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FARONSA DAR OHIRI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

Vazi badijangii iqtisodiyoti Faronsa. Jang bo Prussiya baroi Faronsa nihoyat garon aftod. Mamlakat kharob shud. Sadho shahru dehaho korkhonahoi sanoaty, bandarho, muassisakhoi madany va gayra ba khok yakson shudand. Istehsoli mol chandin marotiba kam shud. Zarari umumii istehsolii pashm az 15 mlrd frankro tashkil kard. Ba zammi in mamlakat boyad ba Prussiya ba mablagi 5 mlrd frank tovoni jang medod. In mablagro davlat majbur bud, ki az khalq tavassuti vombarg qarz bigirad.

Prussiya az Faronsa viloyathoi az madanu angisht boyi sharqi – Elzas va Lotaringiyaro kashida girift. In kor yaku yakbora Faronsaro ba mamlakati ashyoi kami tabiidoshta tabdil dod. Va majbur shud, ki angishtro az davlathoi digar kharida khudro tamnn kunad. Dar avvali hamin davra ba Faronsa lozim omad, ki ohanro ham az khorija bikharad

Dar masalai manbai energetiki ahvoli Faronsa bad bud. Be on iqtisodiyoti mamlakat taraqqy karda nametavonist. Davlathoi digari sarmoyadory dar in bobat az Faronsa khele pesh guzashta budand.

Sohibkoronn Faronsa asosai korkhonahoi khurdu miyona mesokhtand. Baroi hamin moli istehsolkardai onho kimat meaftid. Ba chunin mol Faronsa digar bo mamlakathoi purquvvati sanoaty raqobat karda nametavonist. Faronsa mavqeero, ki dar miyonai asri XIX dosht, ohista-ohista az dast dod. On vaqt az rui istehsoloti sanoaty Faronsa bad az Angliya dar joi duyum meistod, vale to okhiri asri XIX ba joi chorum faromad.

 Az miyonai solhoi 90-um cap karda bolorzvin sanoatii Faronsa az nav ogoz yoft. Dar solhoi 1900-um istehsoli madaii ohan 5.4 million tonnaro tashkil kard, soli 1913 boshad, istehsoli on to ba 22 million tonna Rasid. Sohahoi digari sanoat ham ru ba taraqqy nihodand. Sanoati elektrotekhniki, avtomobili, khimiyavy va tajhizoti kinematografy ba muvaffaqiyati kalon noil shud. Az rui istehsoli avtomobil Faronsa dar jahon ba joi duyum baromad.

Sarfi nazar az notavonii sanoat rafti markazonidani istekhsolot va tashkilsbii itgihodiyahoi inhisorii Faronea vusat meyobad. In ravand. pesh az hama, dar on sohahoe, ki dar in vaqt ru ba taraqqy budand, ba nazar merasid. Sohahoi alohida qarib bo purragy dar dasti in va yo on inkhneor budand. Sanoati madankorkuny asosan dar dasti du inhisori puriktidor bud – “Komite de Forj” va “SHneyder – Kreze”. Dar sanoati angisht konsernhoi “Kyulman” va “Sen-Goben”, dar sanoati avtomobilbarory shirkathoi “Reno” va “Pejo”, dar kinematog rafiya “Pate-Sinema” va gayraho khukmrony mekardand.

Dar Faronsa inhisorkhoi kalon be bankho vujud doshta nametavonistand va baraks. Binobar in dar bayni onho allakay hamkory barqaror gardid.

Ba markazonidani istehsolot va ba vujud omadani shirkathoi inhisori nigoh nakarda Faronea az davlathoi puriqtidori sarmoyadory khele aqib memond. Mo inro dar sodiroti molii on ham dida metavonem. Dar in bobat dar joi yakum pashm, dar joi duyum gazvor, dar joi seyum abreshim, dar joi chorum sharob, dar joi hashtum masnuoti khimiyavy va tanho dar joi dahum avtomobil meistod. Az rui surati markazonidani istehsolot Faronea az IMA. Germaniya va Angliya aqib memond.

Mohnyati imperializmi Faronsa. Sohibkoroni Faronsa sarmoyai bankiro dar sanoat naguzoshta, beshtar ba khoriji kishvar mebarovardand. Davlathoi digari imperialistai, az on jumla, Angliya, IMA va Germaniya boshand, ba khorija ham mol mebarovardandu ham sarmoya. In mamlakatho ba khorija pulro beshtar baroi on mebarovardand, ki korkhonahoro dar nazdikii bozorho sokhta, az istehsoli moli onho daromadi beshtar bigirand. Faronsa boshad, dar tijorati khorichy beshtar ba sudkhuri mashgul bud. Sarmoyadoroni Faronsa va khudi davlat ham ba davlathoi khorijy pul qarz doda, az onho foizi baland mesitonidand. Bo hamin maqsad mablagi umumii sarmoyai ba khoricha barovardai Faronsa to soli 1914 ziyoda az 60 mlrd frankro tashkil kard. In mablag iisbat ba soli 1890 qarib se barobar ziyod ast.

Baroy daromadi kalon giriftan Angliya sarmoyaashro asosan ba mustamlikahoyash mebarovard. Vale Faronsa boshad, ba mustamlikahoi khud nihoyat kam pul sarf mekard. Dar ibtidoi asri XX az 35 mlrd franki sodirkardaash tanho 3 milliardashro dar mustamlikaho mablagguzory karda bud, ki on az 10 foizi in mablag kamtar ast.

Faronsa sarmoyaro ba khorija dar shakli vombargi davlaty ham mebarovard, ki on foizi kaloni daromadi sudkhury medod. Dar solhoi 1909 1913 sarmoyai sudkhurii solonai Faronsa takhminan 1 mlrd 800 mln frankro tashkil kardaast.

Sudkhuri ba sarmoyadoron daromadi kalon medod, vale baroi davlaty Faronsa on dar rohi taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunandai mamlakat moneai buzurg bud. Sudkhury Faronsaro dar holati nimsanoatiyu nimkishovarzy nigoh medosht.

Sokhti siyosin Faronsa. Badi shikasti Kommunai Parij Majlisi Milli khudro Majlisi Muassison nomida, faoliyatashro davom dod. Tarafdoroni sokhti shohii mamlakat tavassugi parlament dar Faronsa mutlaqiyatro barqaror kardany budand, vale ba onho in kor muyassar nashud. Sarvazir Tier nagz mefahmid, ki barqaror kardany hokimiyati mutlaqa norozigii mardumro ba vujud khohad ovard. Baroi hamin dar mavqei mahfuz doshtani sokhti jumhuriyati istod, harchand dar sokhta jumhuriyaty na hama tarafhoyash ba u makul bud. Mahz bo hamin sabab Tier ozodii matbuotro mahdud kard va Gordi Milliro barham dod.

Dar intikhoboti ilovagii solhoi 1872-1873 jumhuriyatkhohon galaba kardand. Onho az 150 vakolatnomai vakili 128-goyashro ba dast darovardand.

Mutlaqiyatkhohoni Faronsa bo rohi osoishta orzui khudro amaly karda natavonistand. Baroy hamin ba tabadduloti davlati tayery didand. Onho niyat doshtand, ki ba tahti shohii Faronsa graf SHamborro bo unvoni Genrikhi V shinonida, graf Parijskiyro meroskhuri toju takhti shoh zlon kunand. Mohi oktyabri soli 1873 bo sardorii graf SHambor boyad tabadduloti davlati ba amal meomad, vale az on ahdi jomeai jumhuriyatkhoh bokhabar shuda, peshi rohashro girift. Tabaddulogchiyon az khalq sakht tarsidand. Graf SHambor az rohbary ba tabaddulot dast kashid.

Hayati Machlisi Milli, ki qismi ziyodash mutlaqiyatkhoh bud, mustaqiliyatro dar Faronsa az nav barqaror karda natavonist. Baroy hamin majbur shud, ki ba jonibdorii chumhury ovoz dihad. Hamin tariq 30 yanvari soli 1875 Faronsa jumkhury elon gardid. Hudi hamon sod Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Faronsa qabul karda shud. Dar avval sokhti jumhuriyatii Faronsa mahdudiyathoi ziyod doisht. Vale ohista-ohista dar onho sistemai siyosii bisyorhizbi tashakkul yoft va in davlat to avvali asri XX purra bo rohi jumhuriyaty dokhil gardid.

Siyosati khorijii Faronsa. Sarfi nazar az kamquvvatii khud imperializmi Faronsa baroi zabt kardani mustamlikaho nerumand bud. Janghoi mustamlikazabtkunii Faronsa, ki dar zarfi ziyoda az 20 sol kam shuda budand, az ogozi solhoi 90-um az nav quvvat giriftand. In vaqt Faronsa avval Gvineyayu Dagomeya va bad dar Sahroi Kabiri Afrika Timbukturo zabt kard. Dar in davra Faronsa protektorati khudro bar Janubu SHarqii Osiyo ham jory namud.

Soli 1898 dar jang bo Sudon Faronsa ba raqobati sakhti Angliya duchor shud. In raqobat qarib bud, ki ba jangi bayni onho ovarda rasonad.

Mohi apreli soli 1904 Faronsa bo Angliya Sozishnomai “Antanta”-ro imzo guzosht. Badi in on bar ziddi Germaniyavu Italiya va Avstro-Vengriya ba jang tayyory didan girift. Dar Doirai in paymon Faronsa bo Rusiya niz sozishnoma bast. ‘Antanta” ba Faronsa imkoniyat dod, ki Marokashro zabt kunad, yane Angliya ba Faronsa dar kori ishgol kardani in davlat mone nashud.

Soli 1910 hukumati Faronsa barnomai buzurgi sokhtmoni floti harbi-bahrii khudro qabul kard. Baroy khubtar amaly kardani in barnoma ba vazifai vaziri floti bahri Dilkasse tayin gardid. In admiral bo siyosati ziddigermaniyavii khud mashhur bud va kori harbii bahriro khele khub medonist. Be ishtiroki faolonai u dar lashkar islohot ham guzaronida shud.

To in vaqt Faronsa yake az mamlakathoi kalontarini mustamlikadori jahon bud. Vay na tanho mustamlikahoyashro az dast dodan namekhost, balki niyat dosht az hisobi ishgol kardani mustamlikahoi nav hududhoi imperiyam Faronsaro boz ham vasetar kunad. Baroi piyoda namudani hamin niyat Faronsa ba jangi dar peshistoda bosurat tayyory medid.

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