rohhoi avtomobilgardi berun az shahr, tashkili harakati beisti naqliyot, ba mahallahoi istiqomati va sanoati taqsim kardani hududi shahr va g. az jumlai tadbirhoi muhimi dar havo kam kardani G. i. mahsub meyoband. CHorai qatii muboriza bar ziddi G. i. ivaz kardani suzishvorii muharrikhoi darunsuz, takmil dodan va sokhtani muharrikhoi nav meboshad.
Qonunguzorii JT oid ba hifzi atmosfera masalahoi ziyodro darbar megirad. YAk qator sanadho qabul gardidaast, ki meyori sifati muhiti zist, limiti partov ba havoi atmosfera, qoidahoi kori dastgohho, naqliyot va g.-ro tanzim menamoyad.

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