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Falsafai ehyo va zamoni nav

Mazmun va khususiyathoi falsafai Ehyo

Davrai Ehyo (lotini Renessans, ba rusi Vozrojdenie) az ogozi asrhoi XIV  to intihoi asri XVI-ro darbar megirad, ki az jihati hodisahoi ijtimoiyu farhangi davrai nihoyat boyu pursamar va purmuhtavo meboshad. Dar in davra ruhiyai az nav zinda kardani tamaddunu farhangi bostonii Avrupo, ki namunai balandi on farhangi YUnoni qadim ast, hukmron bud. On az bozgasht, nuskhabardorii tamadduni guzashta ibtido yofta, to ba tashakkuli ilmu farhangi navu toza dar sathi balandtare anjomid.

Namoyontarin  hodisahoi in davra: ogozi muborizai siyosi va mafkuravi bo sokhti feodali va kalisoi  katoliki; paydoishi sunnati insondusti (gumanizm); ogozi harakati islohtalabi (reformatsiya)-i dini nasroni; inqilobi amiq dar jahonbini va surati ilmii olam.

Dar in davra  dar hama sohahoi farhang barjastatarin shakhsiyatho, ki to imruz osorashon namunai shohkoriho va shohasarho ba shumor meravand, ba miyon omadand. Az jumla, dar sohai adabiyotu farhang, muallifi «Bazm» va «Mazhakai ilohi»-i Dante Aliger, «Kantsiser» va sonatahoi Fransisko Petrarka, muallifi «Dekameron»-i Jovanni Bokkachcho, hamchunin adibon Vilyam SHekspir, Servantes, F.Rable, musavviron Leonardo da Vinchi, Raffaello Santi, haykaltarosh Mikelanjelo Busmarati meboshand.

Dar sohai ilm va falsafai tabiat Nikolay Kopernik (1473-1543), Galileo Galiley (1546-1642), Iogann Kepler (1571-1630); dar sohai din zuhuri harakati Isloh (M.Lyuter (1483-1546), U.Sivingli (1484-1531), SH. Kalvin (1509-1531); dar ilmi siyosat: Nikkolo Makiavelli (1469-1527), Jan Baden (1530-1536) va sotsialistoni ormoni Tomas Mor (1479-1555), Tommazo Kampanella (1568-1639) zuhur kardand.

Faylasufoni marufi in davra Georgi Gemistos (1360-1425), Piko de Mirandola (1463-1495), Petro Pompanatsi (1462-1525), Mishel de Manten (1833-1592) muallifi kitobi «Tajribaho», Larentso Vala (1407-1457) muallifi «Dar borai nemathoi haqiqi va durugin», «Dar borai ozodii iroda»; Nikolai Kuzani (1401-1464) muallifi «Hoksor», «Oid ba khiradmandi»; Jordano Bruno (1546-1600) muallifi kitobi «Dar borai beokhirii Kayhon va olamho» meboshand.

Falsafai davrai Ehyo asosan chunin usul va khususiyathoro dorost:

Insonmarkaziyat (antroposentrizm) baraksi kayhon- markaziyat (kosmosentrizm)-i YUnoni boston va khudomarkaziyat (teosentrizm)-i asrhoi miyona, vasfi aqlu khirad, imkonot va qobiliyathoi inson, zebogii zohiriyu botinii on, az muhimtarin mavzuhoi adabiyot, sanat va falsafa ba shumor meraft.

Dar falsafai tabiat  (naturfilosofiya) guzarish az jahonbinii zaminmarkazi (geosentrizm) ba jahonbinii oftobmarkazi (geliosentrizm), isboti gardishi zamin dar atrofii oftob, az justujui haqiqati movarouttabiat va maniyu maqsadi zindagi, ba justujui haqiqati ashyo va gayra (Galiley, Kopernik, Bruno, Kepler).

Gumanizm va arzishyobii fardiyat va shakhsiyati inson (inson ofaridgori khudii khud).

Hamakhudoi (panteizm)-i N.Kuzani, J.Bruno.

Tajribagaroi va usuli tadqiq dar falsafai davrai Nav

Falsafai asrhoi XVII va XVIII. Dar okhiri asri XVI va ibtidoi asri XVII se kashfiyoti muhim: chopi kitob, borut va suzani qutbnamo (kompas) kashf shuda, simo va holati hamai olamro digargun kard va takoni besobiqae ba peshrafti tajribavi dod.

Muhimtarin  alomati ruhiyai in davra mayli ziyod ba donistani asrori tabiat va istifodai on ba  nafi inson ast. In ruhiya ba on vodosht, ki tamomi falsafai guzashta, zeri tanqid qaror girift. In raviya az Bekon ogoz gardida dar Dekart, Kant, to talimoti marksistii asri XIX tayinkunandai ravishi falsafai nav gardid.

Ruhiyai mavsuf zarurati korkardi usulu ravishshinosi (metodologi)-i navro ba miyon guzosht. In bud, ki masalahoi asosii bahshoi falsafii zamoni Nav pesh az hama dar atrofii nazariyai marifat davr mezadand. Muhimtarin ravishhoi falsafii ibtidoi asri XVII to okhiri asri XVIII az inho iboratand.

Falsafai maorifparvari va aqlgaroi, ki namoyandagonash R.Dekart (1596) B.Spinoza (1632-1677), G.V. Leybnis (1616-1716); tajribagaroi: G.Gobbs (1588-1650), J.Lokk (1632-1777), J.Berkli (1685-1753), D.YUm (1711-1776); maorifparvarii fransavi: B.Paskal (1623-1662), F.M.Volter (1694-1778), SH.Monteske (1623-1663), J.J.Russo (1712-1778), SH.O.Lametri (1709-1751), P.Golbakh (1723-1789), K.Gelvetsiy (1715-1771), D.Didro (1713-1784) budand.

Frensis Bekon (1561-1626) asosguzori ravishi navi ilmi, sardaftari tajribagaroi (empirizm) dar falsafa bud. Az khudi nomhoi osori Bekon «Organoni nav» va «Atlantidai nav» navovarii u dar sohahoi falsafa huvaydost.

Hadafi ilm ba aqidai Bekon hokimiyati inson bar tabiat ast, yane boyad ba inson khizmat kunad, ilm in tavonoi, qudrat ast. Bekon rohi dastyobi ba hokimiyati inson bar tabiatro az tariqi donish imkonpazir medonist, baroi rasidan ba chunin donish boyad ravishi tahqiqro isloh kard.

Bekon vujudi moneaho dar kasbi ilmu donish va shinokhti haqiqatro oshkor karda, masalai az miyon bardoshtani onhoro guzosht. In moneahoro Bekon shabahho yo butho nomidaast, ki iboratand az buti shakhsi, buti bozori, buti namoishi. Bekon dar «Organoni nav» tamomi falsafai yunoni (ba juz maktabi tabiiyot) va falsafai madrasi (skholastika)-ro sakht tanqid namudaast.

Vay meguyad, onhoe, ki bo ilm mashgul budaand yo tajribagaro (empirik) budand, yo  jazmiyatgaro (dogmatik). Empirikho misli murcha faqat ba jam kardan mashguland. Ratsionalistho misli tortanak az khud dar atrofi khud tor mekashand. Zamburoni asal usuli mobayniro intikhob karda,  az gulhoi bog va sahro nakhat gird meorand, onro tagyir medihand va bo qobiliyati khud digargun mesozand. Bekon meguyad, kori haqiqii falsafi az hamin kori zambur farq nadorad va boyad umedvor bud, ki bayni mushohidoti tajribavi va tafakkur ittifoqi nazdiku vayronnashavanda barqaror khohad shud.

Bekon dar kitobi «Atlantidai nav» timsoli davlati ormoniro nishon dodaast, ki bar khilofi davlati ormonii Aflotun bunyodi on na ba shohi odilu hakim, balki ba ilmu tekhnikai nav meboshad, harchand ki naqshi shohi odilu hakim niz dar in davlat muassir ast.

Tomas Gobbs (1588-1650) falsafai Bekonro nizom bakhshid. Muvofiqi nazariyai Gobbs jahon majmui kulle az jismhoi moddi ast, ki hama bar qonuni harakati mekhaniki tobeand. Vay hatto zindagii ravoni-psikhikii insonro bo meyorhoi harakati mekhaniki bayon va ravonro tarkibe az mekhanizmi badan medonad. Usuli marifati u payvasti sunii ratsionalizm-aqlgaroi va nominalizm – nomgaroi ast. Gobbs vujudi ruhro  be jism inkor mekunad va meguyad, agar  javhar  ruhoni mebud, vay donistanashavanda bud. Ruhro vay hamchun jismi tabiii nihoyat tunuke medonad, ki ba ehsosti mo tasir nadorad, vale fazoro pur kardaast.

Asari marufi Gobbs dar mavzui ijtimoi va davlatdori «Leviafan» meboshad, ki dar inkishofi afkori ijtimoii avrupoi tasiri kalon rasonidaast. Vay talim medod, ki  vazifai yakumdarajai davlat barqarorii sulh va tamini osoishtagii shahrvandon, amniyati bayni mardumon va khalqho meboshad.

Jon Lokk (1632-1704) faylasufi anglis hamchun tajribagaro va ehsosgaroi moddi shuhrati beshtare paydo kardaast. Vayro asosguzori ravishi ehsosgaroi (sensualizm) meshumorand. Bar khilofi aqidai Suqrot u donishi fitrivu modarzodiro inkor kardaast. Tibqi talimoti Lokk ravoni kudak hangomi tavallud, to tajribai hissi misli «tabula rasa» , yane takhtai toza sof ast. Dar on hej guna ideyahoi fitri – modarzodi nest. In andeshahoi Lokk inkori nazariyai Suqrot, Aflotun va payravoni onho bud. Jon Lokk donishro mahsuli du nav tajriba: tajribai zohiri va botini medonad.

Rene Dekart (1596-1650) asosguzori falsafai navini avrupoi ast. Vay misli Bekon ba hamai muhokimahoi guzashtae, ki insoniyat ba on bovari dosht, shubha kardanro talqin namudaast. Sarlavhai kitobi marufi u «Usuli falsafa» bo chunin jumla ogoz meshavad: «Baroi ozmuni haqiqat, har kas boyad dar tuli zindagii khud, to on jo ki mumkin ast, yak bor dar mavridi hama chiz shakk kunad».

Hanuz pesh az Dekart dar tarikhi falsafai tojik Imom Fakhri Roziro «shaykhulmashkukin» nomida budaand. In duyumin hakime (yane Dekart), ki masalai zarurati shakkro dar marifat ba miyon guzoshtaast. SHakk kardan nishonai andeshidan ast va nazdi Dekart andeshidan, yo fikr kardan mafhumi javhari ast. Sukhani u «Man meandesham, pas hastam» – Coqito erqo sum bo nomi «burhoni kogito» dar falsafai navin maruf gardidaast.

Falsafai Dekart dugaro-sanavi (dualisti),  yane mutaqid bar vujudi du javhar (substansiya) ast.

Dekart meguyad, ki geti az du tarkib (constituent) yo du guna javhar (substance) bo nomi jism va zehn iborat ast. Nishonai zotii jism yo modda yo tulu arz (extension) yo andoza (dimension) meboshad. Nishonai shinosoii zehn (yo javhari zehni) andesha, yo faoliyati andesha ast. Faqat jism va zehn javharand, hama chizi geti ba yake az in du tahvilpazirand yo orizand. Ammo jism va zehn hej kadom ba rosti ustuvor ba zot nestand, zero ki ba aqidai Dekart tanho Hudo (yo javhari ilohi) qoim ba zot ast va in du javhari digar ba barakati u javharand.

Panteizm va masalai javhar dar falsafai davrai Nav

Faylasufi niderlandi Benedikt Spinoza (1632-1677) asosguzori falsafai panteizm (hamakhudoi, yo vahdati vujud) ba shumor meravad. Muhimtarin osori u «Risolai ilohi-siyosi», «Risolai siyosi» va «Akhloq» ast. Dar tashakkuli afkori falsafii u tasiri J.Bruno, R.Dekart va G.Gobbs ziyod meboshad. Ba aqidai Spinoza hasti az yak javhar besh nest, on javhar hamon tabiat (khudo) ast. Hudo  va tabiat az ham judo nestand. Javhar doroi sifati ziyod ast, vale baroi aqli insoni foni tanho du sifati on: imtidod va tafakkur oshkor meshavad. In du sifat (atribut)-i javhari bar aksi Dekart khususiyati sanavi (dualisti) nestand, balki ayni zoti javhari vohidand.

Spinoza yake az avvalin muborizi rohi ozodii etiqod, sukhan va huquqhoi bashar meboshad. Ba aqidai Spinoza «Hadafi nihoii davlat on nest, ki odamonro dar tars, zeri sultai digaron nigoh dorad, balki baraks dar on ast, ki har yakero az tars ozod kunad, to vay bekhatar chi qadar ki mumkin ast, zindagi kunad»…

G.V. Leybnits (1646-1716) muallifi kitobhoi «Tajribai nav oid ba khiradi insoni», «Usuli tabii va ilohi»,  «Monadashinosi» va «Teodesiya» ast. Vay talimoti Dekart va  Spinozaro roje ba nazariyai javhari imtidod va talimoti tozae dar in mavrid oid ba monadaho (vohidho) – javharhoi soddavu tajziyanopazir, «atom» yo zarroti haqiqii tabiat yo unsurhoi ashyo ba vujud ovard. Monadaho abadi va fanonopazirand, onho ba tavri tabii paydo va nest shuda nametavonand, balki sarchashmai ilohi dorand. YAgona sifati javharii monadaho boyad andesha boshad.

Leybnits monandi Dekart va Spinoza falsafai khudro bar poyai mafhumi javhar qaror medihad. Ikhtilof bo onho dar bobati miqdori javharho va robitai ruh bo modda meboshad. Leybnits bar vujudi javharhoi nomahdud mutaqid ast. Vay dar mantiq ilova ba du usuli tafakkuri Arastu: asli tanoquz – ziddiyat va haqiqat, asli seyum asosi koriro dokhil kard.

Monadaho yo vohidho silsilamarotibero tashkil mekunand, ki dar onho har vohide martabai khudro dorad. Leybnits haddi se sinf monadahoro bar asosi zinahoi mayl (appetitio nes)-i onho ba kamol judo kardaast, ki ba istilohi Mavlono Rumi hamon zinahoi jamodivu naboti (dar yakjoyagi) va hayvonivu insoni yo se nafs: nafsi naboti, hayvoni, aqlonii Arastu meboshad va in zinahoi mayl ba kamol bo zinai insoni khotima nameyobad va dar masiri kamoli ilohi benihoyat ast. Hama monadaho yak vohidi hamohangi yagonai tabiiro tashkil mekunand «hej jone be tan va hej tane be jon nest».

J.Berkli (1685-1753) yake az zehngaroyoni subektivisti davrai Nav dar falsafa meboshad. Vay hamchun munaqqidi talimoti moddagaroi va inkori modda chun asosi javhari jism va nazariyai I.Nyuton dar borai fazo va ham inkori talimoti J.Lokk dar borai paydoishi modda va fazo dokhil shudaast. Vay aqida dosht, ki inson mustaqiman hej chizero juz ideyahoyash daryoft namekunad va vujudi chizho vobasta ba idrok ast. Namudho – ideyaho boshand, khud ba vasilai yak zoti gayrijismoni, yane ruh daryoft meshavand, ki qodir ba ofarinishi ideyaho ast.

Idealizmi subektivii Berkli az tarafi David YUm (1711-1776) takmil doda meshavad. YUm faylasufi shakkok va pozitivist ast. Vay ba savoli «oyo olam vujud dorad?  -Namedonam» javob medod. Sabab on ast, ki muvofiqi aqidai u, odam qudrati berun omadan az hududi ehsosoti khud va fahmidani  chize berun az khudro nadorad.

Tartibdihanda: MIRBOBOEV M.Q , SOLIJONOV R, ABDULATIPOV U.H. FALSAFA

Dokhil kard: Sino Egamberdiev

Sanai dokhilgardida: 2014-02-21

          Naqsha

Mazmun va khususiyathoi falsafai Ehyo

Tajribagaroi va usuli tadqiq dar falsafai davrai Nav

Panteizm va masalai javhar dar falsafai davrai Nav

 

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