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Faoliyati trestu bankho dar IMA

Dar okhiri asri XIX boigarii IMA toraft beshtar ba dasti trestho medaromad. Inhisor gardidani naqliyotu rohi ohani mamlakat nisbat ba digar sohaho barvaqttar doir gardid. Dar in soha “Ittifoqhoi rohi ohan”-i Vanderbilt, Gulda, Hatigton ba vujud omadand. Dar solhoi 80-um istehsoli pakhta, ravgani zagir, sharob, surb. nayshakar, gugird va tamoku inhisori karda shudand. Dar istehsoli mis yake az avvalin shirkathoi inhisori Gutenkheym Dar kuhhoi Byut va Montanai Arizona tashkil karda shud. In trest dar zarfi 30 sod az on joyho ba mablagi 2 mlrd dollar mis istehsol kardaast.

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Iyoloti Muttahidai Amerikai hamonvaqtaro mamlakati trestho menomidand, zero shakli mamultarini inhisorhoi sarmoyadoroni in mamlakat trestho budand. Asosguzori tresti avvalini IMA David Rokfeller meboshad. U dar solhoi jangi shahrvandi az hisobi furushi asliha boy shuda, az boloi korkhonahoi naftistehsolkuni va tijorat ham nazorat jori namud. To sarshavii Jangi yakumi jahoni tresti Rokfeller “Standart oil” ba yake az korkhonahoi kalontarini naftistehsolkunii jahon tabdil yoft. On to 90 foizi mahsuloti naftii mamlakatro istehsol mekard. Rokfellerro “Janobi milliarder” menomidand. In nom ba sarvatmandii u muvofiq bud. Az in laqab Rokfeller hatto nameranjid. Dar ibtidoi asri XX az chor se hissai istehsoloti sanoatii IMA-ro trestho nazorat mekardand.

Inhisori digari kalontarini IMA tresti D. Morgan “YUnayted stil Korporeyshn” ba shumor meraft. Mahsuloti asosii istehsolmekardagii vay chuyanu pulod bud. Sarmoyai in sanoatchi ba 1,5 mlrd dollar rost meomad. Inhisorhoi khurdu miyona ba tresti Morgan raqobat karda natavonista, muflis meshudand. Az in sabab onho majbur meshudand, ki ba in trest hamroh shavand, yane markazonidani onho ba amal meomad. Tresti Morgan to 150 korkhonaro az khud karda bud. Dar bayni onho korkhonahoi madanu angisht, naftu zavodhoi madankorkuni va rohhoi ohan bisyor budand.

Bankhoi kalontarini IMA ba trestho pul qarz medodand. In bankho beshtar dar kuchai Uoll-Striti Nyu-York dar binohoi bohashamatu sarbafalakkashida joy girifta budand. In kucha ba markazi ahli tijoratu sanoatii mamlakat tabdil yoft.

Sarmoyai banki va sarmoyai sanoati ham bo tezi markazonida meshudand. Soli 1903 du banki buzurgtarine, ki ba Morgan va Rokfeller taalluq doshtand, ba 112 bankhoi rohhoi ohan, shirkathoi sugurta va sohahoi digar nazorat mekardand. Har du bank dar bunyodi bankhoi nav va korkhonahoi sanoati faolona shirkat mevarzidand.

Trestho va bankho baroi qone kunonidani maqsadhoi khud azoyoni hukumat va amaldoronu dodkhohhoro bo pul kharida, az in kor foidai kalon ba dast medarovardand, nomzadhoi khudro ba mansabhoi gunoguni davlati meguzaronidand. YAk qismi sahmiyahoro ba odamoni mansabi balanddor tuhfa mekardand. In odamon dar idorai trestho va bankho mansabhoi kalonro ishgol mekardand. Hamin tariq, dar IMA oligarkhiyai moliyavi ba dastgohi davlati omezish yofta, ba hukmroni mamlakat tabdil megardid.

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